Animal Cuts: Comprehensive Shredding Powerhouse Updated in 2023

For decades, the sport of bodybuilding and Universal Nutrition have been joined at the hip. Since the brand’s launch in 1983, the company’s ethos of building a community that preaches hard work, commitment, maximizing potential, and, of course, strength, has touched thousands of gym-savvy individuals. Through the years, Universal has expanded into the greater realm of sports nutrition, solidifying its place in sports like powerlifting, strongman, and even ultimate fighting. With a “universally”-applicable tenet at its core, and well-formulated supplements, their Animal line has become one of the more popular brands in the industry.

Animal Cuts Pills/Packs 2023

Animal Cuts (the Pills/Packs version) has been updated in 2023 with fewer capsules!

Animal owes a piece of this popularity to its “pak system”. This was first introduced in Animal Pak, a comprehensive multivitamin pack that was recently updated in 2023. This methodology of delivering products through multiple pills/capsules proved so effective that it was ultimately used in other Animal products as well, such as Animal Flex and the diet-centric Animal Cuts, which we’ll discuss today.

Animal Cuts has been updated in 2023 – now with fewer pills!

Animal Cuts is the iconic brand’s entry into the world of fat burners, a category that aligns neatly with its bodybuilding origin. However, getting shredded is a goal that often surpasses the bodybuilding stage, with many people looking for that extra push to help maximize their progress in dropping body fat. When it comes to these objectives, it’s difficult to find a product as comprehensive as Animal Cuts. Its eight different complexes of nutritional support touch on virtually every aspect of the body recomposition process.

In this article, we discuss the complexes, but first break into what’s changed in the latest formula published in 2023. Let’s check out PricePlow’s coupon-based prices, then get into the news:

Universal Animal Cuts – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

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Note: In the above widget, we’re looking at the “42 Packs” variation. 42 Servings represents Animal Cuts Powder. Check each retailer to see what version they have, or go directly to Animal Pak’s website.

Animal Cuts Is New And Improved For 2023!

Attentive readers of the PricePlow blog know we’ve covered Animal Cuts several times before – that’s because this is a classic supplement that’s already gone through several revisions as Universal continues taking it to the next level. Today, we’re revisiting Animal Cuts in order to apprise you of yet another round of exciting new updates.

  • Ingredients removed:

    Universal added a couple new ingredients, but mostly eliminated ingredients from Animal Cuts. What got removed:

    • Evodiamine
    • White tea leaf extract
    • Hydrangea root
    • Buchu leaf
    • Bacopa monnieri
    • Phosphatidylserine
    • Magnolia bark
    • Apple pectin
    • Cinnamon
    • Ginger root, cayenne, grapefruit, quercetin, and naringin (bioavailability enhancers)

    We’ll discuss the bioavailability enhancement changes below, but first, you can see that Animal removed many of the “stress relief” ingredients, like bacopa, phosphatidylserine, and magnolia bark. While these can support reductions in cortisol levels, most Animal customers want to keep it aggressive! This decision is definitely on brand.

    Animal Cuts 2023 Explained

  • Ingredients added:

    • AstraGin
    • Apple cider vinegar (ACV)

    Animal also replaced generic Piper nigrum (black pepper) extract with the patented BioPerine,[1-4] which has a high degree of standardization for the desired bioactive constituents, namely piperine.[5]

    Most notably, AstraGin basically replaced the cluster of bioavailability-enhancing ingredients that Universal eliminated, which we think is a great move. AstraGin is a rising star in supplement formulation, and is not only an incredible bioavailability enhancer, but comes with some other compelling benefits as well.

  • Fewer Capsules – 8 Instead Of 9!

    Eliminating the above ingredients has allowed for more streamlined packaging – Animal Cuts now features one less pill per dose, making it slightly less of a chore to take on a daily basis. That’s always a good thing – it recently did the same with Animal Pak a few months back as well.

    We won’t get into the full benefit profile of AstraGin in this article, but stay tuned for PricePlow’s AstraGin megapost, coming soon.

  • New Aesthetic

    Finally, the capsules are also getting a new look – they are now more translucent, as opposed to the old solid color.

