Universal Animal Immune Pak: Modernize Your Body’s Immunity

Animal Pak was founded in 1983 by Universal Nutrition and has grown to be one of the most iconic sports nutrition brands in the world. Originally, Animal Pak was simply a vitamin and mineral supplement pack that helped users hit their micronutrient intake. Today, Animal Pak is a supplement brand that offers numerous health and performance boosters. Not to mention, Animal Pak works with and is endorsed by a large number of elite athletes — from bodybuilders to strongman competitors.

Universal Animal Immune Pak

Universal Animal Immune Pak comes in both paks (pills) and powder, and has many of the ingredients we preach for modern immune concerns!

We recently covered pre workout supplement strategies such as Universal Animal Pump Pro and why you should consider stacking arginine with citrulline. Now, we’re shifting our focus away from performance and back towards health and immunity with the Animal Immune Pak.

The team at Animal understands that health is not only essential for overall quality of life, but it’s also a must for elite performance. Animal Immune, which comes in both “paks” and powder, picks up where Animal Pak leaves off. With vitamins and minerals already covered, what more can we add to bolster natural immunity? It turns out, there’s quite a bit you can do in the modern environment.

Animal Immune Pak Powder: A Complete Immune Support Complex

When you’re pushing your body to the limit, regardless of what sport you compete in, your risk of getting sick increases. That’s because the body spends a greater amount of resources on performing rather than fighting off foreign invaders like bacteria, pathogens, and viruses.

“Immune health has always been important to us. Since the early days, we’ve had various immune-boosting components in our products in both the Animal and Universal SKUs; Animal: Animal Pak, Animal Flex, Animal Omega, Animal Cuts, Animal PM, Universal: Natural Sterol Complex, Uni-Vite, Greens, Vitamin C, etc. Due to the current environment, we realized how important it was to give the Animal product family its very own comprehensive immune health SKU. Enter Animal Immune Pak. The most complete and comprehensive immune support product in our market.”

– Animal Pak

Although supplements can’t prevent or cure illnesses or diseases, they can boost your internal defense response and, as a result, lower the risk of developing an illness. This is exactly why Animal created Immune Pak, a comprehensive immune-support supplement that contains a high dose of zinc, vitamin C, vitamin D, antioxidants, and other natural herbs.

On the spot for our modern immune concerns

Animal Logo

Are you an animal? The legendary company has put together a really good one here

It’s the herbs that we really focus on, because it’s nearly the exact blend that we’ve discussed in previous podcast episodes when targeting modern immune concerns – and we didn’t even realize Animal had already done it!

The Immune Pak is available in both powder and capsule form, and you can pick the one that’s convenient for your lifestyle. However, it’s important to note that the formulas are slightly different, which we cover in-depth below!

Keep reading to learn more about the Immune Pak. But before you do, sign up for Animal Pak news and deal alerts below and receive notifications every time they launch a new flavor, product, or sale!

Universal Animal Immune – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

This area is reserved for Team PricePlow's upcoming videos.

Subscribe to our channel and sign up for notifications so you catch it when it goes live!

Subscribe to PricePlow on YouTube!

Metabolic health is key to immunity

Before starting, we do want to first emphasize the importance of great metabolic health, which will have the immune system functioning as powerfully as possible.[1] This means keeping both weight and blood sugars under control while avoiding hyperinsulinemia and diets that cause it (which generally includes highly processed foods and oils).

Immune Pak Powder vs Immune Pak Capsules

Animal Immune Pak

Keep your immune system running strong with the Animal Immune Pak!

Animal is well-known for their “Paks”, but they’ve also begun releasing powders for those who don’t want a ton of pills. There are some differences here, of course:

  • Immune Pak Powder has 5 grams of glutamine to support gut health, whereas Immune Pak capsules have none.
  • Immune Pak capsules contain calcium, phosphorus, alpha-lipoic acid, BioPerine (black pepper extract), and garlic bulb.

In general, we believe the addition of garlic bulb to the capsules gives it a more compelling argument in modern times, but the powder’s glutamine may be more helpful for those who need additional recovery and gut health support.

Immune Pak Powder Ingredients

We’re going to cover the Immune Pak Powder because a larger percentage of readers prefer powder over capsules. But a lot of information we’ll discuss can translate to the capsules since they have most of the same ingredients, with the exception of glutamine. After that, we’ll talk about garlic specifically.

Here’s what one serving (10.9g) of Immune Pak Powder provides:

  • Vitamins & Minerals

    • Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid) – 1000mg (1111% DV)

      Immune Pak contains a high dose of vitamin C, clocking in at 1000 milligrams, which is more than 1,000% of the recommended daily value. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, powerful antioxidant, and cofactor for various regulatory genes and enzymes.[2] It’s also heavily involved in the immune system, thus insufficient vitamin C intake increases your chance of becoming sick.[2]

      Animal Immune Pak Powder Ingredients

      Animal Immune Pak Powder includes five grams of glutamine for gut health and immune system support! This is in place of garlic in the paks, which wouldn’t taste so good in a powder!

