TRUWILD Motion: A Pre-Workout That Fuels Your Outdoor Adventures

TRUWILD Logo

Fuel your outdoor adventures.

TRUWILD was founded in 2017 by two guys — Zac and Nathan — who found their passion for pursuing wild outdoor adventures and creating products that would fuel their everyday activities. The idea for TRUWILD came about when Zac and Nathan discovered that there were few high-quality supplements formulated specifically for the outdoor athlete.

After the guys tested several high-stimulant pre-workouts for themselves, they just felt fatigued, dehydrated, and were unable to perform at their peak. So they set out on a mission to formulate supplements that would not only be suitable for their activities but also help other outdoor athletes maximize their full potential.

“At TRUWILD, our goal is to help outdoor athletes maximize their passion. Our products have the perfect combination to provide energy, endurance, rehydration, gut health, immune support, and recovery needed to challenge the outdoors and turn it into a thrilling playground. Stay wild for life!”

– TRUWILD

TRUWILD prides itself on formulating effective nutritional supplements that are supported by science and made with premium all-natural ingredients. Some of TRUWILD’s ingredients were discovered by Zac and Nathan while engaging in outdoor adventures around the world, in places like Peru, Patagonia, and Tanzania. It’s obvious that the partners live and breathe what TRUWIlD stands for. They make sure their supplements actually deliver results by putting them to the test in the field, whether that’s hiking a mountain, surfing a wave, or cycling the streets.

TRUWILD Motion: A Pre-Workout Built for Outdoor Athletes

TRUWILD Motion

A pre-workout formulated for the outdoor athlete.

TRUWILD offers sports nutrition products that either help you recover, stay hydrated, or perform, such as Hydrate, Baselayer, and Wild Greens. One of TRUWILD’s best selling products is Motion, a plant-based pre-workout that’s non-GMO, gluten-free, vegan-friendly, and naturally sweetened and flavored.

Motion was formulated to boost endurance, performance, hydration, and help athletes stay outdoors longer. It uses three sources of natural caffeine to quickly boost energy levels and keep them elevated for hours. Furthermore, Motion has five trademarked ingredients, a comprehensive electrolyte blend, and more. After taking Motion, you should be able to push past your boundaries and conquer the great outdoors.

Keep reading for more information about Motion and sign up for TRUWILD news and deal alerts so you can get notifications when new products, flavors, and sales are available!

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TRUWILD Motion Ingredient Analysis

Motion’s supplement facts panel is split up into five major categories:

  • Extended Endurance
  • Hydration & Recovery
  • VO2 Max Support
  • Natural Energy
  • Recharge Electrolytes
  • Absorption

For this ingredient analysis, we’re going to do the same! However, if you look closely at the supplement facts panel, you’ll notice that some ingredients are part of a proprietary blend. This means that you don’t know the exact dosages of every ingredient. Fortunately, Zac sent us the fully-disclosed label to share with our readers, thus we’ll be listing the dosages for each ingredient included in Motion!

Here’s what one serving (11 grams) of Motion contains:

Extended Endurance – 6,700mg

  • Isomaltulose (Palatinose) – 3,150mg

    TRUWILD Motion Ingredients

    Motion is packed with everything you need to stay outdoors longer.

    Palatinose is a trademarked form of isomaltulose that was developed by Beneo. Palatinose is simply a carbohydrate, which is part of the reason why Motion contains around nine grams of carbohydrates and 30 calories per serving. Unlike other types of carbs, Palatinose is unique in that it’s naturally sourced, low-glycemic (meaning that it won’t drastically spike insulin levels), and improves fatty acid oxidation during exercise.[1,2]

    A study published by Nutrients found that cyclists who consumed Palatinose, as opposed to maltodextrin, had more stable blood glucose levels, higher fat oxidation, and improved performance. The researchers attribute these results to the low-glycemic profile of Palatinose.[1]

    Palatinose is created by extracting sucrose from sugar beets and enzymatically rearranging the bond between glucose and fructose[2]. Palatinose is 100% vegan, kosher, halal, and non-GMO.[2] So not only does Palatinose help add sweetness to Motion, but it also helps increases performance by boosting fatty acid oxidation and preserving glycogen stores.

