Klout KAIO: Klout’s Final Destination Pre-Workout at GNC

Klout has officially stormed the gates of the supplement industry, with a frenzy of supplement releases that can only be called an onslaught. PricePlow’s brand to watch in 2023 is on a tear for their sophomore season, and up until now, they haven’t even released their biggest and most aggressive label!

The big reveal is upon us — after comparing updated versions of their two original pre-workouts, Mamba and Karma (Mamba is high-energy, Karma is high-nootropic), Klout is putting out a third pre-workout — and this one hits all of the notes:

Klout KAIO

Klout KAIO is Klout’s Level 9000 pre-workout that will be exclusive to GNC!

KAIO: Klout’s Final Destination Pre-Workout

Klout KAIO is Klout’s Level 9000 style pre-workout supplement, built to bring speed, power, mental acuity, and top-level strength to your workout game. This formula bombards you with eight different trademarked ingredients, providing focus, power, and high energy levels.

And what’s not to love about this branding?! KAIO’s labels are, for lack of a better word, downright insane. There are 25 servings per tub, and each single-scoop serving has 382 milligrams of caffeine, just so you know how this beast’s dialed in. But there’s no citrulline inside – this one’s all about nitrates for pumps.

So if nothing else, you can expect some slightly different flavoring, as Klout is able to get away from flavor systems that citrulline supplements sometimes get pigeonholed into. It launches exclusively at GNC, and is sure to shake the shelves up.

In this article, we do a massive ingredient formulation breakdown for KAIO, and showcase a cool new form of Alpha-GPC that we think other brands will be copying. Let’s dig in, but first, sign up for PricePlow’s Klout news alerts so you get notified when there are updates on the product or from the brand:

Klout KAIO – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

This area is reserved for Team PricePlow's upcoming videos.

Subscribe to our channel and sign up for notifications so you catch it when it goes live!

Subscribe to PricePlow on YouTube!

Klout KAIO Ingredients

In a single 1 scoop (13.2 gram) serving of KAIO Pre-Workout, you get the following:

  • PWR Performance Max

    Klout Kaio Ingredients

    The ingredients in this section were chosen for their ergogenic effects – an ergogenic aid is defined as a substance or technique that can improve athletic performance. The ingredients in Klout’s PWR Performance Max blend will help you push the limits of your physical performance in the gym.

    • Beta Alanine – 3,200 mg

      Beta alanine is one of the supplement industry’s go-to endurance boosters. It combines with an amino acid called L-histidine to form carnosine, a dipeptide molecule that concentrates in muscle tissue, where it helps your muscles buffer (remove) lactic acid.[1] The reason this matters is that lactic acid, a metabolic byproduct generated during both aerobic and anaerobic exercise, causes fatigue as it builds up.

      Decreasing the concentration of lactic acid in your muscles at any given time is a viable strategy for increasing athletic endurance – and that’s exactly what beta alanine supplementation does by upregulating carnosine.

      The reason we supplement with the beta alanine precursor to carnosine, rather than carnosine itself, is that carnosine’s oral bioavailability is relatively low. This makes oral carnosine supplementation inefficient – beta alanine’s bioavailability is much higher, so it’s a better route for increasing your body’s level of carnosine.

      Histidine supplementation is generally not necessary for optimizing carnosine levels, thanks to the abundance of histidine in common foods (but you can still get more in Klout Aminos). Beta alanine, however, is harder to come by in diet, and is the rate-limiting factor in carnosine production.[2,3] So that’s what we supplement.

      According to two big meta-analyses on beta alanine supplementation, which examined over 40 different peer-reviewed studies, beta alanine is best at increasing endurance during aerobic exercise that can be sustained for 30 seconds to 10 minutes.[4,5] In simpler terms, this means beta alanine is a potentially great supplement choice for maximizing high-intensity interval training (HIIT) performance.

      The 3,200 milligram dose used in KAIO is great – this dose has been repeatedly verified by research as efficacious.


      Most people who take beta alanine experience a tingling sensation, oftentimes in their face but sometimes in the torso or arms. Although this might feel a little weird, don’t be alarmed – research reviews on the safety profile of beta alanine have concluded this effect is benign, and beta alanine is safe for human consumption.[6]

    • Aquamin Soluble (as Seaweed derived calcium and magnesium, citric acid, malic acid) – 300 mg

      Carnosine Speed

      More carnosine, more speed.[7] Now how do we get more carnosine? (Beta alanine!)

      Aquamin Soluble is a mineral blend that was designed to solve a specific problem: the poor bioavailability of mineral supplements (particularly calcium).

      By combining the seaweed-extracted minerals with organic acids, Klout’s use of Aquamin is helping to make those minerals much more water soluble – thus improving your body’s ability to absorb those minerals.

      Aquamin consists mostly of calcium, but also contains a decent amount of magnesium,[8] a mineral that’s important for tons of metabolic processes including glycemic control and stress hormone regulation,[9,10] and trace minerals like manganese and boron. Manganese is good for joint health,[11] among other things, and boron is gaining recognition as a testosterone-optimizing supplement.[12]

      Aquamin is in KAIO mostly to help provide electrolyte support, since we tend to lose electrolytes in sweat during tough workouts – but some Aquamin-specific studies have found it can also support bones and joints,[8,13] which are potentially at risk of injury during strenuous exercise.

    • Caffeine Anhydrous – 300 mg (of 382.5 total mg caffeine)

      Next up is another solid pre-workout mainstay – caffeine. Here’s where Klout earns its stripes, pushing the caffeine dose higher than their Karma nootropic pre-workout, and just a touch less than their Mamba pre-workout (see our article on Mamba vs Karma).

      Most of us have have personally experienced caffeine’s renowned anti-fatigue effects, which are caused by caffeine’s antagonism of adenosine, a nucleotide that builds up in the brain while you’re awake and signals sleep onset to your body.[14,15]

      Klout KAIO

      Just take a look at this tub!