      Here are some of the key functions of vitamin C:

      • Scavenges free radicals
      • Strengthens the epithelial barrier (keeps pathogens from entering the body)
      • Increases the activity of phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, which help remove and destroy pathogens
      • Needed for apoptosis (programmed cell death) and the removal of dead cells
      • Boosts the proliferation and differentiation of T- and B-lymphocytes[2]

      Moreover, infections and/or illnesses significantly affect your vitamin C levels due to an increase in metabolic requirements So supplementing with more than the recommended daily allowance can help ensure that you’re consuming an adequate amount.[2]

      Vitamin C Orange

      Vitamin C always gets tons of attention as a free-radical-destroying antioxidant, and has efficacy in our modern environment

      A systematic review from the journal Nutrients states that “Supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections.”[2] These are just some of the reasons why vitamin C is included in immune system support supplements.

      Relevance to modern immunity concerns

      With regards to modern viral concerns, Vitamin C is theoretically extremely encouraging and safe,[3] and we see no reason not to include it in any immunity stack. It’s been successfully used to significantly reduce mortality from sepsis and reduce ICU stay by 8%, but note that much of the research is based upon intravenous use, so it won’t directly apply to oral supplementation.[4]

    • Vitamin D (as cholecalciferol) – 125mcg (5000 IU) (625% DV)

      With 125 micrograms of vitamin D (5000 IU), Animal provides well above the recommended daily value. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning that fat needs to be present in order for the vitamin to be fully absorbed. Therefore, it’s best to take Immune Pak alongside a meal containing a moderate amount of fat.

      Animal Immune Pak One

      Capsules or powder, the choice is yours!

      Vitamin D can be obtained through diet and/or sunlight, however, in areas of the world where sunlight is sparse from late fall to early spring, it’s easier to develop a deficiency. Furthermore, some people have difficulty converting sunlight into vitamin D, regardless of how much sun exposure they receive. So supplements can serve as a type of insurance policy to ensure you get enough of this essential vitamin.

      It’s well-established that vitamin D plays a crucial role in calcium absorption and bone health. But what can it do for the immune system? A systematic review published in the Journal of Investigative Medicine found that vitamin D deficiency has a significant impact on your overall immune system function.[5] It turns out that the vitamin D receptor is present in a variety of immune cells, including T-cells, B-cell, monocytes, and antigen-presenting cells. Therefore, it can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses.[5,6] Vitamin D can also promote a better tolerogenic environment, meaning that it induces protective immunity.[5,6]

      Relevance to modern immunity concerns

      At this point, it is incredibly well accepted that lower vitamin D levels put humans at significantly greater risk of severe consequences from numerous types of diseases caused by modern viral environments, and this has been repeatedly demonstrated by multiple studies and meta-analyses.[7-10]

      Long story short: never let your vitamin D levels drop. If you’re not getting sun, supplement vitamin D3 and avoid activities and drugs that reduce vitamin D levels.

    • Zinc – 30mg (273% DV)

      The only mineral in Immune Pak Powder is zinc, but 30 milligrams is quite a massive dose! Other than vitamin C, zinc is one of the most common ingredients found in immune-support supplements because it affects different aspects of the immune system.

      Animal Pak Red White and Blue Woman

      Train like the Animal you are. Animal seriously needs to bring this shirt back!!!

      A systematic review published by Molecular Medicine states, “Zinc is crucial for normal development and function of cells mediating innate immunity, neutrophils, and natural killer (NK) cells.”[11] Moreover, zinc deficiency negatively affects phagocytosis, macrophages, cytokine production, intracellular killing, and the growth/function of T- and B-cells.[11]

      Similar to vitamin C, zinc serves as a potent antioxidant, but it also acts as a stabilizing agent for cellular membranes, which makes them more resilient to oxidative stress caused by inflammation.[11] Zinc is found in several foods, most notably shellfish, beans, legumes, nuts, and some whole grains. But with the Immune Pak, your recommended daily value of nutrients is covered!

      Relevance to modern immunity concerns

      Similarly to Vitamin D, there is no argument against zinc’s efficacy in modern times, both in terms of avoiding deficiency and additive supplementation (with or without accompanying drugs).[12-17]

      If you’re not sure about your zinc status, get your blood drawn – it’s not expensive. Many researchers are suggesting to keep serum 25(OH)D levels to above 50 ng/mL to prevent or mitigate new outbreaks due to escape mutations or decreasing antibody activity.”[7]

  • Immune Support Complex – 7850mg

    • L-Glutamine – 5000mg

      The Immune Pak Powder kicks off the immune-support complex with five grams of L-glutamine — the most abundant amino acid in the human body. In addition to protein powder, L-glutamine is found in foods like red meat, seafood, dairy, eggs, chicken, and turkey. Most people get plenty of glutamine from diet alone and don’t necessarily benefit from supplementation. However, glutamine is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid because under extreme circumstances (e.g.strenuous training, illness, injury), extra glutamine may:

      Animal Immune Pak

      Keep your immune system running strong with the Animal Immune Pak!