  • L-Citrulline DL-Malate – 1,500mg

    The extended endurance blend contains a 1:1 ratio of L-citrulline to DL-malate. Many readers may think that this is an extraordinarily low dose of citrulline malate. But depending on what outdoor activity you’re partaking in, it’s likely just enough. L-citrulline and citrulline malate are typically included in pre-workouts at dosages between 3 to eight 8, for the intended purpose of increasing muscular pumps.[3]

    TRUWILD

    Fuel for outdoor enthusiasts.

    Citrulline is a potent nitric oxide booster, which causes blood vessels to expand, allowing the delivery of more nutrients, oxygen, and blood to working muscles.[3] High doses of citrulline may be great for getting massive pumps in the gym, but it’s likely not so great for outdoor athletes depending on their activity

    For some, too much blood flow sent to the forearms can negatively impact your performance, by impacting their ability to grip onto various objects for extended periods of time. For example, rock climbing would be more challenging with pumped-up forearms. So, Zac and Nathan decided to add in just enough citrulline to provide a slight boost in nitric oxide levels.

    Furthermore, TRUWILD opted to use citrulline malate, as opposed to pure L-citrulline, because malic acid plays a crucial role in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production via the citric acid cycle.[3] Overall, the main reason Motion contains citrulline malate is not for the pumps, but rather, the energy boost and nutrient delivery that are crucial for endurance events.

  • L-Taurine – 1,500mg

    L-Taurine is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid, meaning that under extreme circumstances (e.g. intense exercise or illness), supplementation can be very beneficial.[4] Taurine is highly concentrated in the brain, muscles, eyes, and organs. It takes on several important roles in the body, especially in the central nervous system.[4]

    Taurine is typically touted for its health benefits. However, a recent meta-analysis published by the journal Sports Medicine revealed taurine’s endurance-boosting potential. The study found that taking anywhere from 1 to 6 grams of taurine significantly increases endurance for active individuals.[5]

    Taurine is involved in calcium signaling, bile salt formation, and osmoregulation. Therefore, researchers theorize that taurine’s endurance-enhancing properties may be attributed to its ability to maintain calcium levels in bones and cardiac muscle.[5] Calcium is required for all muscular contractions, so it’s a sound theory.

  • L-Arginine – 500mg

    TRUWILD Motion Bike

    Get out and ride with TRUWILD Motion.

    To complement increased nitric oxide production from citrulline malate, Motion has 500 milligrams of L-arginine. Arginine is an amino acid that serves as a direct precursor to nitric oxide production.[6] Citrulline, on the other hand, must be converted into arginine before it can be turned into nitric oxide by an enzyme called nitric oxide synthase.[6]

    We’re typically not huge proponents of arginine on its own since arginine it has fairly poor bioavailability,[6] We prefer instead a larger dose of citrulline. However, a few preliminary studies have shown that using a combination of L-citrulline and L-arginine increases plasma arginine and nitric oxide levels more than each in isolation.[7-9]

    One study, in particular, found that when participants supplemented with both L-arginine and L-citrulline before a bicycle exercise test, they experienced less soreness and fatigue, and increased power output.[9] There’s a synergistic effect between citrulline and arginine. We would like to see more research conducted on this topic, especially in regards to endurance activities.

  • Beet (Beta vulgaris) Root (1% Nitrate) Extract – 50mg

    The last ingredient in the Extended Endurance blend is 50 milligrams of beet root extract, also known as Beta vulgaris. As you can see from the label, TRUWILD uses a beet root extract that’s standardized to contain 1% nitrates. It turns out that beet roots are naturally rich in inorganic nitrates (NO3-), which is yet another way to increase nitric oxide levels and blood flow.[10,11]

    Instead of increasing nitric oxide levels through raising plasma L-arginine, dietary nitrates are converted into nitrites by nitrate reductase enzymes.[10] Then, the nitrites are converted into nitric oxide by the stomach.[10] Since beet root extract, L-arginine, and citrulline malate all work through slightly different mechanisms, in theory, they work synergistically to increase blood flow, oxygen, and nutrient delivery.

