Upgrade Your Mentality with 5% Nutrition’s Mentality Nootropic

Rich Piana 5% Nutrition Mentality Nootropic Dream Big

Rich Piana would want you to become the best version of yourself. Don’t disappoint him or yourself!

In the worldview of legendary bodybuilder Rich Piana, only 5% of the planet has the drive, determination, and discipline to truly fulfill their dreams. It was for the sake of this 5% that he founded 5% Nutrition. Piana wanted to produce supplements of the highest efficacy and purity for that driven 5% to use while they pursue their mental and physical goals.

Sadly, Rich Piana left us too soon, passing away at the young age of 46. In honor of his memory, the team at 5% Nutrition continues to expand the company’s product line with fantastic new offerings. We know that Rich himself would be proud of their work, which has kept 5% Nutrition on the industry map as a premium supplement line.

The Mentality Nootropic from 5% Nutrition

Some might be surprised to find a bodybuilder’s supplement line producing nootropics, but it actually makes perfect sense. In recent years, many of us have come to appreciate the importance and depth of the mind-body connection.

5% Nutrition Mentality Nootropic

Get ready to get into the right Mentality

Our body’s own nootropic compounds like acetylcholine and its precursors can directly improve certain aspects of physical performance, such as balance and coordination. It turns out that acetylcholine and its precursors are strongly targeted by Mentality.

The other reason this supplement makes sense is because getting after it day-after-day in the gym takes a lot of focus and motivation. A properly formulated nootropic supplement can definitely help you keep at your grind on the days when you don’t feel like it at all.

And of course, even those of us who lift weights have plenty of goals outside the gym, whether professional, intellectual, or artistic. We understand that if supplementation is a worthwhile strategy for supporting our athletic objectives, it’s worth considering as a strategy to support our other ambitions as well.

Rich Piana 5% Nutrition Mentality – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.


In a single two-capsule serving of Mentality Nootropic from 5% Nutrition, you get the following:

  • Mind Over Matter Mental Power Blend – 409mg

    • Panax Ginseng (root) extract

      5% Nutrition Mentality Ingredients

      It’s another monster formula — Mentality has been upgraded to the white “Legendary” series labels!

      Ginseng is an adaptogen,meaning it helps to normalize the body’s hormonal and metabolic processes. has been shown to have anti-fatigue, anti-anxiety, and antidepressant effects. Additionally, it can decrease reaction times[1,2] and optimize working memory, mathematical ability, and attention switching.[3]

    • L-Phenylalanine

      Phenylalanine, an essential amino acid, is one of the precursors for tyrosine,[4] an amino acid that helps the body produce catecholamines and neurotransmitters like dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline.[5] All of this can help you get in “the zone.”

    • Theacrine (as TeaCrine)

      There’s good evidence that the incredibly long-lasting theacrine can increase mental and physical energy.[6] This isn’t surprising since theacrine is a “chemical cousin” to caffeine,[7] which blocks adenosine receptors just like caffeine does.[8] Theacrine also stimulates dopamine receptors,[7] that help with motivation and focus.


      Theacrine is similar to caffeine, but definitely not the same, providing a possibly far longer lasting effect.

    • Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)

      Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) can help astrocytes (a certain type of glial cell) take in more glutamine,[9,10] which ultimately raises glutathione levels in neurons by 40%.[9] It also increases reuptake of acetylcholine, also called “the learning neurotransmitter” (and discussed below in the section with the choline sources) because of its central role in learning and memory consolidation.[11]

    • Ginkgo Biloba

      Generally, this herb is used for memory enhancement, due to its ability to improve long-term potentiation,[12] But in a 2018 meta-analysis, ginkgo biloba extracts were shown to also help prevent cognitive decline[13] and reduce anxiety.[14]

    • Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica)

      Rich Piana 5% Nutrition Mentality Nootropic Ginkgo Biloba

      The leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree are as beautiful and compelling as its extract is good for your brain

      Gotu kola has been shown to decrease anxiety, stimulate neurogenesis (the process by which the brain creates new neurons), and promote the growth of dendrites and axons in brain cells (strengthens connections between neurons and increases neural efficiency).[15-18]

    • L-Theanine

      Sourced from green tea leaves, theanine actually functions as a neurotransmitter in the brain[19] and produces feelings of relaxation without sedation[20] — the best of both worlds. Theanine also has synergistic effects with caffeine,[21] another ingredient in Mentality.