      But besides fighting fatigue, caffeine can give you more energy in the most literal possible sense of the word – by increasing cellular energy production. Caffeine does this by inhibiting an enzyme called phosphodiesterase, which is responsible for breaking down cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).[14,15]

      Since cAMP tells your cells to burn sugar and fat for energy,[16] more cAMP through caffeine use means a faster metabolism. Caffeine is especially good at increasing your body’s rate of fat burning – one study found that it can do this by an impressive 50%.[17]

      All of this adds up to a boost in strength, endurance, and power.[18]

      Nootropic effects – dopamine, focus, motivation

      This revving up of whole-body metabolism is what makes caffeine a powerful ergogenic aid, capable of boosting not just athletic but also cognitive performance.

      Studies also consistently show that caffeine can speed up reaction times, improve your ability to pay attention, and increase vigilance.[19] Caffeine can even increase working memory.[20]

      Caffeine does all of this in large part because it’s dopaminergic, meaning it upregulates dopamine production and signaling.[21] Dopamine is basically the focus and motivation neurotransmitter, which makes caffeine a great ingredient for helping you push yourself through tough workouts.

      Note that the total caffeine content in 1 serving of KAIO is ~382 mg. This is a fairly large dose – if you aren’t sure whether you can handle it, consult a doctor and start with half of a scoop.

      This leads us to a little bit more information:

      Strength effects at higher doses
      High Dose Caffeine Performance

      Known since 1991, very high dose caffeine can seriously boost performance.[22] As you can see, it’s quite variable amongst users – future research would show that caffeine’s effects depend on your genotype.

      As mentioned in our Mamba vs. Karma article, like with Mamba, we’re close to the point where there’s quite a bit of data on caffeine helping with physical strength, performance, and endurance, depending on your body weight.

      With as little as 3 milligrams of caffeine per kilogram of body weight per day, which we’re definitely beyond with KAIO, we’ve seen modest athletic performance and focus gains with fewer errors.[23-25]

      But when you’re at 5-9 milligrams of caffeine per kilogram body weight, which we’ll be close to depending on how big you are, we’ve seen significant increases in top-line power, endurance, and overall strength.[22,26-37]

    • ElevATP (as Ancient Peat Extract and Apple Extract) – 150 mg

      Next up is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) precursor in elevATP. It consists of special polyphenols extracted from ancient peat and apples that have been identified for their ability to upregulate your body’s endogenous adenosine ATP production.[38]

      ATP is the energy your body uses to do everything – everything – you ask it to do. If your body were a car, ATP would be the gas. Because your muscles are powered by ATP like everything else in your body, your body’s supply of ATP is one potential bottleneck on athletic performance. That’s why ingredients like ElevATP, which increase your body’s supply of ATP, can improve performance.

      ElevATP Bioactive Components

      ElevATP doesn’t contain ATP, but instead has many compounds that can support your body’s production of ATP.[39]

      In one study from 2016, participants who took 150 mg of ElevATP for two months gained more barbell squat and deadlift strength, and vertical jump speed and power, than the placebo group.[40]

      The authors of the study point out that increased muscle cell function is not the only mechanism here – ATP upregulation is also known to cause significant vasodilation, which can improve performance and recovery by improving nutrient delivery and waste removal.[40]

    • Theobromine – 150 mg

      More energy incoming! Theobromine, like its close cousin caffeine, is a methylxanthine alkaloid. It’s a stimulant, vasodilator, and bronchodilator (it opens up your airways).[41]

      Klout KAIO Benefits

      Its mechanisms of action are similar to caffeine’s – like caffeine, theobromine inhibits phosphodiesterase, thus boosting cAMP levels[42] and revving up your cells’ metabolic function.[43,44]

      Although caffeine is somewhat of a vasodilator, theobromine is much better at relaxing smooth muscle than caffeine,[45] and can actually reduce blood pressure and heart rate despite being a stimulant.[46]

      Theobromine is actually so good at triggering vasodilation that when given in combination with caffeine, it can cancel out caffeine’s hypertensive effect,[46] giving you the ergogenic upside of caffeine with substantially less cardiovascular downside. This is the main reason why we’re seeing theobromine paired with caffeine more and more frequently in pre-workout formulas like KAIO.

      Theobromine’s vasodilatory effects are mediated by its ability to upregulate nitric oxide (NO).[47] It also has a longer half-life than caffeine, meaning it can help mitigate the withdrawal effects of caffeine tapering off.[48]

    • Infinergy (as Dicaffeine Malate yielding 75% Caffeine) – 110 mg (yielding 82.5 of 382.5 total mg caffeine)

      Dicaffeine malate is a caffeine molecule bound to malic acid (malate). It’s a slower-acting form of caffeine, thanks to the buffering effect of the chemical bond between its two constituent molecules. Because it’s absorbed more slowly, it has a flatter energy curve – your serum caffeine level won’t peak as quickly with dicaffeine malate, but it will stay elevated longer than it would with anhydrous.

      Stacking anhydrous caffeine with dicaffeine malate is an increasingly common strategy among supplement formulators for minimizing withdrawal symptoms as the anhydrous caffeine is eliminated from your bloodstream through liver detoxification. This helps give the user the best of both worlds – an immediate energy boost from the anhydrous, without the energy crash that can follow a large dose of caffeine anyhdrous.

      Klout KAIO at GNC

      Other than that, this is just more caffeine – you’ll get all the usual benefits[48-51] that we discussed in the caffeine anhydrous section.

      Note again that the overall caffeine content in 1 serving of KAIO is ~382 mg.

    • Pink Himalayan Salt – 100 mg

      Sodium from pink Himalayan salt is present for additional electrolyte support. As we touched on in the Aquamin section, we tend to lose a lot of electrolytes in sweat during tough workouts – sodium being the biggest loss, making some kind of additional salt intake a generally good idea.