More than just a fat burner, a complete cutting formula

However, the colored pill system of Animal Cuts dosing remains the same. This means that you have:

  • Stimulant complex in the red pill
  • Diuretic (water shedding) complex in the blue pill
  • Thyroid support complex in the orange pill

One of the strengths of Animal Cuts is its versatility – depending on your goals, you can remove pills of a certain color if you don’t want to take them at a given time. For example, if you’ve already loaded up on caffeine for that day, you could skip the red pills in your pak and still reap the benefits of the diuretic and thyroid support complexes.

Supporting Every Aspect of the Cutting Process

Taken at face value, orienting your goals around losing body fat seems relatively straightforward. You’ve probably seen the suggestions before: follow an intense training program, add some extra cardio, adhere diligently to a diet built around a slight caloric deficit, etc.

Animal Cuts PricePlow

There has never been a fat burner that’s given us an opportunity to explore so many metabolic systems

While these principles are effective, they don’t paint the entire picture. Healthy, efficient fat burning requires your attention in areas outside of just training and diet — energy levels, hormones, mental cognition, all must be kept in check, too. Taking things a step further, even something like water retention needs to be addressed, especially if the overall goal ends with a competition like a bodybuilding show. What makes this tricky is that factors necessary to dropping pounds, such as training and dieting, can actually lead to complications in these ancillary areas.

In other words, losing weight in a healthy fashion can be an intricate, sometimes difficult, process. As such, supplying the body with what it needs to facilitate efficient weight loss is important. A proper training regimen and diet make up the bulk of any plan, surely, but a fat-burning supplement can offer that little extra that really makes your results pop. If that supplement contains ingredients that offer thermogenic aid, appetite suppression, energy, hormonal and cognitive health support, it can be a highly useful tool in your fat-loss arsenal.

Animal Cuts is one of these supplements. Using an astounding eight complexes, this comprehensive formula utilizes ingredients that cover all these areas, as well as a few more. With 38 different ingredients, Animal Cuts delivers an extensive effect through the following constructs:

  • Stimulant Complex
  • Metabolic Complex
  • Thyroid Complex
  • Water Shedding Complex
  • Nootropic Complex
  • Cortisol Inhibiting Complex
  • CCK Boosting Complex
  • Bioavailability Complex

Animal formulated each complex with careful consideration, choosing ingredients that are not only effective but synergistic as well. Let’s get to what these complexes bring to Animal Cuts and the purpose of their makeup!

Animal Cuts Ingredients

Animal Cuts 2023 Ingredients

The Animal Cuts Ingredients, updated in 2023

It’s worth noting that each complex is a proprietary blend, so we don’t know the exact contents of every ingredient.

  • Stimulant Complex – 750mg

    When aiming to induce thermogenesis via supplementation, stimulants are often one of the first subcategories of ingredients mentioned. By definition, stimulants are constituents that upregulate some mechanism within an organism. In the case of thermogenic stimulants like caffeine, this stimulatory action increases energy metabolism and blood pressure, in addition to increasing central nervous system activity.[6]

    Animal Cuts 2023 Ingredients

    The Animal Cuts Ingredients, updated in 2023

    Boosting the metabolic rate increases total energy expenditure, a practice that’s central to any weight loss endeavor.[7] Raising daily energy expenditure above energy intake forces the body to use stored energy to power itself — body fat represents one of the main storage systems the body uses. As such, using stimulants to increase energy and metabolic rate can be extremely useful in burning fat.

    Animal Cuts relies mainly on caffeine as its stimulant of choice, and for good reason: Caffeine is one of the most studied ingredients in sports supplements. While it provides a solid energy kick, research shows that caffeine supplementation can help increase thermogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and appetite suppression.[8]

    There are seven fat-stimulating ingredients at work in Animal Cuts:

    • Caffeine anhydrous, one of the fastest hitting forms of caffeine available.
    • Kola nut is a central nervous stimulant that has a significant amount of caffeine and is seen often as an additive in various foods and drinks.[9]
    • Caffeine Sports Performance: 3mg/kg

      Even a moderate dose of caffeine (3mg/kg, which is about 240 milligrams caffeine for a 175 pound person) can lead to improvements in performance, reaction time, and fewer errors in sports like tennis.[10]

      Guarana, a plant native to the Amazon, packs roughly four times as much caffeine as coffee beans.[11]

    • Yerba mate is a tea leaf that contains active nutrients, such as stimulants, polyphenols, and saponins. It’s been shown to increase energy expenditure and fatty acid oxidation during exercise, thanks to its caffeine content.[12]
    • Raspberry ketones, a chemical analog to the powerful stimulant synephrine, have displayed the ability to increase lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in mice,[13,14] leading scientists to suggest potential anti-obesity action in humans.[14]
    • Coleus forskohlii extract has been shown to stimulate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels,[15] which may trigger downstream effects that could potentially help reduce weight gain.[16]

    All told, the stimulant complex in Animal Cuts delivers approximately 200 milligrams of caffeine per serving in an easily identifiable red capsule. With the product’s recommended twice daily usage, a 400-milligram hit of caffeine is pretty significant, more so if you’re getting stimulants from other sources throughout the day.