Hydration & Recovery – 1,050mg

  • Covico Coconut Water Powder – 1,000mg

    The second trademarked ingredient in Motion is Covico coconut water powder. It’s a great way to kick off the Hydration & Recovery blend. Coconut water powder is rich in electrolytes, making it very effective at promoting hydration.[12,13]

    TRUWILD Hydrate

    Keep hydrated with TRUWILD.

    One study found that coconut water increases total body hydration to a similar extent as a carbohydrate-electrolyte containing beverage, but without causing gastrointestinal upset.[12] The same study also found that it was easier for participants to consume coconut water in large quantities than plain water or the carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage, which helps further promote hydration.[12]

    Considering this pre-workout is designed for the outdoor athlete, one who may be exercising in extreme conditions, we’re glad to see that TRUWILD places such a major emphasis on hydration. The majority of pre-workouts on the market fail to properly address hydration, which is essential for optimal performance. Coconut water powder is an underrated ingredient in the sports nutrition industry, but we like that more brands are realizing its potential.

  • Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Pericarp (4:1) Extract – 50mg

    Pomegranate pericarp extract helps promote recovery. Pomegranates are rich in polyphenols and possess numerous health benefits. They’ve been shown to be beneficial for treating high cholesterol, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammatory conditions.[14]

    In terms of boosting recovery, a randomized controlled trial published in PLOS ONE found that pomegranate extract decreased pain and soreness, accelerated recovery, and improved performance in elite weightlifters.[14] We rarely see pomegranate included pre-workouts, or any sports nutrition supplements for that matter, so it helps Motion stand out. Being able to properly recover is arguably the most important factor for progressing in any activity, whether it’s on the trails or in the gym.

VO2 Max Support – 1,000mg

  • PeakO2 (Cordyceps militaris (Cordyceps), Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Pleurotus eryngii (King Trumpet), Lentinula edodes (Shiitake), Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane), and Trametes versicolor (Turkey Tail) – 1,000mg

    TRUWILD PeakO2The third trademarked ingredient is Motion is PeakO2, an adaptogenic mushroom blend of cordyceps, reishi, ting trumpet, shiitake, lion’s mane, and turkey tail.

    PeakO2 was developed by Compound Solutions, a leading ingredient supplier in the sports nutrition industry. The blend was created to help users adapt to both physical and mental stressors so they can continue to progress.

    Research shows that PeakO2 increases overall work capacity by boosting oxygen uptake and reducing lactic acid accumulation. It’s the only ingredient in the VO2 Max Support section.[15]

    A study conducted by researchers at the University of North Carolina found that PeakO2 improved subjects’ VO2 max, time to exhaustion, and power output.[15] For those who could live without the tingles caused by beta-alanine, but still want to boost endurance, PeakO2 is a great alternative.

Natural Energy – 295 mg (160mg Natural Caffeine)

  • Natural Caffeine (from Green Coffee Bean) (as VegiSurge) – 150mg

    We’ve covered caffeine countless times on the blog, but this is the first time we’re writing about VegiSurge. In total, Motion contains 160 milligrams of caffeine from two separate sources with VegiSurge up a majority of the caffeine content.

    For some people, 160 milligrams of caffeine may seem low. For Zac and Nathan, after trying several high-stimulant pre-workouts, they discovered that outdoor athletes don’t need more than 300 milligrams of caffeine to perform well. Plus, consuming high amounts of stimulants can lead to unwanted side effects, such as jitters, anxiety, and nervousness.

    VegiSurge Logo

    A natural source of caffeine derived from green coffee beans.