      Klout PWR Burn, PWR Off, and Aminos

      Klout PWR Burn, PWR Off, and Aminos have their labels shown on PricePlow before their launch!

      Pink Himalayan salt also contains trace amounts of some other minerals, too – but it’s mostly sodium.

      Although sodium gets a bad rap, it is, again, an electrolyte mineral, meaning we need it for optimal muscle function, as well as peak performance and recovery.[49] Excessive sodium loss can impair all of the above.[50]

      A 100 mg dose of pink Himalayan salt works out to about 40 milligrams of sodium – not enough that anyone cutting sodium would worry about, but still useful for electrolyte support. However – note that we’re also getting some sodium from sodium nitrate, which we’ll discuss at the end of this article, bringing the total sodium content of KAIO up to 171 mg (7% DV).

  • PWR Focus Max

    Good workouts aren’t just physical – there’s a mental side we need to think of, too. Focus, motivation, and energy are all key for crushing a tough workout, and that’s exactly what the ingredients in Klout’s PWR Focus Max blend were selected to provide.

    • Taurine – 1,000 mg

      Next up is one of the industry’s superstar ingredients, and a PricePlow favorite: taurine. This is one of the most versatile and, gram-for-gram, effective ingredients on the nutritional supplement market.

      Much like caffeine, it’s an ergogenic aid, nootropic, and fat burner, but without the stimulant effects. In fact, as we’ll see, taurine is a great ingredient to stack with caffeine thanks to its complementary effects.

      Osmolyte – cellular hydration and endurance boosting
      Taurine Benefits

      Taurine’s Benefits (endurance-wise) can be seen after a single use![52]

      First and foremost, taurine is an osmolyte, a category of substances that affect the characteristics of biological fluids. More specifically, taurine affects the water balance of your body’s cells by increasing the osmotic pressure around those cells. This naturally forces a higher-than-normal amount of water into them, a state called cellular hyperhydration.[53]

      The extra water from cellular hyperhydration confers a number of key benefits. Not only does it help your cells assimilate water soluble nutrients, it also helps them get rid of metabolic waste more efficiently and improves their resistance to heat stress.[54]

      Cellular hyperhydration helps your cells work harder for longer, which translates to an improvement in athletic performance – aerobic and anaerobic endurance in particular. According to a 2018 meta-analysis on taurine, a single 1 gram dose taken immediately before exercise can significantly improve athletic endurance.[52]

      Taurine Endurance

      Taurine’s effect on endurance, with success in doses anywhere from 1 gram to 6 grams.[52]

      Brain booster

      Taurine is also a potent antioxidant,[55,56] and is especially good at protecting your all-important mitochondria from oxidative stress. As one study puts it, taurine can help protect “against pathologies associated with mitochondrial defects, such as aging, mitochondrial diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders.”[57]

      Taurine is also GABAergic, meaning it has the calming, inhibitory effect on neurons as the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABAergic compounds like taurine can have a calming effect on your mood,[58] and taurine in particular can reduce neural inflammation,[58] which is a huge potential benefit.

      Returning to the mitochondrial side of things, taurine has been shown to trigger mitochondrial biogenesis – the creation of new mitochondria – in brain tissue.[51]

      Taurine is also dopaminergic, helping improve the viability and performance of dopamine-producing neurons.[59,60]

      As you can see, taurine is neuroprotective in several important ways, which can help you find the focus and motivation you need to get through your workout, while also helping prevent the drop in cognitive function that typically follows exhaustive exercise.

      Mechanistically, its GABAergic and antihypertensive[55] effects make it an awesome ingredient to stack with caffeine, helping you reap the benefits of a large caffeine dose without totally shocking your system.

      Body composition – fat burner

      As if all that weren’t enough, taurine helps you burn fat and stay lean too! The ingredient has been shown to convert your body’s white adipose tissue (WAT) to brown adipose tissue (BAT).[61,62]

      Taurine Browning of Fat

      Taurine can induce the browning of fat,[63] which is important because brown fat is more mitochondrial-dense and metabolically active!

      WAT and BAT are your body’s two basic types of adipose (fat) tissue, the difference between them being mitochondrial density – BAT has way more mitochondria compared to WAT, meaning it’s more metabolically active. Unlike WAT, BAT burns significant amounts of calories.

      BAT burns calories through a process called non-shivering thermogenesis (NST), in which energy substrates like glucose and fatty acids get burned for heat. NST is one of your body’s primary mechanisms for maintaining its core temperature in the face of significant cold exposure.

      The long and short of it is that the more BAT you have, the more calories you’ll burn in a day.[63] Obviously, burning extra calories through BAT upregulation can be very helpful if your goal is to get lean and stay lean.

      Because BAT causes your cells to take up more glucose and fatty acids for NST, it can lower the amount of glucose and fatty acids in your blood, which translates to better glycemic control, better cholesterol, and higher insulin sensitivity.[64]

      Taurine is a do-it-all ingredient

      Can you see why we love taurine so much? Taurine’s ability to improve both physical and mental performance makes it incredibly valuable. Its GABAergic and mitochondrial antioxidant properties not only enhance performance, but also have a positive effect on overall well-being. These mechanisms make it an excellent complement for the stimulating energy of caffeine, which is why taurine is commonly found in energy drinks.