    Animal is primarily focused on packing sufficient stimulants in this product, though, and it surely provides more than enough to kick-start fat burning efforts.

  • Metabolic Complex – 750mg

    While stimulants can rev up your metabolism, there are other ways to promote its efficiency and Animal Cuts leverages a few here. The Metabolic Complex makes use of multiple ingredients that hold high concentrations of polyphenols, antioxidants, and other bioactive compounds that may improve metabolic health:

    • Green tea leaf extract is touted for its high antioxidant profile, especially that of the catechin epigallocatechin gallate (ECGC). Powered by ECGC, green tea extract has been shown to increase thermogenesis and fat oxidation,[17] while also displaying a synergy with other ingredients in Animal Cuts, such as caffeine and guarana.[18]
    • Oolong tea leaf extract is a traditional Chinese tea with a long list of anecdotal uses that includes maintaining healthy body weight. In a 2003 study, females who consumed oolong tea saw energy expenditure increase by 10% two hours after consumption.[19] Researchers credit the tea’s metabolic boost to a high polymerized polyphenol content.[19]
    • Green Tea Leaves

      Green Tea Extract offers multiple powerful catechins, including EGCG. We consider it the “Swiss Army Knife” of metabolism due to its numerous beneficial effects.

      Black tea leaf extract also boasts a wide array of polyphenols — including catechins and theaflavins — that, among other benefits, may be related to regulating body weight.[19,20]

    • Coffee bean extract is certainly not the “miracle” supplement it was once promoted to be, but research does suggest that it may be associated with weight loss due to its high antioxidant content.[21] One study from 2018 suggests that coffee bean extract may help fight against symptoms of metabolic dysfunction, such as high blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, and irregular lipid profiles.[22]

    Through multiple extracts, the metabolic complex in Animal Cuts supplies powerful antioxidants like ECGC that can improve metabolic functioning and further push this internal furnace into higher levels of energy expenditure.

  • Thyroid Complex – 350mg

    The thyroid is a hormone-producing gland that plays a major regulatory role in the body — responsible for managing many processes through hormone secretion, it’s mainly known for regulating metabolic function.[23] Triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4), two of the three main hormones released by the thyroid, are key in regulating metabolic rate, lipid and glucose metabolism, and fat oxidation.[23]

    Thyroid dysfunction, often defined as either hypothyroidism (underactive) or hyperthyroidism (overactive), are linked to unexplained changes in body weight and other markers of metabolic health. While hypothyroidism generally receives more attention due to it being deemed a risk factor of obesity, both issues are problematic. Research suggests that untreated thyroid dysfunction isn’t linked to either weight loss or weight gain specifically, but nonetheless negatively influences metabolic health.[24]


    Long story short: No iodine or tyrosine, no thyroid hormone synthesis. Get enough iodine and tyrosine in!!

    With respect to thyroid health and body weight, it’s not necessarily about swinging the pendulum in one direction or the other, but more so about maintaining proper functioning. Keeping the thyroid operating efficiently allows for proper metabolic health, which primes the body to lose fat in a healthy manner. Fat burning should not rely on a hyperactive thyroid (a medical issue itself), but we don’t want an underperforming thyroid to slow our cut down either.

    To keep the thyroid happy and healthy, Animal Cuts relies on three ingredients:

    Animal Cuts Lineup

    Animal Cuts Pills/Packs aren’t the only product sin the lineup. If you like to drink your stimulants, you can also try Animal Cuts Powder. And if you want it a stimulant-free, try Animal Cuts Powder Non-Stim!