      • Facilitate recovery
      • Boost the immune system
      • Promote gut health[18]

      Moreover, research shows that you can develop glutamine deficiency during periods of excessive metabolic stress (including injury, illness, and intense exercise).[18] It’s also noted in the literature that glutamine helps preserve muscle mass, maintains appropriate nitrogen balance, and enhances barrier function within the gastrointestinal system, which is crucial for preventing pathogens from entering circulation.[18]

      Glutamine is one of the primary fuel sources for both immune and intestinal cells,[19] thus it’s essential for the proper functioning of lymphocytes, phagocytes, and cytokines.[20] Lastly, glutamine serves as a precursor to one of the most powerful antioxidants in the body — glutathione.[19] In general, it’s a major energy substrate for immune cells,[21-23] so it’s centrally important to immunity.

      The reason why glutamine is in Animal Pak Powder is that capsules can accommodate a limited amount of ingredients. So if you’re looking for a supplement with glutamine, Immune Pak Powder is the way to go!

      Relevance to modern immunity concerns

      Theoretically, glutamine usage makes sense because just five days of supplementation can significantly reduce serum levels of β-1 interleukin, tumor necrosis factor-α and hs-CRP while increasing appetite.[24] Glutamine deficiency is also part of a poor metabolic profile that runs greater risk of severe illness.[25] Usage of glutamine has shortened hospital time,[26] and has shown incredible synergistic action with Vitamin D and zinc,[27] two ingredients also in Animal Immune.

    • N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine – 600mg

      Animal Pak Evan

      Professional Bodybuilder, Evan Centopani, trusts Animal for all of his supplement needs!

      N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a supplemental form of the semi-essential amino acid cysteine. The compound is primarily supplemented for the purpose of increasing glutathione production. Along with 5 grams of glutamine, your glutathione levels should be through the roof.

      Studies show that glutathione defends against oxidative stress, supports the immune system, decreases cellular damage, and may even promote longevity.[28,29] The majority of NAC’s benefits are associated with its ability to boost glutathione levels, including promoting brain health, increasing dopamine levels, and slowing down cognitive decline that occurs with age.[30] If that’s not good enough, NAC has also been found to enhance numerous immunological functions, such as T-cell proliferation, and natural killer cell production.[31,32]

      Relevance to modern immunity concerns

      NAC is a slam dunk in terms of its importance in the modern immunity stack.[33,34] We see no reason why you wouldn’t want to bolster glutathione levels.

    • Olive Leaf Extract – 500mg

      Olive leaf extract is an ingredient that we don’t see in supplements very often, but a good amount of evidence suggests it’s a potent immune-boosting agent. Olive leaf extract contains a higher amount of beneficial polyphenols that exert cardioprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.[35]

      Olive Leaf Extract

      Olive Leaf Extract brings a ton of benefits and is extremely popular for its weight loss and thyroid function benefits… but don’t forget about immunity as well!

      A comparative study conducted by researchers from the University of Bari Aldo Moro in Italy found that olive leaf extract increases the body’s production of key immune cells, including CD8+ and natural killer cells.[35] Furthermore, the olive leaf extract induced nitric oxide production, which vasodilates your blood vessels, suggesting that it positively affects the cardiovascular system.[35]

      A study published by the International Journal of Molecular Sciences found that olive leaf extract supplementation had significant effects on anti-inflammatory and cancer-related gene expression.[36] The olive leaf extract was found to alter the response of peripheral mononuclear cells (white blood cells associated with the immune system) in healthy males, leading to an upregulation of several beneficial immune system functions.[36]

      Relevance to modern immunity concerns

      Olive leaf extract, in our opinions, is the most underrated ingredient for the modern immunity stack. No fancy standardizations are needed (like we use for weight loss supplementation), the whole leaf is perfectly fine.

      Mechanistically, olive leaf has been shown to block ACE-2 docking better than certain drugs,[37] can suppress IL-6 providing very strong antiviral activity,[38] impairs cytokines,[39] and can boost glutathione independently of NAC.[40]

      Most readers have heard of the other immunity ingredients discussed today, but olive leaf deserves more attention.

    • Astragalus Root – 500mg

      Arginine Citrulline Together

      Rather than completely replace arginine with citrulline, should we consider pairing them together instead? Turns out, this is what Animal’s done in both of their Animal Pump pre workouts!

      Astragalus root, also known as Huang Qi, is an herb that’s been used for thousands of years, in China and parts of Southeast Asia, to treat immune disorders.[41] According to a study published by the American Journal of Chinese Medicine, an increasing amount of evidence suggests astragalus has anti-inflammatory, immune-regulatory, and immune-boosting properties.[41]

      While the mechanism of action for astragalus is unclear, it’s been proposed that astragaloside (ASI), a major bioactive constituent of astragalus, can increase CD45 phosphatase activity.[41,42] CD45 phosphatase is an enzyme that upregulates the activity of immune cells, thus boosting the immune system response.[41,42]

      Relevance to modern immunity concerns

      A major component of astragalus, astragaloside, has been shown to have high binding affinity to ACE2.[43,44] Since astragalus can inhibit activation of the MAPK/NF-B signaling pathway and downregulate TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, as well as other inflammatory proteins, it can reduce the inflammatory response and has a very important role in our stack.