    VegiSurge is natural caffeine anhydrous that’s derived from either green coffee beans or green tea. As you can see from the label, Motion uses green coffee beans.[16] VegiSurge was created by Anderson Advanced Ingredients and is standardized to contain 99% caffeine content.[16]

    TRUWILD decided to use natural caffeine over a synthetic source to avoid a rapid spike, and then crash, in energy levels. They want you to feel energized for an extended period, so natural caffeine is the most optimal form.

    Caffeine is a powerful stimulant that carries out its effects by acting as an adenosine and phosphodiesterase antagonist.[17] Caffeine also increases fatty acid oxidation.[17] A systematic review published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research found that caffeine is an effective and safe ergogenic aid for endurance athletes.[17]

  • L-Theanine – 75mg

    TRUWILD Greens

    Get your veggies in with the help of TRUWILD Greens.

    L-theanine is an amino acid derivative of glutamine and glutamate. It’s naturally found in tea leaves and mushrooms. Theanine is most known for its calming and relaxing properties, but without inducing drowsiness.[18,19] Thus, theanine can be used in a variety of supplements, from pre-workouts to sleep-aids.

    TRUWILD pairs caffeine with theanine in Motion because research shows that the compounds work synergistically to boost focus, alertness, cognitive function, accuracy, and processing speed.[18,19] Theanine can also increase dopamine production, which is a key neurotransmitter responsible for your sense of well-being, reward, motivation, mood, and pleasure.[20]

  • Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaf Extract – 50mg

    Green tea has several health-boosting properties, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiarthritic, antioxidative, antiviral, neuroprotective, antiangiogenic, and cholesterol-lowering effects.[21,22] The health benefits associated with green tea consumption are attributed to its rich polyphenol content. Green tea’s main bioactive constituent is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG).

    Studies have shown that EGCG has potent anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties because it helps increase daily energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and fat oxidation.[21,22] Green tea leaf extract also contains a small amount of caffeine, theanine, phenolic acids, and theaflavins, which further contribute to its energy-boosting properties.[22]

    Green tea carries out its effects through several mechanisms. But mainly, it inhibits the catechol-o-methyl-transferase (COMT) enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine.[22] Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter involved in the sympathetic nervous system, which is highly active during exercise.

  • Yerba Mate (ILex paraguariensis) Leaf (20% Caffeine) Extract – 20mg

    TRUWILD Yerba Mate

    Motion is one of the few pre-workouts on the market with Yerba Mate.

    The last ingredient in the Natural Energy blend, yerba mate leaf extract, is standardized to contain at least 20% caffeine, making it a partial contributor to the total caffeine content. Yerba mate is extracted from the leaves of the ILex paraguariensis tree found in parts of South America.

    The leaves naturally contain caffeine, along with saponins, polyphenols, and xanthines. Several studies have examined yerba mate’s metabolic effects and have shown that it significantly increases fatty acid oxidation during exercise.[23,24]

    A study from the journal Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise found that when trained cyclists supplemented with yerba mate extract they experienced improvements in overall performance, power output, and great levels of fat utilization during submaximal exercise.[24]

    Another study from the journal Nutrients reported that yerba mate improves subjects’ metabolic rates, mood, and satiety at rest and during prolonged exercise.[23] Needless to say, there’s plenty of research to support yerba mate’s benefits and, yet, we rarely come across this ingredient in a typical pre-workout.

TRUWILD Motion Snow

Push past your boundaries with Motion.

Recharge Electrolytes – 185mg

  • Sodium Chloride – 80mg

  • Potassium Chloride – 80mg

  • Himalayan Pink Salt – 25mg

In addition to the coconut water, which naturally contains electrolytes and promotes hydration, TRUWILD uses a combination of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and Himalayan pink salt to ensure you stay hydrated. Both sodium and potassium are essential minerals for carrying out muscular contractions and nerve impulses.

More often than not, pre-workouts have additional sodium but don’t contain potassium, which isn’t ideal because an imbalance in sodium and potassium levels can cause muscle cramping and inhibit performance. Thus, TRUWILD uses a 1:1 ratio of sodium to potassium.