      The last reason we love seeing taurine in pre-workouts is that the target market for these supplements is especially likely to benefit from taurine supplementation – taurine is conditionally essential, which means if you’re dieting and training hard (we’re guessing that’s many, if not most of our readers), your metabolic requirements for taurine will go up.[51,52,58]

    • L-Tyrosine – 1,000 mg

      There are 2 big reasons why tyrosine is an awesome pre-workout ingredient:

      Klout KAIO Boxed

      Get KAIO out of the box

      1. Tyrosine is also a precursor to important catecholamine neurotransmitters like dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline.[65-67] Upregulating these neurotransmitters through tyrosine supplementation can help improve focus, motivation, and energy, while also increasing your body’s rate of fat burning.[68]
      2. Tyrosine supports thyroid function. It’s a precursor to your body’s main thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).[69,70] This is useful in the context of a pre-workout because the two defining behaviors of gym rats – aggressive dieting and strenuous exercise – can hammer the thyroid pretty hard, upregulating stress hormones while downregulating thyroid metabolism.[71-73]

      The last reason tyrosine can improve performance – and hopefully this one doesn’t apply to you – is that it mitigates the effects of sleep deprivation. Research conducted by the U.S. Military suggests that tyrosine is more effective than caffeine, everybody’s favorite wakefulness-promoting compound, at restoring cognitive function during sleep deprivation.[74,75]

    • Alpha GPC 98% (as L-Alpha-Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline) – 600 mg

      Alpha GPC is a special form of choline, a B vitamin your body uses to build and maintain the phospholipid bilayer membranes that define the boundaries of your cells.[76] It’s also needed for many of the intercellular signaling functions carried out by those membranes.[77]

      Choline is also a precursor to acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that coordinates your brain’s ability to learn.[78] Upregulating acetylcholine through choline supplementation can significantly improve cognitive performance in multiple dimensions, but particularly in memory consolidation (your brain’s conversion of short-term memories to long-term memories).[79,80]

      AlphaGPC is an especially effective form of choline for this purpose, thanks to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier[81] more effectively than ordinary choline.

    • CognatiQ (as Whole Coffee Fruit Extract (Coffea arabica) (Fruit)) – 150 mg

      CognatiQ, previously known as NeuroFactor, is an ingredient that’s been around for a while – seasoned supplement consumers have probably encountered it before. It’s a coffee fruit extract that contains bioactive constituents capable of upregulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),[82] a neurotrophic protein.

      BDNF is useful because it increases the rate at which your brain generates new neurons and also because it promotes the growth of new connections between existing neurons.[83,84]

      In other words, the protein increases neuroplasticity, which is your brain’s capacity to physically remodel itself in response to learning. In adult brains, neurogenesis occurs primarily in the hippocampus, a brain region responsible for long-term potentiation (LTP)[85] – your brain’s process of memory consolidation, which we touched on in the Alpha-GPC section.

      Klout Supplements 2023

      Are you ready for an onslaught of epic supplements? Prepare for the final destination of pre-workouts from KLOUT

      Research consistently finds that cognitive performance directly correlates to serum BDNF concentration.[83-88] Upregulation of BDNF is neuroprotective, and can decrease one’s likelihood of developing neurodegenerative illnesses.[83,84,87,88] By the same token, low BDNF levels can increase one’s risk of these diseases.[88]

      Since exercise itself increases BDNF production,[86] putting BDNF-boosting ingredients like CognatiQ into pre-workouts is a good strategy for synergistically enhancing the brain benefits of working out.

      The 100 mg dose used in Klout KAIO has been validated as efficacious by peer-reviewed research – in one study it was shown to increase BDNF production by an impressive 150%.[82]

    • Theacrine (as TeaCrine 40% (yielding 20 mg)) – 50 mg

      Theacrine is another methylxanthine alkaloid – the same category that includes caffeine and theobromine – that’s particularly good at boosting mental energy.[89] Like its two cousins, theacrine can ramp up cellular metabolism by inhibiting phosphodiesterase,[90] fight fatigue by antagonizing adenosine,[91] and upregulate the dopaminergic system.[92]

      It also increases calorie burn by dialing up thermogenesis.[93]


      Theacrine is similar to caffeine, but definitely not the same, providing a possibly far longer lasting effect.

      The 20 milligram yield isn’t a massive dose, but it definitely can push the caffeine and theobromine a bit further over the top for those who enjoy the very long lasting buzz of theacrine.

  • PWR Pump Max

    The ingredients in Klout’s PWR Pump Max blend are chosen for their ability to upregulate nitric oxide (NO), yet they’ve gone citrulline-free, which lends itself to different flavor systems than what we’re used to.

    NO upregulation can improve athletic performance by increasing blood flow, thus delivering more oxygen and nutrients to working muscles. This NO-driven increase in muscular fluid content is exactly what we’re after when we chase the pump! It also helps to reduce fatigue by removing waste products such as lactic acid from the muscles.

    Nitrates for the pumps

    You’ve probably noticed that all the ingredients in this section are bound to nitrates. That’s because nitrates play a key role in boosting NO synthesis, albeit through a slightly different pathway. Nitrates primarily stimulate salivary glands, which then convert the nitrates into NO.[94-96]

    The higher NO blood levels achieved through nitrate supplementation offer a host of benefits, including:

    Klout KAIO Flash

    • Enhanced circulation[97]
    • Improved aerobic efficiency[97-100]
    • Increased strength[101,102]
    • Elevated cellular energy production[102-104]

    Besides the nitrates, let’s take a look at how the other halves of these ingredients can add a bit more help:

    • Betaine Nitrate (as NO3-T) – 1,000 mg

      Betaine, or trimethylglycine (TMG), is a cheap, safe, and effective ergogenic aid. An ergogenic aid is defined as any substance or technique that can improve athletic performance – a category that also includes more familiar supplements like creatine and caffeine.