    • Huperzia serrata (contains 1% huperzine A)

      Huperzine A, the main bioactive constituent of Huperzia serrata, has been shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine.[22] Because of acetylcholine’s central role in learning and memory consolidation, this translates to faster learning.

  • PsychoStim Adder-All-In Energy Burst – 310 mg

    • InnovaTea Natural Caffeine (Camellia sinensis tea extract) – Std. to 98% caffeine

      Rich Piana Positivity

      Stay positive, Rich Piana and 5% Nutrition are here to get you to the moon!

      Caffeine is as straightforwardly nootropic as it gets. It improves reaction

      times,[23] attention,[23,24] and alertness.[24] Researchers describe caffeine as “an effective strategy to maintain physical and cognitive capabilities” while under duress.[24] There’s also some evidence to suggest that caffeine increases working memory,[25] which is the primary factor in “fluid intelligence” that declines with age.

    • Infinergy DiCaffeine Malate

      With dicaffeine malate, you’re getting all the usual benefits of generic caffeine, except that, theoretically, metabolism of the caffeine molecule is “buffered” by malic acid, resulting in a longer, smoother action without nearly as much of a “caffeine crash.” We haven’t seen great research validating this theory, but there’s support for it anecdotally after years of use.

    • Cocoa seed Extract

      5 Percent Nutrition Full as F*CK

      Stack this with 5 Percent Nutrition’s Full as F*CK, which also got a Legendary upgrade to include 5 grams of L-Citrulline and more!

      Likely due to its high content of polyphenol antioxidants and methylxanthines, such as caffeine and theobromine, cocoa has been shown to acutely benefit cognitive function. In one study, healthy young adults did better on verbal memory tests after eating dark chocolate.[26] Because of its ability to promote healthy brain aging, some researchers have proposed using cocoa extracts as therapeutics in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.[27]

    • Guarana (Paullinia cupana) seed extract

      Subjects given extracts of guarana typically show improved cognitive performance. In one study, people given guarana were significantly faster in completing tasks related to memory and attention.[28] Guarana even outperformed Panax ginseng in this study,[28] which is impressive given ginseng’s widely accepted credentials as a nootropic substance.

    • Theobromine

      As mentioned above, theobromine is one of the methylxanthines, and a close cousin of caffeine. Like caffeine, it inhibits phosphodiesterase and adenosine, which reduces feelings of fatigue and increases alertness, but has a longer half-life.[29-31] So it lasts longer and the crash is not as intense.

  • Lucid Focus Neurotransmission Blend

    This is where we get our choline sources and a choline booster. Note that on the top of the label, we can see that we are getting 7% RDA of choline, so there’s definitely more you can get — either check out 5% Nutrition’s Core Line or eat more eggs!

    • Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha-GPC)

      5 Percent Nutrition Mentality

      The artwork on this bottle deserves more attention!

      Choline is a B-vitamin that helps maintain cell membrane structure and integrity.[32] It’s the precursor to acetylcholine, which, as we mentioned above, is a neurotransmitter that plays a central role in learning and memory because of how it promotes neuron-to-neuron communication.[33] More choline means more acetylcholine, and more acetylcholine means better memory, learning, attention, and alertness.[34,35]

      What’s special about Alpha-GPC is that, unlike more generic forms of choline, it easily crosses the blood-brain barrier[36] and is more bioavailable.

    • Choline Bitartrate

      Choline bitartrate is a more generic form of choline, but with a higher yield of choline. Supplementation with this nutrient has been shown to improve visuomotor performance.[37]

    • Dimethylaminoethanol bitartrate (DMAE)

      There’s not a lot of great evidence that DMAE does anything for human cognition, but it’s stacked here because of the way it interacts with choline. In animal models, DMAE has been observed to spare choline metabolized in peripheral tissues, thus freeing up more choline for the central nervous system.[38] In a study on humans, DMAE basically functioned as a mood stabilizer, helping people with borderline emotional disturbance feel better.[39] The interesting thing about the human study is researchers used an EEG to show that DMAE had a positive effect on electrical brain wave activity.[39]

  • Added Vitamins

    Rich ain’t done yet:

    • Vitamin B-6 (as Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) – 12 mg (706% DV)

      Rich Piana Bald Eagle

      Heil to the true king of sports nutrition, who had some of the best skin in the industry!