Motion is one of the few pre-workouts on the market that contains Himalayan pink salt. Not only does it contain a good amount of sodium, but it also has other important trace minerals, such as potassium and magnesium. Moreover, Himalayan pink salt may enhance digestion by stimulating the release of hydrochloric acid in the gastrointestinal tract.

Absorption

  • Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) Fruit Extract (BioPerine) – 5mg

    TRUWILD Black Pepper

    Increase the effectiveness of your pre-workout with black pepper.

    The fifth and final trademarked ingredient in Motion is BioPerine, a potent black pepper fruit extract that’s standardized to contain at least 95% piperine.

    BioPerine is added to a variety of supplements to enhance bioavailability, absorption, and effectiveness. BioPerine’s absorption-boosting properties are attributed to its high piperine content.

    BioPerine has been shown to increase the uptake of herbal extracts, vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, and amino acids.[25]

    The extract’s possible mechanisms of action include increased blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract, enhanced emulsifying content in the gut, and increased active nutrient transport.[25] TRUWILD wants you to get the most out of Motion, so adding 5 milligrams of BioPerine was a good decision.

TRUWILD Motion Flavor Variations

Motion is naturally flavored and sweetened with a combination of stevia leaf extract and monk fruit extract. So for those who prefer products with natural sweeteners over artificial versions, Motion is a great option. Motion comes in light and refreshing flavors that are inspired by the outdoors, such as coconut raspberry, kiwi-melon, and pineapple mango.

Here’s an updated list of all available flavors for TRUWILD Motion:

    Fuel Your Wildest Adventures with TRUWILD

    If you’re an outdoor enthusiast who has a hard time finding a natural sports nutrition product to fuel your adventures, look no further than TRUWILD. Motion is a well-formulated pre-workout that has everything you need to stay outdoors for longer and perform at your peak. Based on the formula, we would argue that Motion is built more for the endurance outdoor athlete who needs an extra kick to fuel his or her intense and prolonged training sessions.

    “TRUWILD is about maximizing your true potential, using natural whole-food ingredients from the wild, while appreciating the outdoors and turning it into our playground.”

    -TRUWILD

    PricePlow is honored that TRUWILD allowed us to fully disclose Motion’s supplement facts panel and educate our readers on what makes this pre-workout and the brand so different from the rest of the sports nutrition industry. The majority of our content is mainly focused on supplements that boost performance in a gym setting. So it’s nice to highlight a different type of athlete, one who has needs, unlike the average gym bro or gal.

    It’s very apparent that Motion is just one piece of what TRUWILD has to offer, so be sure to head over to Truwild.com to see their full inventory of products! Subscribe below for more TRUWILD news, reviews, interviews, and deals from PricePlow.

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    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    About the Author: Heather Jacques

    Heather Jacques

    Heather Jacques, AT, ATC, has a Bachelors of Science in Exercise Science with an emphasis in Athletic Training. She is a researcher, athletic trainer, and fitness enthusiast who is PricePlow’s Digital Content Manager. Heather constantly stays up to date with the latest scientific literature in order to provide the best information for the readers.

    Heather’s goal is to educate, empower, and give people the tools to reach their fitness and health related goals. There are far too many myths out there and Heather is here to provide the truth.