      Methyl donor status

      Ergogenic aids almost always work at least partially by increasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Since ATP is the energy currency of your body, the usable form of energy your cells actually consume to do work, making more ATP available to your cells can often translate to higher cellular function and hence, increased athletic and cognitive performance. That’s exactly what betaine does – it increases ATP production.[105]

      Betaine does this by donating methyl groups to critical processes that are involved in cellular metabolism.[106] Not only is betaine a methyl donor, it’s one of the most potent methyl donors known to nutritional science.[107] Methyl groups are needed for your body’s metabolism of homocysteine, an amino acid that can increase your risk of serious cardiovascular disease (CVD) if it builds up too much in your blood.[108]

      Fortunately, research shows that betaine supplementation can bring homocysteine levels down,[109] which makes betaine a great potential investment in your long-term cardiovascular health and athletic performance.

      Ergogenic effects through osmotic pressure

      Like taurine, betaine is also an osmolyte, which is defined as a compound that influences the behavior of biological fluids.

      In betaine’s case, this has to do with osmotic pressure. Betaine increases the osmotic pressure around your body’s cells, which naturally pushes extra water into those cells. This higher-than-usual cellular water content comes with some key performance benefits: extra water means better cellular access to nutrients[110,111] and greater resistance to heat shock.[112]

      Hence, cellular hyperhydration through enough betaine supplementation can improve strength, power and even body composition.[113-118] Note, however, that most studies are at 2.5 grams per day or more, which we don’t have here. It’s really the nitrate half that we’re using for pumps – betaine is just a great molecule to bind to it.

    • Arginine Nitrate (as NO3-T) – 750 mg

      Citrulline Arginine Nitric Oxide Reaction
      Citrulline Arginine Nitric Oxide Reaction

      The Arginine Citrulline Cycle with a breakout showing the arginine-to-nitric oxide reaction that we’re most interested in with arginine supplements. Image courtesy Wikimedia with added biochemistry sources.[130,131]

      Research has shown that arginine supplementation can increase NO levels in both healthy individuals and athletes, leading to increases in athletic endurance during prolonged exercise.[122,123]

      One study specifically found that arginine is great for increasing the volume of blood in muscle tissue,[122] which is the definition of a great pump!

    • Sodium Nitrate (as NO3-T) – 500 mg

      Sodium is beneficial as an electrolyte for reasons we discussed in the Pink Himalayan Salt section.

      We’ve always felt this is an underrated nitrate molecule — with it, you get more “nitrate bang for your buck” because the sodium molecule doesn’t take up as much weight like the above amino acids do, making more of your 500 milligrams go towards the nitrate! Sodium nitrate is about 73% nitrate, a higher yield than the above two.

  • Other ingredients

    Besides the supplement ingredients, Klout has also included some vitamins in KAIO:

    • Vitamin C – 100 mg (111% DV)

      Klout KAIO Label

      Another look at the label

      Vitamin C is famous for its antioxidant effects, but the reason it’s present in Klout KAIO is that vitamin C reduces nitrate tolerance[124] – in other words, it makes supplemental nitrates more effective. Since we have a ton of nitrates in the PWR Pump Max blend, it makes perfect sense to stack vitamin C for synergistic effects.

    • Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxal 5-Phosphate) – 5 mg (294% DV)

      Pyridoxal 5-Phosphate (P5P) is also known as vitamin B6. It plays a crucial role in regulating homocysteine levels in the blood [125]. Caffeine intake has the potential to increase homocysteine levels [126], which is why supplementing with extra vitamin B6 can be beneficial when consuming high doses of caffeine.

    • Vitamin B12 (as Methylcobalamin) – 50 mcg (2083% DV)

      Methylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12, can aid athletic performance by increasing energy levels and reducing muscle damage.[118,119 It’s also a great methyl donor.[127]

    • Calcium (as Aquamin Soluble (as Seaweed derived calcium and magnesium, citric acid, malic acid)) – 36 mg (3% DV)

      One last thing about the calcium from Aquamin soluble – it can also help support electrolyte function in muscle cells,[128] and has been shown to decrease the likelihood of muscle cramps.[129]

    • Magnesium (as Aquamin Soluble (as Seaweed derived calcium and magnesium, citric acid, malic acid)) – 3 mg (<1% DV)

    • Sodium (as Pink Himalayan Salt and Sodium Nitrate) – 171 mg (7% DV)

Flavors available

With no citrulline, KAIO is going to be able to provide more unique flavor systems than what most customers are used to. And they certainly have some unique ones:

    Conclusion: KAIO Brings a Level 9000 Pre-Workout to GNC

    Klout KAIO

    Klout’s Final Destination Pre-Workout at GNC

    In our 2022 Supplement Industry Awards, we chose Klout as the brand to watch for 2023 — and we didn’t even know about this epic onslaught supplement release of not one, not two, but three pre-workout supplements!

    • Mamba goes big on energy
    • Karma goes bigger on nootropics, with lower caffeine
    • KAIO goes big on everything – and for the crew at GNC.

    This is the top-tier option, and the branding is simply on another level. How can you bust this tub open and not get pumped?

    What’s also great is that this big dose of caffeine is supported by a few ingredients that minimize caffeine’s downsides. Taurine, for instance, has been shown to do this, but we’ve also felt nitrates take the edge off the stims too. Meanwhile, the use of a caffeine blend with dicaffeine malate alongside theobromine and theacrine will make the charge last longer.

    This is a major release at GNC, and GNC shoppers should be fired up to see an edgy brand like this grace their shelves.

    Klout KAIO – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

    Get Price Alerts

    No spam, no scams.

    Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    Klout GNC

    You can find Klout (and KAIO specifically) at GNC in 2023

    About the Author: Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is an n=1 diet experimenter with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several experiments done on himself while sharing lab tests.

    Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public. Mike is currently experimenting with a low Vitamin A diet.

    No Comments | Posted in | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .


    1. Trexler, E.T., Smith-Ryan, A.E., Stout, J.R. et al.; “International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine.”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr 12, 30 (2015); https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-015-0090-y
    2. Harris, R. C., et al. “The Absorption of Orally Supplied β-Alanine and Its Effect on Muscle Carnosine Synthesis in Human Vastus Lateralis.” Amino Acids, vol. 30, no. 3, 24 Mar. 2006, pp. 279–289, 10.1007/s00726-006-0299-9; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16554972/
    3. Dunnett, M., and R. C. Harris. “Influence of Oral ß-Alanine and L-Histidine Supplementation on the Carnosine Content of Thegluteus Medius.” Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 31, no. S30, July 1999, pp. 499–504, 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1999.tb05273.x; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10659307/
    4. Hobson, R M, et al; “Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Exercise Performance: a Meta-Analysis.”; Amino Acids; Springer Vienna; July 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374095/
    5. Saunders, Bryan, et al. “β-Alanine Supplementation to Improve Exercise Capacity and Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 51, no. 8, 18 Oct. 2016, pp. 658–669; https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/51/8/658.long
    6. Dolan, Eimear, et al. “A Systematic Risk Assessment and Meta-Analysis on the Use of Oral β-Alanine Supplementation.” Advances in Nutrition, vol. 10, no. 3, 13 Apr. 2019, pp. 452–463, 10.1093/advances/nmy115; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520041/
    7. Baguet, A. et al. Oct. 2010. “Important Role of Muscle Carnosine in Rowing Performance.” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 109,4; 1096-1101. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00141.2010
    8. Frestedt JL, Kuskowski MA, Zenk JL; “A natural seaweed derived mineral supplement (Aquamin F) for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised, placebo controlled pilot study”; Nutr J. 2009; 8:7; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2642861/
    9. Pickering, Gisèle et al. “Magnesium Status and Stress: The Vicious Circle Concept Revisited.” Nutrients vol. 12,12 3672. 28 Nov. 2020, doi:10.3390/nu12123672 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761127/
    10. ELDerawi WA, Naser IA, Taleb MH, Abutair AS. The Effects of Oral Magnesium Supplementation on Glycemic Response among Type 2 Diabetes Patients. Nutrients. 2018 Dec 26;11(1):44. doi: 10.3390/nu11010044. PMID: 30587761; PMCID: PMC6356710. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356710/
    11. Gaby, A. R. “Natural Treatments for Osteoarthritis.” Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic, vol. 4, no. 5, 1 Oct. 1999, pp. 330–341; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10559548/
    12. Naghii, Mohammad Reza et al. “Comparative effects of daily and weekly boron supplementation on plasma steroid hormones and proinflammatory cytokines.” Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS) vol. 25,1 (2011): 54-8. doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2010.10.001 https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0946-672X(10)00114-8
    13. Brennan O. et al; “Incorporation of the natural marine multi-mineral dietary supplement Aquamin enhances osteogenesis and improves the mechanical properties of a collagen-based bone graft substitute”; J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2015 Jul; 47:114-123; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25884141
    14. Nehlig A, Daval JL, Debry G.; “Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects”; Brain Res Rev. 1992;17(2):139-170. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1356551/
    15. Goldstein, E.R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D. et al.; “International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance.”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr 7, 5 (2010); https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-7-5
    16. Diepvens, K et al; “Obesity and thermogenesis related to the consumption of caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, and green tea;” American Journal of Physiology; 2007; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajpregu.00832.2005
    17. Norager, C B, et al; “Metabolic Effects of Caffeine Ingestion and Physical Work in 75-Year Old Citizens. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-over Study.”; Clinical Endocrinology; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Aug. 2006; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16886964
    18. Burke LM. Caffeine and sports performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Dec;33(6):1319-34. doi: 10.1139/H08-130; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19088794/
    19. McLellan TM, Caldwell JA, Lieberman HR. A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016 Dec;71:294-312. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.09.001; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27612937/
    20. Klaassen EB, de Groot RH, Evers EA, Snel J, Veerman EC, Ligtenberg AJ, Jolles J, Veltman DJ. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged males. Neuropharmacology. 2013 Jan;64:160-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.06.026; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22728314/
    21. Cauli O, Morelli M. Caffeine and the dopaminergic system. Behav Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;16(2):63-77. doi: 10.1097/00008877-200503000-00001. PMID: 15767841. https://journals.lww.com/behaviouralpharm/Abstract/2005/03000/Caffeine_and_the_dopaminergic_system.1.aspx
    22. Graham, T. E., and L. L. Spriet. “Performance and Metabolic Responses to a High Caffeine Dose during Prolonged Exercise.” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 71, no. 6, Dec. 1991, pp. 2292–2298, doi:10.1152/jappl.1991.71.6.2292; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1778925/
    23. Burke LM. Caffeine and sports performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Dec;33(6):1319-34. doi: 10.1139/H08-130; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19088794/
    24. Jenkins, Nathan T., et al. “Ergogenic Effects of Low Doses of Caffeine on Cycling Performance.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 18, no. 3, June 2008, pp. 328–42, doi:10.1123/ijsnem.18.3.328; https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/ijsnem/18/3/article-p328.xml
    25. Strecker, Estevam. “The Effect of Caffeine Ingestion on Tennis Skill Performance and Hydration Status.” Auburn University; 15 May 2007; https://etd.auburn.edu//handle/10415/799
    26. Jacobson, B H, et al. “Effect of Caffeine on Maximal Strength and Power in Elite Male Athletes.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 26, no. 4, 1 Dec. 1992, pp. 276–280, doi:10.1136/bjsm.26.4.276; https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/26/4/276.info