    • L-tyrosine offers a variety of benefits, including supporting thyroid function.[25,26] This amino acid plays a major role in facilitating the production of T3 and T4.[26]
    • Olive leaf extract has been shown to stimulate thyroid activity in hypothyroidism models, suggesting it may have a regulatory effect on the thyroid itself.[27]
    • Salvia officinalis, more commonly known as sage, is a powerful antioxidant that, in a study from 2013, was shown to modulate T3 and T4 production in rats with hypothyroidism.[28]

    Without the thyroid firing on all cylinders, any goal related to weight management is severely hindered. The gland is crucial to metabolic functioning and, as such, its health must be prioritized prior to embarking on a weight-loss endeavor. Animal Cuts provides a few ingredients that help modulate the thyroid and make that process a bit less of an uphill battle.

  • Water Shedding Complex – 800mg

    Taking aim at the more visual side of weight loss, Animal Cuts includes a few ingredients that help shed excess water weight. Obviously, the body needs to stay hydrated, but sometimes it can actually hold too much water. Some common circumstances that can cause excess water storage include poor recovery, high sodium intake, nutritional deficiencies, and even minor hormonal issues.[29] Not only does extra water bear weight, but it also can add a bloated look to the physique — an important variable for some, such as professional bodybuilders.

    Diuretics can be leveraged to help alleviate excess water storage. These compounds encourage the kidneys to shed water, sodium, and nutrients, resulting in a leaner, more shredded look – however, this comes at a cost. When used irresponsibly, diuretics could potentially cause dehydration, nutrient imbalances, and organ dysfunction.

    Animal Cuts Non-Stim

    You asked, Animal listened — Animal Cuts Non-Stim is here!

    However, natural diuretics tend to be considered safer, as they typically still preserve stores of key electrolytes like potassium.[30] In the case of musculature, this can also help preserve muscle “fullness” and pump, as opposed to the muscle “flatness” and cramping that often come with losing too much water weight.

    Animal Cuts uses a few natural diuretics here, including:

    • Dandelion root
    • Uva ursi leaf
    • Juniper berry fruit
    • Celery seed

    These natural herbs have been shown in research to hold diuretic capabilities, with a few, particularly dandelion root, buchu leaf, and juniper berry fruit, having storied anecdotal uses within the realm of bladder and kidney activity.[31-33] Animal Cuts makes use of these six ingredients in its Water Shedding Complex to address leanness from an angle that differs from much of the label, and does so in a safe, responsible way.

  • Nootropic Complex – 500mg

    The Nootropic Complex is one of two complexes in which Animal Cuts takes aim at the mental side of weight loss. It focuses primarily on, well, focus. These ingredients are here to promote brain activity and healthy brain chemistry. This complex also targets maintaining elevated levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Acetylcholine is a key neurotransmitter within the visceral motor and central nervous systems. As such, it helps regulate various things, such as motor function, learning, memory, motivation, and attention.

    Animal Pak 2023

    Animal Cuts uses four nootropic ingredients to help improve brain function:

    • Cocoa powder, through a high content of flavanols, can improve brain function and cognition by increasing blood flood to the brain.[34,35]
    • Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is a structural analogue to choline, an essential nutrient used to create acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that regulates a multitude of brain functions: memory, learning, and muscle function. Research suggest that while DMAE does not metabolize directly into acetylcholine,[36] it may increase free choline and stimulate cholinergic receptors,[37] thus encouraging acetylcholine production and usage.[38]
    • Huperzine A inhibits acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine.[39] This effect leaves increased levels of acetylcholine available for use.

    Acetylcholine is an important piece of fuel for the brain, as it helps facilitate functioning and chemical signaling. Besides the obvious benefits, in terms of Animal Cuts, higher acetylcholine levels keeps you on your A-game, zoned-in on the task at hand, and persistent with your goals.

  • Cortisol Inhibiting Complex – 300mg

    Trying to lose fat is tough work. Staying committed to a diet and training plan requires a great deal of mental fortitude, which is something that we, unfortunately, don’t have an unlimited supply of. Mental strength ebbs and flows, as does stress. While a response that is entirely natural, being consistently stressed out can yield a number of complications: it can impair immune health, digestive health, sleep, cognitive functioning, and, yes, even body weight.