    • Ashwagandha Extract (whole plant) – 500mg

      Withania somnifera, commonly known as ashwagandha root extract, is a powerful adaptogen that can help users overcome physical and mental stressors.[45-51] But how does that relate to the immune system? Well, the more stressed you are, the fewer resources you have to fight off pathogens. Hence, your susceptibility to becoming ill is much higher.

      A preliminary study published by the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine found that ashwagandha significantly increases the activity of lymphocytes.[46] That said, more research is needed to further understand the compound’s effect on the immune system.

      Spirulina Wheat Grass Chlorella

      Stack with Animal Greens and learn more about Spirulina, Wheat Grass, and Chlorella!

      In addition to helping you adapt to stress, a large body of evidence has shown that ashwagandha possesses the following beneficial properties:

      • Antioxidant
      • Anticancer
      • Anti-inflammatory
      • Antibacterial
      • Neuroprotective
      • Antifungal
      • Immunomodulatory
      • Anxiolytic
      • Anti-depressant
      • Cardioprotective
      • Cognitive enhancing[45-51]

      Ashwagandha’s wide array of health benefits are mainly attributed to its withanolide content.[45] Withanolides are bioactive compounds that are capable of carrying out numerous functions, including reducing cortisol levels (the body’s primary stress hormone).[45] Not only can ashwagandha reduce your risk of getting sick, but it may also boost your mood, recovery, and performance.[45-51]

      Relevance to modern immunity concerns

      Ashwagandha has been shown to be a safer and more effective alternative to popular antiviral drugs.[52] This makes sense, given that several withanolides within ashwagandha have been shown to both inhibit ACE2 expression[53] and exert high docking energy.[54]

    • Quercetin – 300mg

      Weight Loss Supplement Stack

      Before heading into wild, novel ingredients for weight loss, make sure you have the basics covered! It turns out, Animal’s already done nearly all of that for us in Animal Cuts Powder, and metabolic health is pivotal for immunity.

      Quercetin is both a flavonoid and polyphenol that’s present in various types of foods and beverages, including berries, red wine, apples, onions, and tea leaves. Research shows that quercetin expresses anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-allergenic, and anti-carcinogenic characteristics.[55,56] There’s also evidence to suggest that quercetin may decrease platelet aggregation, capillary permeability, and lipid peroxidation.[55,56]

      A systematic review by the journal Nutrients reports that quercetin performs primarily by altering gene expression.[55] Although quercetin’s immune-boosting effects are supported by various studies, the plant flavonol is most well-known for its anti-allergenic properties.[56]

      A study published by the journal Molecules reports that quercetin prevents the release of histamines, reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreases leukotriene synthesis, and down-regulates interleukin IL-4 production.[56] Therefore, quercetin may be an effective treatment for numerous respiratory conditions, including upper respiratory tract infections, allergic rhinitis, asthma, and allergic reactions.[56]

      Relevance to modern immunity concerns

      Most users who have dug into recent immunity have read that quercetin is a zinc ionophore that pairs incredibly well with the zinc discussed above, and that is absolutely the case.[57] Several studies have shown it to have great success with faster viral clearance and lower symptom severity, especially when paired with zinc, vitamin C, and vitamin D as we have here.[58-61]

    • Ginger Root – 250mg

      Ginger root is a cooking spice that boasts several health benefits. The rhizome (stem) of the ginger root has been used in traditional herbal medicine for thousands of years. Its pharmacological properties are attributed to its diverse phytochemistry.[62]

      Ginger Supplements

      We’ve long known about ginger’s anti-nausea, anti-inflammatory benefits, don’t forget that it can bolster immunity as well!

      Ginger’s primary bioactive constituents include gingerols, shogoals, zingerone, and paradols.[62] These bioactive compounds give ginger its potent antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties.[62] Thus, ginger may be beneficial for a variety of medical ailments, such as cardiovascular disorders, degenerative disorders, diabetes, cancer, and gastrointestinal disorders.[62]

      Relevance to modern immunity concerns

      Because of the above effects, ginger has been postulated to be incredibly useful to modern concerns.[63] There’s less research with ginger, but it has been shown to be significantly active and orally bioavailable in binding and fighting viral infections.[64-66] The most potent components in this regard have been shown to be gingerenone A, gingerol, geraniol, shogaol, zingiberene, zingiberenol, and zingerone.[64,66]

    • Grape Seed Extract – 200mg

      Vitis vinifera, commonly known as grape seed extract, is primarily used in pre-workouts and pump products because of its ability to boost blood flow, and deliver nutrients and oxygen to blood vessels.[67] But GSE is also rich in proanthocyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids, which are powerful antioxidants.[67]

      Research demonstrates that GSE has the following properties:

      • Antidiabetic
      • Antimicrobial
      • Antitumor
      • Anti-Inflammatory
      • Immunomodulatory
      • Cardioprotective
      • Antioxidative
      • Neuroprotective[67]

      Overall, GSE offers a variety of health benefits that go beyond boosting the immune system.