      Vitamin B-6 is a precursor for various coenzymes in the body, which are involved in hundreds of different metabolic reactions and crucial for energy production throughout the body, including the brain.[40]

      Among these coenzymes are pyridoxal 5′ phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5′ phosphate (PMP0), which are crucial for optimal protein metabolism.[40] Since neurotransmitters are basically synthesized from dietary protein,[41] it’s actually not surprising to see vitamin B-6 included in a nootropic formula.

      Vitamin B-6 is also important for hemoglobin synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis,[40] all of which are important for supplying energy to the brain.

      The extremely large dose of B-6 is no cause for concern because as with all the other B vitamins, B-6 is water soluble and any excess will simply and harmlessly be eliminated from the body.

    • Vitamin B-12 (as Methylcobalamin) – 1250 mcg (52,000% DV)

      5% Nutrition All Day You May

      LEGENDARY Status: 5% Nutrition’s All Day You May is moving to the white tub, but the formula is mostly unchanged. See how Rich Piana shattered the industry with this supplement, especially with that Southern Sweet Tea flavor!

      One of our litmus tests for gauging how much a supplement company really cares about product quality is by looking at which form of B-12 they use. Methylcobalamin is objectively superior to the other main B-12 vitamer, cyanocobalamin. Not only because it’s more bioavailable, but also because it’s bound to a methyl group, which must be present for B-12 to fully participate in the metabolic processes that make supplementation with this vitamin worth it in the first place.

      Specifically, methylated B-12 is the vitamer that participates in the methionine-homocysteine cycle. It’s a process in which homocysteine is methylated and converted into methionine, an essential amino acid that’s one of its precursors. This is important because too much homocysteine can cause inflammation and cardiovascular disease, and eventually, cognitive dysfunction[42] — exactly what any good nootropic supplement should prevent.

      As with B-6, vitamin B-12 is water soluble, so there’s little need to worry about overdose.

Stacking for Workouts: Look at Full as F*(K and ALL DAY YOU MAY

5% Nutrition Stage Ready

Are you stage ready? Get there with a diuretic that actually replaces lost electrolytes!

If you’re training with Mentality, you’ll want to avoid a stimmed up pre workout like Kill It, Kill It Reloaded, or 5150. You can, however, add in Rich Piana’s Full As F*ck Pump Pre Workout for some insane pumps to drive next to this, and drink ALL DAY YOU MAY while training )(and for the rest of the day).

Also, dieters can consider adding in the stimulant-free Stage Ready weight loss aid and natural diuretic.

Conclusion: The Do-it-All Energy Nootropic

Mentality takes a kind of “kitchen sink” approach to nootropic activity, given the huge range of ingredients in its multiple proprietary blends. But a common denominator in many of these ingredients is their activity on the cholinergic system, which includes acetylcholine. Targeting acetylcholine is an awesome strategy for boosting cognitive performance, and one of the best-attested to in the research literature.

This is the latest in several supplements that have shifted from the original black bottles to the new white “Legendary” bottles. As we continue to cover these formulas and flavors, you can sign up for our 5% Nutrition news alerts below:

Rich Piana 5% Nutrition Mentality – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

About the Author: PricePlow Staff

PricePlow Staff

PricePlow is a team of supplement industry veterans that include medical students, competitive strength athletes, and scientific researchers who all became involved with dieting and supplements out of personal need.

The team's collective experiences and research target athletic performance and body composition goals, relying on low-toxicity meat-based diets.

No Comments | Posted in , | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .


  1. Reay JL, Scholey AB, Kennedy DO; “Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adults”; Hum Psychopharmacol; 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20737519
  2. Attele AS, et al; “Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective component”; Diabetes; 2002; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12031973
  3. Neale C, Camfield D, Reay J, Stough C, Scholey A.; “Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes”; Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75(3):728–737. doi:10.1111/bcp.12002; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575939/
  4. Shimomura, Akihiro et al. “Dietary L-lysine prevents arterial calcification in adenine-induced uremic rats.” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN vol. 25,9 (2014): 1954-65. doi:10.1681/ASN.2013090967 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC4147981/
  5. National Center for Biotechnology Information. “PubChem Compound Summary for CID 6140, Phenylalanine” PubChem, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Phenylalanine. Accessed 30 November, 2021.
  6. Bello, M.L., Walker, A.J., McFadden, B.A. et al. “The effects of TeaCrine and caffeine on endurance and cognitive performance during a simulated match in high-level soccer players”;J Int Soc Sports Nutr 16, 20 (2019); https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC6472067/
  7. Feduccia, Allison A., et al. “Locomotor Activation by Theacrine, a Purine Alkaloid Structurally Similar to Caffeine: Involvement of Adenosine and Dopamine Receptors.” Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, vol. 102, no. 2, 1 Aug. 2012, pp. 241–248, 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.04.014; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22579816/
  8. Qiao, Haoyi, et al. “Theacrine: A Purine Alkaloid from Camellia Assamica Var. Kucha with a Hypnotic Property via the Adenosine System.” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 659, 17 Oct. 2017, pp. 48–53, 10.1016/j.neulet.2017.08.063; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28864241/
  9. Kleinkauf-Rocha, J., Bobermin, L. D., Machado, P. de M., Gonçalves, C.-A., Gottfried, C., & Quincozes-Santos, A. (2013). Lipoic acid increases glutamate uptake, glutamine synthetase activity and glutathione content in C6 astrocyte cell line. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 31(3), 165–170. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286972
  10. Wang, S.-J., & Chen, H.-H. (2007). Presynaptic mechanisms underlying the α-lipoic acid facilitation of glutamate exocytosis in rat cerebral cortex nerve terminals. Neurochemistry International, 50(1), 51–60. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0197018606002385
  11. Freitas, R. M., Jordán, J., & Feng, D. (2010). Lipoic acid effects on monoaminergic system after pilocarpine-induced seizures. Neuroscience Letters, 477(3), 129–133. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20433896
  12. Bazan, N. G. “The Neuromessenger Platelet-Activating Factor in Plasticity and Neurodegeneration.” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 118, 1998, pp. 281–291, 10.1016/s0079-6123(08)63215-x. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9932449/
  13. Savaskan, Egemen, et al. “Treatment Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract EGb 761 on the Spectrum of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” International Psychogeriatrics, vol. 30, no. 3, 21 Sept. 2017, pp. 285–293, 10.1017/s1041610217001892. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28931444/
  14. Woelk, H., et al. “Ginkgo Biloba Special Extract EGb 761 in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Adjustment Disorder with Anxious Mood: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 41, no. 6, Sept. 2007, pp. 472–480, 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.05.004. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16808927/
  15. Lokanathan Y, Omar N, Ahmad Puzi NN, Saim A, Hj Idrus R. Recent Updates in Neuroprotective and Neuroregenerative Potential of Centella asiatica. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences : MJMS. 2016;23(1):4-14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4975583/; Huebner EA, Strittmatter SM. Axon Regeneration in the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems. Results and problems in cell differentiation. 2009;48:339-351. doi:10.1007/400_2009_19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2846285/
  16. Satake T, Kamiya K, An Y, Oishi Nee Taka T, Yamamoto J. The anti-thrombotic active constituents from Centella asiatica. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30(5):935-940. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17473438
  17. Wijeweera P, Arnason JT, Koszycki D, Merali Z. Evaluation of anxiolytic properties of Gotukola–(Centella asiatica) extracts and asiaticoside in rat behavioral models. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(9-10):668-676. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2006.01.011. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16488124
  18. Wanasuntronwong A, Tantisira MH, Tantisira B, Watanabe H. Anxiolytic effects of standardized extract of Centella asiatica (ECa 233) after chronic immobilization stress in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143(2):579-585. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.07.010. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22841896
  19. Juneja, L. R., et al; “L-Theanine-a Unique Amino Acid of Green Tea and Its Relaxation Effect in Humans.;” Trends in Food Science & Technology; Elsevier; 17 Dec. 1999; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0924224499000448
  20. Lu, Kristy, et al; “The Acute Effects OfL-Theanine in Comparison with Alprazolam on Anticipatory Anxiety in Humans.”; Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental; vol. 19; no. 7; 2004; pp. 457–465; https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:284103
  21. Haskell, C F, et al; “The Effects of L-Theanine, Caffeine and Their Combination on Cognition and Mood.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Feb. 2008; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18006208