    HPA Axis

    The stress hormone cortisol is supposed to provide negative feedback on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, but when the HPA is independently upregulated, overproduction of cortisol can ensue. Image courtesy: Wikimedia

    When we’re stressed, the body secretes the hormone cortisol. This is essentially the body’s fight-or-flight response, increasing levels of adrenaline in perceived stressful situations. Cortisol is positively correlated with various markers of metabolic dysfunction, including obesity, insulin resistance, and high triglyceride levels.[40] Biologically, high levels of cortisol make it difficult for the metabolism to fire correctly — a chronic fight-or-flight response puts it into “survival mode,” of sorts, which slows down metabolism and encourages energy storage, as opposed to energy expenditure.[41]

    Cortisol also encourages poor nutritional choices. The hormone not only stimulates appetite, but it also promotes cravings of nutrient-dense comfort foods.'[42] These tend to be foods that are high in sugars, fats, or a combination of the two. They’re also the exact types of foods that can derail progress during a dieting phase. Chronic stress can also lead to the development of psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety.[42]

    In other words, being too stressed out and having too much cortisol circulating in the body is undesirable. Because it’s perhaps more unwelcomed when you’re trying to lose weight, Animal Cuts includes four cortisol-fighting ingredients:

    • Ashwagandha Cortisol Study

      With less stress and a healthier mentality, you’re more likely to stay on track with your diet!

      Ashwagandha is a well-studied adaptogen that holds a variety of benefits, none more so relevant here than an ability to reduce cortisol levels, stress, and anxiety.[43]

    • Eleutherococcus senticosus is a root that may increase neuropeptide Y expression, which can help alleviate symptoms of stress.[44] Research has shown this adaptogen to be particularly useful in balancing the stress response, not necessarily just lowering it.[45]

    Stress and cortisol secretion can have a significant impact on both the biological and psychological fronts. Chronically high cortisol levels not only make losing weight more difficult, but, to a degree, actually encourages weight gain. This makes remaining in a relaxed state incredibly important when pursuing weight loss, which is why Animal Cuts addresses it here.

  • CCK Boosting Complex – 300mg

    Speaking of cortisol, one of its effects receives even more attention in Animal Cuts, specifically as part of the CCK Boosting Complex.

    Jason Budsock Animal / Universal Nutrition

    Unofficial holder of the “World record cement deadlift”, it’s Jason Budsock, VP of Products at Animal / UniversalUSA, who joins us for Episode #080 of the PricePlow Podcast!

    Appetite and cravings are separate, but intrinsically linked, signals the body uses to communicate hunger. There’s nothing inherently wrong with these signals, and under most circumstances, they absolutely need to be trusted and listened to. That said, there are instances when both need to be managed to some degree, such as when you’re dieting, stressed out, or both.

    Dieting requires being in a caloric deficit. The very practice means that your caloric intake is slightly below what the body needs to maintain its current weight. In effort to communicate that it wants more food, the body secretes the hormone ghrelin, which increases appetite, hunger, and promotes fat storage.[46] This increase in appetite is usually accompanied by cravings, which, as we’ve already mentioned, typically aren’t focused on the healthiest food choices. Being able to tolerate and manage ghrelin and its effects, then, is incredibly important when trying to adhere to a weight loss regimen.

    Animal Cuts uses three ingredients in the CCK Boosting Complex that assist in doing just that:

    • Cha-de-bugre has some support as a potential appetite suppressant,[47] but studies have generally yielded inconclusive results on this front.[48] However, the plant may offer hypolipidemic benefits,[48] which can be useful in defending against metabolic dysfunction.
    • Apple cider vinegar (ACV) has been shown to activate a group of genes that regulate the body’s fat burning machinery, particularly in the liver.[49] For this reason, vinegar intake has been statistically correlated with lower body weight and improved metabolic health.[50]
  • Bioavailability Complex – 30mg

    To finish off this formula we have two ingredients that increase the bioavailability of all the other ingredients in Animal Cuts. This both helps you achieve the best results, and delivers the best value for the money you spend on supplements like Animal Cuts.

    • Black Pepper

      Bioperine is the trusted, trademarked form of black pepper extract that promises 95% or greater piperine, the part of black pepper with all the activity! Image courtesy Wikimedia.