    27. Cox, Gregory R., et al. “Effect of Different Protocols of Caffeine Intake on Metabolism and Endurance Performance.” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 93, no. 3, Sept. 2002, pp. 990–999, doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00249.2002; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12183495/
    28. Green, J. Matt, et al. “Effects of Caffeine on Repetitions to Failure and Ratings of Perceived Exertion during Resistance Training.” International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, vol. 2, no. 3, Sept. 2007, pp. 250–259, doi:10.1123/ijspp.2.3.250; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19168925/
    29. Astorino, Todd A., et al. “Effect of Caffeine Ingestion on One-Repetition Maximum Muscular Strength.” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 102, no. 2, 13 Sept. 2007, pp. 127–132, doi:10.1007/s00421-007-0557-x; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17851681/
    30. Woolf, Kathleen, et al. “The Effect of Caffeine as an Ergogenic Aid in Anaerobic Exercise.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 18, no. 4, 2008, pp. 412–29, doi:10.1123/ijsnem.18.4.412; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18708685/
    31. Hudson, Geoffrey M, et al. “Effects of Caffeine and Aspirin on Light Resistance Training Performance, Perceived Exertion, and Pain Perception.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 22, no. 6, Nov. 2008, pp. 1950–1957, doi:10.1519/jsc.0b013e31818219cb; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18824931/
    32. Duncan, Michael J, and Samuel W Oxford. “The Effect of Caffeine Ingestion on Mood State and Bench Press Performance to Failure.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 25, no. 1, Jan. 2011, pp. 178–185, doi:10.1519/jsc.0b013e318201bddb; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21157384/
    33. Womack, Christopher J, et al. “The Influence of a CYP1A2 Polymorphism on the Ergogenic Effects of Caffeine.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 9, no. 1, 15 Mar. 2012, jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-9-7, doi:10.1186/1550-2783-9-7; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3334681/
    34. Duncan, Michael J., et al. “The Acute Effect of a Caffeine-Containing Energy Drink on Mood State, Readiness to Invest Effort, and Resistance Exercise to Failure.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 26, no. 10, Oct. 2012, pp. 2858–2865, doi:10.1519/jsc.0b013e318241e124; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22124354/
    35. Loy, Bryan D., et al. “Caffeine Is Ergogenic for Adenosine A2A Receptor Gene (ADORA2A) T Allele Homozygotes: A Pilot Study.” Journal of Caffeine Research, vol. 5, no. 2, June 2015, pp. 73–81, doi:10.1089/jcr.2014.0035; https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jcr.2014.0035
    36. Pataky, M. W., et al. “Caffeine and 3-Km Cycling Performance: Effects of Mouth Rinsing, Genotype, and Time of Day.” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, vol. 26, no. 6, 9 June 2015, pp. 613–619, doi:10.1111/sms.12501; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26062916/
    37. Gonçalves, Lívia de Souza, et al. “Dispelling the Myth That Habitual Caffeine Consumption Influences the Performance Response to Acute Caffeine Supplementation.” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 123, no. 1, 1 July 2017, pp. 213–220, doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00260.2017; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00260.2017
    38. Joy, J. et al; “Supplementation with a Proprietary Blend of Ancient Peat and Apple Extract May Improve Body Composition without Affecting Hematology in Resistance-Trained Men;” Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism; (2015); https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283077352_Supplementation_with_a_Proprietary_Blend_of_Ancient_Peat_and_Apple_Extract_May_Improve_Body_Composition_without_Affecting_Hematology_in_Resistance-Trained_Men
    39. Reyes-Izquierdo, T, et al; “Effect of Dietary Supplement ElevATP on Blood ATP Level: An Acute Pilot Clinical Study”; Journal of Aging Research & Clinical Practice; January 2013; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260944038_Effect_of_the_dietary_supplement_ElevATP_on_blood_ATP_level_An_acute_pilot_clinical_study
    40. Joy JM et al., “Ancient peat and apple extracts supplementation may improve strength and power adaptations in resistance trained men,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 2016; https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-016-1222-x
    41. PubChem. “Theobromine.” Nih.gov, PubChem, 2019, https://www.pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Theobromine
    42. Yoneda, Mitsugu et al. “Theobromine up-regulates cerebral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and facilitates motor learning in mice.” The Journal of nutritional biochemistry vol. 39 (2017): 110-116. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2016.10.002 https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0955-2863(16)30105-X
    43. Valsecchi, Federica et al. “cAMP and mitochondria.” Physiology (Bethesda, Md.) vol. 28,3 (2013): 199-209. doi:10.1152/physiol.00004.2013 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3870303/
    44. ‌Aslam, Muhammad, and Yury Ladilov. “Emerging Role of cAMP/AMPK Signaling.” Cells vol. 11,2 308. 17 Jan. 2022, doi:10.3390/cells11020308; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8774420/
    45. Coleman, William F. “Chocolate: Theobromine and Caffeine.” Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 81, no. 8, Aug. 2004, p. 1232 https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ed081p1232
    46. Mitchell, E S et al. “Differential contributions of theobromine and caffeine on mood, psychomotor performance and blood pressure.” Physiology & behavior vol. 104,5 (2011): 816-22. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.07.027 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031938411003799?via%3Dihub
    47. ‌Barokah, Liberty, et al. “Protective Effect of Theobroma Cacao on Nitric Oxide and Endothelin-1 Level in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients: In Silico and in Vitro Studies.” European Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 8, no. 1, 1 Feb. 2016, pp. 73–78; 10.1016/j.eujim.2015.11.023; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1876382015300639
    48. Baggott, Matthew J et al. “Psychopharmacology of theobromine in healthy volunteers.” Psychopharmacology vol. 228,1 (2013): 109-18. doi:10.1007/s00213-013-3021-0 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3672386/
    49. Strazzullo P., Leclercq C.; “Sodium.” Advanced Nutrition; March 2014; 5(2) 188-190; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951800/
    50. Valentine, V. 2007. “The Importance of Salt in the Athlete’s Diet.” Current Sports Medicine Reports vol. 6,4 (2007): 237-40. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17617999/