  22. Qian ZM., Ke Y. Aug. 2014. “Huperzine A: Is it an Effective Disease-Modifying Drug for Alzheimer’s Disease?” Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 6:216 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4137276/
  23. Kahathuduwa CN, Dassanayake TL, Amarakoon AMT, Weerasinghe VS. Acute effects of theanine, caffeine and theanine-caffeine combination on attention. Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Jul;20(6):369-377. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2016.1144845. Epub 2016 Feb 12. PMID: 26869148. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26869148/
  24. McLellan TM, Caldwell JA, Lieberman HR. A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016 Dec;71:294-312. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.09.001. Epub 2016 Sep 6. PMID: 27612937. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27612937/
  25. Klaassen EB, de Groot RH, Evers EA, Snel J, Veerman EC, Ligtenberg AJ, Jolles J, Veltman DJ. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged males. Neuropharmacology. 2013 Jan;64:160-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.06.026. Epub 2012 Jun 21. PMID: 22728314. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22728314/
  26. Lamport DJ, Christodoulou E, Achilleos C. Beneficial Effects of Dark Chocolate for Episodic Memory in Healthy Young Adults: A Parallel-Groups Acute Intervention with a White Chocolate Control. Nutrients. 2020 Feb 14;12(2):483. doi: 10.3390/nu12020483. PMID: 32075015; PMCID: PMC7071338. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32075015/
  27. Dubner L, Wang J, Ho L, Ward L, Pasinetti GM. Recommendations for Development of New Standardized Forms of Cocoa Breeds and Cocoa Extract Processing for the Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease: Role of Cocoa in Promotion of Cognitive Resilience and Healthy Brain Aging. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;48(4):879-89. doi: 10.3233/JAD-150536. PMID: 26402120. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26402120/
  28. Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004 Nov;79(3):401-11. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2004.07.014. PMID: 15582012. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15582012/
  29. Zandvliet, Anthe S., et al. “Population Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine and Its Metabolites Theobromine, Paraxanthine and Theophylline after Inhalation in Combination with Diacetylmorphine.” Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, vol. 96, no. 1, 1 Jan. 2005, pp. 71–79, 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2005.pto960111.x; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15667599/
  30. Drouillard, D. D., et al. “Studies on Theobromine Disposition in Normal Subjects. Alterations Induced by Dietary Abstention from or Exposure to Methylxanthines.” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 23, no. 3, 1 Mar. 1978, pp. 296–302, 10.1002/cpt1978233296; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/627135/
  31. Tarka, S. M., et al. “Theobromine Kinetics and Metabolic Disposition.” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 34, no. 4, 1 Oct. 1983, pp. 546–555, 10.1038/clpt.1983.212; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6617078/
  32. Sanders LM, Zeisel SH; “Choline: Dietary Requirements and Role in Brain Development;” Nutrition today; 2007;42(4):181-186; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518394/
  33. Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al.; “Neuroscience;” 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001. Acetylcholine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11143/
  34. Hasselmo ME; “The role of acetylcholine in learning and memory;”Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006;16(6):710–715; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2659740/
  35. Jones BE; “From waking to sleeping: neuronal and chemical substrates”. Trends Pharmacol. Sci.; 2005; 26 (11): 578–86; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16183137
  36. Marcus L, et al; “Evaluation of the effects of two doses of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on physical and psychomotor performance;” J Int Soc Sports Nutr; 2017;14:39; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5629791/
  37. Naber, M., Hommel, B. & Colzato, L. Improved human visuomotor performance and pupil constriction after choline supplementation in a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Sci Rep 5, 13188 (2015). https://www.nature.com/articles/srep13188
  38. Haubrich DR, Gerber NH, Pflueger AB. Deanol affects choline metabolism in peripheral tissues of mice. J Neurochem. 1981 Aug;37(2):476-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.1981.tb00480.x. PMID: 7264671. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7264671/
  39. Dimpfel W, Wedekind W, Keplinger I. Efficacy of dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) containing vitamin-mineral drug combination on EEG patterns in the presence of different emotional states. Eur J Med Res. 2003 May 30;8(5):183-91. PMID: 12844472. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12844472/
  40. National Institutes of Health. “Vitamin B6 – Fact Sheet For Health Professionals.” Office of Dietary Supplements; Accessed Sept. 2020. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB6-HealthProfessional/
  41. Choi S, Disilvio B, Fernstrom MH, Fernstrom JD. Meal ingestion, amino acids and brain neurotransmitters: effects of dietary protein source on serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates. Physiol Behav. 2009 Aug 4;98(1-2):156-62. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.05.004. Epub 2009 May 18. PMID: 19454292. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19454292/
  42. Troen A, Rosenberg I. Homocysteine and cognitive function. Semin Vasc Med. 2005 May;5(2):209-14. doi: 10.1055/s-2005-872406. PMID: 16047273. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16047273/

Comments and Discussion (Powered by the PricePlow Forum)