What about the garlic in the Animal Immune Paks?

If you don’t care about “paks” vs powder, and just want the strongest benefits, the choice comes down to glutamine (in powder) vs. garlic in paks. There are some other differences, such as the alpha lipoic acid and black pepper extract, but garlic is the primary debate.

It’s well-known that garlic has great heart health benefits,[68-70] and that’s recently become a bit more relevant to some. But more recently, we’ve seen garlic outperform certain antiviral drugs in terms of reducing parasites![71] It inhibits some types of coronaviruses that have been shown to cause bronchitis,[72] making it quite useful for immunity.

Animal Immune Pak Ingredients

The Animal Immune Pak Ingredients (Paks)

Mechanistically, garlic can inhibit ACE-2 docking, something we’ve discussed numerous times with the above ingredients.

In general, there are two strategies if you want to go all in:

  1. Take Animal Immune Paks and drink an amino acid beverage with glutamine inside (you can add Universal Nutrition Glutamine to anything, or consider Universal Nutrition’s BCAA Stack, which has it)
  2. Take Animal Immune Powder and eat a clove of garlic separately or in your food.

We value garlic tremendously in the modern immune environment, and even enjoy smelling it to open and reactivate sinuses, so give it serious consideration.

Animal Pak Keeps you Running Strong

Animal Greens

Animal Greens also comes in pills, for those who don’t want to taste them!

Whether you’re looking for a comprehensive immune system support supplement, a high-quality protein powder to help you recover, or a powerful pre-workout to boost your performance in the gym, Animal Pak has it all! Animal Pak has been in the supplement industry for over 30 years, and they’re one of the few companies that manufacture their own products in-house. This means they’re able to oversee every step of the process to ensure that you’re getting a supplement that lives up to their high standards.

If you try out any of Animal Pak’s products, it’s easy to tell that they prioritize quality control, which is something that we really appreciate. That means you can rest assured that what’s on the label is in the bottle. This is just one of the reasons why Animal Pak has risen to the top and stayed there for so many years.

Over the past few months, we’ve seen an influx of immune-supporting supplements and have found a majority of them are nothing more than a watered-down multivitamin. With Immune Pak, Animal Pak goes above and beyond the competition by including high doses of key vitamins and minerals, along with several ingredients shown to have potent health benefits. So, if you need an immune-support supplement to keep you running strong, consider trying Animal Immune Pak.

Universal Animal Immune – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

Note: This article was originally published on October 14, 2020, but has been updated on November 4, 2021 with more up-to-date and relevant research.

About the Author: Mike Roberto

Mike Roberto

Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is an n=1 diet experimenter with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several experiments done on himself while sharing lab tests.

Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public.

No Comments | Posted in | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .


  1. Marino, Frank E., et al. “Metabolic and Inflammatory Health in SARS-CoV-2 and the Potential Role for Habitual Exercise in Reducing Disease Severity.” Inflammation Research, p. 1, 10.1007/s00011-021-01517-3; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8558095/
  2. Carr, A., and Maggini, S. Nov. 2017. “Vitamin C and Immune Function.” Nutrients vol. 9,11; 1211. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707683/
  3. Milani, Gregorio Paolo, et al. “Vitamin c in the Treatment of COVID-19.” Nutrients, vol. 13, no. 4, 1 Apr. 2021, p. 1172, 10.3390/nu13041172; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8065688/
  4. Hemilä, Harri, and Angelique M. E. de Man. “Vitamin c and COVID-19.” Frontiers in Medicine, vol. 7, 18 Jan. 2021, 10.3389/fmed.2020.559811; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC7848027/
  5. Aranow, C. Aug. 2011. “Vitamin D and the Immune System.” Journal of Investigative Medicine vol. 59,6; 881-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166406/
  6. Prietl, B. et al. July 2013. “Vitamin D and Immune Function.” Nutrients vol. 5,7; 2502-21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3738984/
  7. Borsche, Lorenz, et al. “COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 Ng/ML 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Nutrients, vol. 13, no. 10, 1 Oct. 2021, p. 3596, 10.3390/nu13103596; https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/10/3596
  8. Ben-Eltriki, Mohamed, et al. “Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 31 Aug. 2021, pp. 1–11, 10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891; https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891
  9. Varikasuvu, S, et al; “COVID-19 and Vitamin D (Co-VIVID Study): a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”; medRxiv 2021.08.22.21262216; https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.08.22.21262216v1
  10. Ghasemian, Roya, et al. “The Role of Vitamin D in the Age of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” International Journal of Clinical Practice, 29 July 2021, p. e14675, 10.1111/ijcp.14675; https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ijcp.14675
  11. Prasad, A. June 2008. “Zinc in Human Health: Effect of Zinc on Immune Cells.” Molecular Medicine vol. 14,6; 353-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2277319/
  12. Yasui, Yukako, et al. “Analysis of the Predictive Factors for a Critical Illness of COVID-19 during Treatment - Relationship between Serum Zinc Level and Critical Illness of COVID-19” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 100, Nov. 2020, pp. 230–236, 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.008; https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(20)30723-2/fulltext
  13. “COVID-19: Poor Outcomes in Patients with Zinc Deficiency.” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 100, 1 Nov. 2020, pp. 343–349, 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.014; https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(20)30730-X/fulltext
  14. Berrocal, Lisa, et al; “Zinc and Vitamin a Deficiency Predisposes to the Need for Intubation and Icu Admission in Patients with COVID-19. An Observational Study”; Research Square; 26 Oct. 2020, https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-95524/v1
  15. “COVID-19 Outpatients: Early Risk-Stratified Treatment with Zinc plus Low-Dose Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin: A Retrospective Case Series Study.” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 26 Oct. 2020, p. 106214, 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106214; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924857920304258
  16. Thomas, Suma, et al. “Effect of High-Dose Zinc and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation vs Usual Care on Symptom Length and Reduction among Ambulatory Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection.” JAMA Network Open, vol. 4, no. 2, 12 Feb. 2021, p. e210369, 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0369; https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2776305
  17. Du Laing, Gijs, et al. “Course and Survival of COVID-19 Patients with Comorbidities in Relation to the Trace Element Status at Hospital Admission.” Nutrients, vol. 13, no. 10, 1 Oct. 2021, p. 3304, 10.3390/nu13103304; https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/10/3304
  18. Hall J. et al. March 1996. “Glutamine.” The British Journal of Surgery vol. 83,3; 305-12. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8665180/
  19. Demling, R. Feb. 2009. “Nutrition, Anabolism, and the Wound Healing Process: An Overview.” Eplasty vol. 9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2642618/
  20. Calder P. and Yaqoob, P. 1999. “Glutamine and the Immune System.” Amino Acids vol. 17,3; 227-41. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10582122/
  21. Atila, Alptug, et al. “The Serum Amino Acid Profile in COVID-19.” Amino Acids, p. 1, 10.1007/s00726-021-03081-w; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8487804/
  22. Wu, G. Y., et al. “Elevated Glutamine Metabolism in Splenocytes from Spontaneously Diabetic BB Rats.” Biochemical Journal, vol. 274, no. Pt 1, 15 Feb. 1991, p. 49, 10.1042/bj2740049; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC1149919/
  23. Newsholme, P., et al. “Glutamine Metabolism by Lymphocytes, Macrophages, and Neutrophils: Its Importance in Health and Disease.” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 10, no. 6, 1 June 1999, pp. 316–324, 10.1016/s0955-2863(99)00022-4; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15539305/
  24. Mohajeri, Mahsa, et al. “The Effect of Glutamine Supplementation on Serum Levels of Some Inflammatory Factors, Oxidative Stress, and Appetite in COVID-19 Patients: A Case–Control Study.” Inflammopharmacology, p. 1, 10.1007/s10787-021-00881-0; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8552429/
  25. Matsuyama, Toshifumi, et al. “Comorbidity-Associated Glutamine Deficiency Is a Predisposition to Severe COVID-19.” Cell Death and Differentiation, p. 1, 10.1038/s41418-021-00892-y; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8522258/
  26. Cengiz, Mahir, et al. “Effect of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Covid-19 Treatment.” Clinical Nutrition Experimental, vol. 33, 1 Oct. 2020, pp. 24–31, 10.1016/j.yclnex.2020.07.003; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC7387270/
  27. Name, José João, et al. “Vitamin D, Zinc and Glutamine: Synergistic Action with OncoTherad Immunomodulator in Interferon Signaling and COVID-19 (Review).” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 47, no. 3, 1 Mar. 2021, 10.3892/ijmm.2021.4844; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC7834962/