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    References

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    2. Beneo. Accessed Oct. 2020. “Palatinose.” https://www.beneo.com/ingredients/human-nutrition/functional-carbohydrates/palatinose
    3. Wax, B. et al. Mar. 2015. “Effects of Supplemental Citrulline Malate Ingestion During Repeated Bouts of Lower-Body Exercise in Advanced Weightlifters.” The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research vol. 29, 3; 786-92. https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/fulltext/2015/03000/Effects_of_Supplemental_Citrulline_Malate.29.aspx
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    6. Schwedhelm, E. et al. 2008. “Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of Oral L-Citrulline and L-Arginine: Impact on Nitric Oxide Metabolism.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology vol. 65,1; 51-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2291275/
    7. Morita, M. et al. Nov. 2014. “Oral Supplementation with a Combination of L-Citrulline and L-Arginine Rapidly Increases Plasma L-Arginine Concentration and Enhances NO Bioavailability.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications vol. 454,1; 53-57. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006291X14018178#b0080
    8. Suzuki, T. et al. Feb. 2017. “The Effects on Plasma L-arginine Levels of Combined Oral L-Citrulline and L-Arginine Supplementation in Healthy Males.” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry vol. 81,2; 372-375. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27667025/
    9. Suzuki, I. et al. May 2019. “A Combination of Oral L-Citrulline and L-Arginine Improved 10-min Full-Power Cycling Test Performance in Male Collegiate Soccer Players: A Randomized Crossover Trial.” European Journal of Applied Physiology vol. 119,5; 1075-1084. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30847640/
    10. Domínguez, R. et al. Jan. 2017. “Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Athletes. A Systematic Review.” Nutrients vol. 9,1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5295087/
    11. Domínguez, R. et al. Jan. 2018. “Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Intermittent High-Intensity Exercise Efforts.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 15, 2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5756374/
    12. M. Saat, et al. Mar. 2002. “Rehydration After Exercise with Fresh Coconut Water, Carbohydrate-Electrolyte Beverage and Plain Water.” Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science vol. 21, 2; 93-104. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12056182
    13. Ismail, I. et al. July 2007. “Rehydration with Sodium-Enriched Coconut Water After Exercise-Induced Dehydration.” The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health vol. 38,4; 769-85. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17883020/
    14. Ammar, A. et al. Oct. 2016. “Pomegranate Supplementation Accelerates Recovery of Muscle Damage and Soreness and Inflammatory Markers after a Weightlifting Training Session.” PLOS One vol. 11,10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5072630/
    15. Hirsch, K. et al. Sept. 2015. “Chronic Supplementation of a Mushroom Blend on Oxygen Kinetics, Peak Power, and Time to Exhaustion.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 12, Supp. 1; 45. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594151/
    16. Anderson Advanced Ingredients. Accessed Oct. 2020. “VegiSurge.” http://www.andersonglobalgroup.com/products/vegisurge.php
    17. Ganio, M. et al. Jan. 2009. “Effect of Caffeine on Sport-Specific Endurance Performance: A Systematic Review.” The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research vol. 23,1; 315-24. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jennifer_Klau/publication/23658597_Effect_of_Caffeine_on_Sport-Specific_Endurance_Performance_A_Systematic_Review/links/5a0f1fa1aca27287ce2732c7/Effect-of-Caffeine-on-Sport-Specific-Endurance-Performance-A-Systematic-Review.pdf
    18. Owen, G et al. Aug. 2008. “The Combined Effects of L-theanine and Caffeine on Cognitive Performance and Mood.” Nutritional Neuroscience vol. 11,4; 193-8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18681988/
    19. Giesbrecht, T. Dec. 2010. “The Combination of L-Theanine and Caffeine Improves Cognitive Performance and Increases Subjective Alertness.” Nutritional Neuroscience vol. 13,6; 283-90. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21040626/
    20. Pradeep, N. et al. 2006. “The Neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): A Possible Neuroprotective and Cognitive Enhancing Agent.” Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy vol. 6,2; 21-30. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17182482/
    21. Chacko, S. et al. Apr. 2010. “Beneficial Effect of Green Tea: A Literature Review.” Chinese Medicine vol. 5,13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2855614/
    22. Jowko, E. Accessed Oct. 2020. “Green Tea Catechins and Sports Performance.” In Antioxidants in Sports Nutrition. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK299060/
    23. Areta, J. et al. Apr. 2018. “Metabolic and Performance Effects of Yerba Mate on Well-trained Cyclists.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise vol. 50,4; 817-26. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29117073/
    24. Alkhatib, A. et al. Aug. 2017. “Yerba Maté (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise.” Nutrients vol. 9,8; 882. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579675/
    25. Sabinsa Corporation. Accessed Oct. 2020. “BioPerine.” https://sabinsa.com/products-from-sabinsa/131-bioperine

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