      AstraGin is a patented blend of botanical extracts developed by NuLiv Science.[51-55] It contains bioactive constituents that increase supplement bioavailability by upregulating certain intestinal transporter proteins responsible for moving nutrients like amino acids, creatine, and omega-3 fatty acids into your bloodstream.[56] AstraGin also appears to decrease gut inflammation and improve the integrity of intestinal tissue.[56]

    • Black Pepper Extract (fruit) (as BioPerine) is a patented[1-4] extract that also increases supplement bioavailability, but through a different mechanism: BioPerine inhibits certain stomach enzymes that break down nutrients in the gut, thus allowing them to reach your intestines intact.[57] BioPerine can also help improve metabolic health by increasing insulin sensitivity and defatting liver tissue.[58]

Suggested Dosing

If you decide to bring Animal Cuts into your supplement regimen, the company suggests that you take two packs per day. They also recommend taking both packs alongside food — the first upon waking, the second approximately four to six hours after. The red capsule contains the stimulants (again, 210 milligrams of caffeine per capsule), while the Shredding Complex is in the blue capsules. These are important distinctions in case you want to remove specific complexes, or perhaps even time their intake in a custom fashion.

Animal Cuts Ingredients 2023

Animal also suggests that users follow a “three weeks on, one week off” protocol when supplementing with Animal Cuts. The one week flush allows your body to readjust following a three week cycle, and keeps you from relying too heavily on the ingredients at play here.

The Animal Health Stack

While Animal Cuts uses the brand’s signature training pack approach to tackle fat-burning, Animal applies the same methodology to products in other areas of health and fitness. We’d highly suggest looking into Animal Pak, which promotes overall health and wellness and has just been recently updated!

However, depending on your goals and supplement needs, everything in the Animal Health Stack could be a welcome addition to your regimen. You can read up on these other supplements here:

Animal Omega Features

Conclusion: Support your fat-loss efforts with Animal Cuts

Losing weight and dropping body fat are goals that many individuals set, yet often find extremely challenging. Maintaining quality nutrition and intense training are already difficult enough, and throwing in a slight caloric surplus (in addition to life’s other stressors) makes reaching these goals even more daunting.

Animal Cuts 2023

It’s doable, of course, but only through dedication, perseverance, and hard work. You have to fully commit yourself to the grind — prioritize your diet, optimize your recovery, do the work — day in and day out. These are values and beliefs that Universal Nutrition was founded upon and are preached by Animal. The brand’s mission is to help dedicated individuals reach their potential by offering some of the top products in the sports supplements industry.

Both the goals of Animal and the people the company aims to serve unite in Animal Cuts. A well-rounded and versatile fat-burning supplement, Animal Cuts has been used for years across the weight-trained world, from bodybuilders to daily gym goers, to help elevate weight loss goals and get shredded. Of course, Animal Cuts won’t do all the work for you. But if you’re a fan of Animal and what the brand preaches, you likely have no issues putting in the work!

Whether you’re a professional looking to shred that last bit of fat prior to a show or just an average Joe searching for some help dropping a few pounds, introducing a thermogenic aid such as Animal Cuts can help take your fat-loss plan up a notch or two with its all-around approach.

Universal Animal Cuts – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

Note: In the above widget, we’re looking at the “42 Packs” variation. 42 Servings represents Animal Cuts Powder. Check each retailer to see what version they have, or go directly to Animal Pak’s website.

Animal Cuts 2023 Label

This article was originally published on March 3, 2021 and updated on May 3, 2023.

About the Author: PricePlow Staff

PricePlow Staff

PricePlow is a team of supplement industry veterans that include medical students, competitive strength athletes, and scientific researchers who all became involved with dieting and supplements out of personal need.

The team's collective experiences and research target athletic performance and body composition goals, relying on low-toxicity meat-based diets.

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  14. Zhao, Danyue et al. “Bioavailability and Metabolism of Raspberry Ketone with Potential Implications for Obesity Prevention (OR34-05-19).” Current Developments in Nutrition vol. 3,Suppl 1 nzz031.OR34-05-19. 13 Jun. 2019, doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz031.OR34-05-19.
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  17. Dulloo, A G et al. “Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans.” The American journal of clinical nutrition vol. 70,6 (1999): 1040-5. doi:10.1093/ajcn/70.6.1040.
  18. Bérubé-Parent, Sonia et al. “Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men.” The British journal of nutrition vol. 94,3 (2005): 432-6. doi:10.1079/bjn20051502.
  19. Łuczaj, W., and E. Skrzydlewska. “Antioxidative Properties of Black Tea.” Preventive Medicine. Academic Press. 26 Nov. 2004.
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