  28. Cascella, R. et al. Aug. 2014. “S-Linolenoyl Glutathione Intake Extends Life-Span and Stress Resistance via Sir-2.1 Upregulation in Caenorhabditis Elegans.” Free Radical Biology & Medicine vol. 73; 127-35. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24835770/
  29. Shackebaei, D. et al. Sep. 2005. “Mechanisms Underlying the Cardioprotective Effect of L-Cysteine.” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry vol. 277,1-2; 27-31. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16132711/
  30. Mokhtari V. et al. June 2017. “A Review on Various Uses of N-Acetyl Cysteine.” Cell Journal vo.19,1; 11-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241507/
  31. Droge, W. et al. Nov. 2000. “Glutathione and Immune Function.” The Proceedings of Nutrition Society vol. 59,4; 595-600. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11115795/
  32. Dröge W, Eck HP, Mihm S. June 1992. “HIV-Induced Cysteine Deficiency and T-cell Dysfunction – A Rationale for Treatment with N-acetylcysteine.” Immunology Today vo. 13,6; 211-4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1378279/
  33. Shi, Zhongcheng, and Carlos A Puyo. “N-Acetylcysteine to Combat COVID-19: An Evidence Review.” Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, vol. Volume 16, Nov. 2020, pp. 1047–1055, 10.2147/tcrm.s273700; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC7649937/
  34. Poe, Francis L., and Joshua Corn. “N-Acetylcysteine: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for SARS-CoV-2.” Medical Hypotheses, May 2020, p. 109862, 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109862; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC7261085/
  35. Margone, T. et al. 2018. “Olive Leaf Extracts Act as Modulators of the Human Immune Response.” Endocrine, Metabolic, and Immune Disorders Drug Targets vol. 18,1; 85-93. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29149822/
  36. Boss, A. et al. Dec. 2016. “Human Intervention Study to Assess the Effects of Supplementation with Olive Leaf Extract on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Gene Expression.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences vol. 17,12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5187819/
  37. Thangavel, Neelaveni, et al. “Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Aided Virtual Search of OliveNetTM Directory for Secoiridoids to Combat SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Associated Hyperinflammatory Responses.” Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, vol. 7, 7 Jan. 2021, p. 627767, 10.3389/fmolb.2020.627767; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817976/
  38. Burja, Blaž, et al. “Olive Leaf Extract Attenuates Inflammatory Activation and DNA Damage in Human Arterial Endothelial Cells.” Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 6, 16 May 2019, p. 56, 10.3389/fcvm.2019.00056; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6531989/
  39. Richard, Nathalie, et al. “Hydroxytyrosol Is the Major Anti-Inflammatory Compound in Aqueous Olive Extracts and Impairs Cytokine and Chemokine Production in Macrophages.” Planta Medica, vol. 77, no. 17, 9 Aug. 2011, pp. 1890–1897, 10.1055/s-0031-1280022; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21830187/
  40. Amidžić, Mirjana, et al. “Oleuropein-Rich Olive Leaf Extracts May Ameliorate Consequences of Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hep G2 Cells.” Natural Product Communications, vol. 13, no. 6, June 2018, p. 1934578X1801300, 10.1177/1934578×1801300601; https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1934578X1801300601
  41. Qi Y, et al. Aug. 2017. “Anti-Inflammatory and Immunostimulatory Activities of Astragalosides.” The America Journal of Chinese Medicine vol. 45,6; 1157-1167. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28830214/
  42. Wan C. et al. Apr. 2013. “Astragaloside II Triggers T cell Activation Through Regulation of CD45 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Activity.” Acta Pharmacol Sinica vol. 34,4; 522-30. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23524573/
  43. Ye, Miaobo, et al. “Network Pharmacology, Molecular Docking Integrated Surface Plasmon Resonance Technology Reveals the Mechanism of Toujie Quwen Granules against Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia.” Phytomedicine, vol. 85, 1 May 2021, p. 153401, 10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153401; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711320302324
  44. Ma, Le-le, et al. “Screening S Protein – ACE2 Blockers from Natural Products: Strategies and Advances in the Discovery of Potential Inhibitors of COVID-19.” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 226, 15 Dec. 2021, p. 113857, 10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113857; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0223523421007066
  45. Chandrasekhar, K., et al. 2012. “A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Safety and Efficacy of A High-Concentration Full-Spectrum Extract of Ashwagandha Root in Reducing Stress and Anxiety in Adults.” Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine vol. 34,3 (2012): 255-62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3573577/
  46. Mikolai, J. et al. Apr. 2009. “In Vivo Effects of Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera) Extract on the Activation of Lymphocytes.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine vol. 15,4; 423-30. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19388865/
  47. Panossian, A. and Wikman, G. 2009. “Evidence-Based Efficacy of Adaptogens in Fatigue, and Molecular Mechanisms Related to their Stress-Protective Activity.” Current Clinical Pharmacology vol. 4,3 (2009): 198-219. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19500070/
  48. Auddy, B., et al. 2008. “A Standardized Withania Somnifera Extract Significantly Reduces Stress-Related Parameters in Chronically Stressed Humans: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.” Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association; vol. 11,1 (2008). https://blog.priceplow.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/withania_review.pdf
  49. Wankhede, Sachin, et al. Nov. 2015. “Examining the Effect of Withania Somnifera Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Recovery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 12 43; 25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4658772/
  50. Choudhary, Dnyanraj, et al. 2016. “Body Weight Management in Adults Under Chronic Stress Through Treatment With Ashwagandha Root Extract: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine; vol. 22,1; (2016); 96-106. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871210/
  51. Pérez-Gómez, Jorge, et al. Apr. 2020. “Effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on VO2max: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Nutrients vol. 12,4 1119. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230697/
  52. Chopra, Arvind, et al. “Withania Somnifera as a Safer Option to Hydroxychloroquine in the Chemoprophylaxis of COVID-19: Results of Interim Analysis.” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 62, 1 Nov. 2021, p. 102768, 10.1016/j.ctim.2021.102768; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8372474/
  53. Kalra, Rajkumar Singh, et al. “COVID19-Inhibitory Activity of Withanolides Involves Targeting of the Host Cell Surface Receptor ACE2: Insights from Computational and Biochemical Assays.” Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics, 2021, p. 1, 10.1080/07391102.2021.1902858; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8022344/
  54. Tripathi, Manish Kumar, et al. “Identification of Bioactive Molecule from Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) as SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitor.” Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 8 July 2020, pp. 1–14, 10.1080/07391102.2020.1790425; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC7441797/
  55. Li, Y. et al. Mar. 2016. “Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity.” Nutrients vol. 8,3; 167. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4808895/
  56. Mlcek, J. et al. May 2016. “Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response.” Molecules vol. 21,5; 623. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6273625/
  57. Husam Dabbagh-Bazarbachi, Gael Clergeaud, Isabel M. Quesada, Mayreli Ortiz, Ciara K. O’Sullivan, and Juan B. Fernández-Larrea; Zinc Ionophore Activity of Quercetin and Epigallocatechin-gallate: From Hepa 1-6 Cells to a Liposome Model”; Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; 2014; 62 (32), 8085-8093; https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jf5014633
  58. Arslan, Bengu, et al. “Synergistic Effect of Quercetin and Vitamin c against COVID-19: Is a Possible Guard for Front Liner.” Europe PMC, 2020; https://europepmc.org/article/ppr/ppr239932
  59. Di Pierro, Francesco, et al. “Possible Therapeutic Effects of Adjuvant Quercetin Supplementation against Early-Stage COVID-19 Infection: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, and Open-Label Study.” International Journal of General Medicine, vol. Volume 14, June 2021, pp. 2359–2366, 10.2147/ijgm.s318720; https://www.dovepress.com/possible-therapeutic-effects-of-adjuvant-quercetin-supplementation-aga-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-IJGM
  60. Di Pierro, Francesco, et al. “Potential Clinical Benefits of Quercetin in the Early Stage of COVID-19: Results of a Second, Pilot, Randomized, Controlled and Open-Label Clinical Trial.” International Journal of General Medicine, vol. Volume 14, June 2021, pp. 2807–2816, 10.2147/ijgm.s318949; https://www.dovepress.com/potential-clinical-benefits-of-quercetin-in-the-early-stage-of-covid-1-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-IJGM
  61. Margolin, Leon, et al. “20-Week Study of Clinical Outcomes of Over-The-Counter COVID-19 Prophylaxis and Treatment.” Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine, vol. 26, 1 Jan. 2021, p. 2515690X2110261, 10.1177/2515690×211026193; https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2515690X211026193
  62. Mashhadi NS, et al. Apr. 2013. “Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ginger in health and physical activity: review of current evidence.” International Journal of Preventive Medicine vo.4(Suppl 1);S36-S42. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3665023/
  63. Jafarzadeh, Abdollah, et al. “Therapeutic Potential of Ginger against COVID-19: Is There Enough Evidence?” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 4, 1 Oct. 2021, p. 267, 10.1016/j.jtcms.2021.10.001; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8492833/
  64. Ahkam, Ahmad Hafidul, et al. “Virtual Prediction of Antiviral Potential of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Bioactive Compounds against Spike and MPro of SARS-CoV2 Protein”: Berkala Penelitian Hayati, vol. 25, no. 2, 21 June 2020, pp. 52–57; https://berkalahayati.org/index.php/jurnal/article/view/50
  65. Rajagopal, K., et al. “Activity of Phytochemical Constituents of Black Pepper, Ginger, and Garlic against Coronavirus (COVID-19): An in Silico Approach.” Semantic Scholar, 2020; https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Activity-of-phytochemical-constituents-of-black-and-Rajagopal-Byran/cad7597b345b85c7998679c88e1fe81964f23b23
  66. Singh, Namita Ashish, et al. “Spices and Herbs: Potential Antiviral Preventives and Immunity Boosters during COVID ‐19.” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 35, no. 5, 29 Jan. 2021, pp. 2745–2757, 10.1002/ptr.7019; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8013177/
  67. Rauf, A., et al. 2019. “Proanthocyanidins: A Comprehensive Review.” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 116. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332219305359
  68. Chang, Sheng-Huang, et al. “Garlic Oil Alleviates MAPKs- and IL-6-Mediated Diabetes-Related Cardiac Hypertrophy in STZ-Induced DM Rats.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : ECAM, vol. 2011, 2011, 10.1093/ecam/neq075; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC3137822/
  69. Budoff, M. “Inhibiting Progression of Coronary Calcification Using Aged Garlic Extract in Patients Receiving Statin Therapy: A Preliminary Study*1.” Preventive Medicine, vol. 39, no. 5, Nov. 2004, pp. 985–991, 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.04.012; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15475033/
  70. Adler, A J, and B J Holub. “Effect of Garlic and Fish-Oil Supplementation on Serum Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations in Hypercholesterolemic Men.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 65, no. 2, 1 Feb. 1997, pp. 445–450, 10.1093/ajcn/65.2.445; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9022529/
  71. Ayaz, Erol, et al. “Evaluation of the Anthelmentic Activity of Garlic (Allium Sativum) in Mice Naturally Infected with Aspiculuris Tetraptera.” Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery, vol. 3, no. 2, 1 June 2008, pp. 149–152, 10.2174/157489108784746605; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18673129/
  72. Mohajer Shojai, Tabassom, et al. “The Effect of Allium Sativum (Garlic) Extract on Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Specific Pathogen Free Embryonic Egg.” Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, vol. 6, no. 4, 2016, pp. 458–267; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967842/

Comments and Discussion (Powered by the PricePlow Forum)