    51. Ripps, H. et al. Nov. 2012. “Review: Taurine: A “Very Essential Amino Acid.” Molecular Vision vol. 18. 2673-86; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501277/
    52. Waldron, M., et al. May 2018. “The Effects of an Oral Taurine Dose and Supplementation Period on Endurance Exercise Performance in Humans: A Meta-Analysis.” Sports Medicine vol. 48,5; 1247-53; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29546641
    53. Pasantes-Morales, H., et al. “Taurine: An Osmolyte in Mammalian Tissues.” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 1998, pp. 209–217, 10.1007/978-1-4899-0117-0_27; https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4899-0117-0_27
    54. Uyanga, Victoria Anthony, et al. “Functional Roles of Taurine, L-Theanine, L-Citrulline, and Betaine during Heat Stress in Poultry.” Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, vol. 13, no. 1, Mar. 2022, doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-022-00675-6.
    55. Ibrahim, Marwan A et al. “Therapeutic role of taurine as antioxidant in reducing hypertension risks in rats.” Heliyon vol. 6,1 e03209. 17 Jan. 2020, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03209; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6970174/
    56. Jong, Chian Ju et al. “Mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of taurine: prevention of mitochondrial oxidant production.” Amino acids vol. 42,6 (2012): 2223-32. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-0962-7; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21691752/
    57. Jong, Chian Ju et al. “The Role of Taurine in Mitochondria Health: More Than Just an Antioxidant.” Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 26,16 4913. 13 Aug. 2021, doi:10.3390/molecules26164913 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400259/
    58. Chen, C. et al. Aug. 2019. “Roles of Taurine in Cognitive Function of Physiology, Pathologies, and Toxication.” Life Sciences vol. 15, 231; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31220527/
    59. Wang, Ke, et al. “Taurine Improves Neuron Injuries and Cognitive Impairment in a Mouse Parkinson’s Disease Model through Inhibition of Microglial Activation.” NeuroToxicology, vol. 83, Mar. 2021, pp. 129–136, 10.1016/j.neuro.2021.01.002; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0161813X21000085
    60. Che, Yuning et al. “Taurine protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse Parkinson’s disease model through inhibition of microglial M1 polarization.” Cell death & disease vol. 9,4 435. 1 Apr. 2018, doi:10.1038/s41419-018-0468-2 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5864871/
    61. Kim, Kyoung Soo et al. “Taurine Stimulates Thermoregulatory Genes in Brown Fat Tissue and Muscle without an Influence on Inguinal White Fat Tissue in a High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mouse Model.” Foods (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 9,6 688. 26 May. 2020, doi:10.3390/foods9060688; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7353478/
    62. Kim, Kyoung Soo et al. “Anti-obesity effect of taurine through inhibition of adipogenesis in white fat tissue but not in brown fat tissue in a high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model.” Amino acids vol. 51,2 (2019): 245-254. doi:10.1007/s00726-018-2659-7; https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-018-2659-7
    63. Guo, Ying-Ying et al. “Taurine-mediated browning of white adipose tissue is involved in its anti-obesity effect in mice.” The Journal of biological chemistry vol. 294,41 (2019): 15014-15024. doi:10.1074/jbc.RA119.009936; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6791308/
    64. Lin, Shan et al. “Taurine improves obesity-induced inflammatory responses and modulates the unbalanced phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages.” Molecular nutrition & food research vol. 57,12 (2013): 2155-65. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201300150; https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201300150
    65. Lou, H. C., et al. “Increased Vigilance and Dopamine Synthesis by Large Doses of Tyrosine or Phenylalanine Restriction in Phenylketonuria.” Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, vol. 76, no. 4, 1 July 1987, pp. 560–565, 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1987.tb10521.x; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2442957/
    66. Smith, Matthew D, and Christopher V Maani. “Norepinephrine.” Nih.gov, StatPearls Publishing, 23 July 2019. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537259/
    67. Hase, Adrian, et al. “Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Tyrosine Intake in Healthy Human Adults.” Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, vol. 133, June 2015, pp. 1–6, doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2015.03.008; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25797188/
    68. Ans, Armghan H, et al. “Neurohormonal Regulation of Appetite and Its Relationship with Stress: A Mini Literature Review.” Cureus, 23 July 2018, 10.7759/cureus.3032. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6150743/
    69. Mullur, Rashmi et al. “Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism.” Physiological reviews vol. 94,2 (2014): 355-82. doi:10.1152/physrev.00030.2013; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4044302/
    70. Rousset, Bernard. “Chapter 2 Thyroid Hormone Synthesis And Secretion.” Endotext. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2 Sept. 2015; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK285550/
    71. Rousset, Bernard, et al. “Chapter 2 Thyroid Hormone Synthesis and Secretion.” Nih.gov, MDText.com, Inc., 2 Sept. 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK285550/
    72. Mullur, Rashmi, et al. “Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism.” Physiological Reviews, vol. 94, no. 2, Apr. 2014, pp. 355–382, 10.1152/physrev.00030.2013. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4044302/
    73. Wadden TA, Mason G, Foster GD, Stunkard AJ, Prange AJ. Effects of a very low calorie diet on weight, thyroid hormones and mood. Int J Obes. 1990 Mar;14(3):249-58; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2341229/
    74. Attipoe, Selasi, et al. “Tyrosine for Mitigating Stress and Enhancing Performance in Healthy Adult Humans, a Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature.” Military Medicine, vol. 180, no. 7, July 2015, pp. 754–765, 10.7205/milmed-d-14-00594; https://academic.oup.com/milmed/article/180/7/754/4160625
    75. Pomeroy, Diane E., et al. “A Systematic Review of the Effect of Dietary Supplements on Cognitive Performance in Healthy Young Adults and Military Personnel.” Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 2, 20 Feb. 2020, p. 545, 10.3390/nu12020545; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071459/
    76. Sanders LM, Zeisel SH; “Choline: Dietary Requirements and Role in Brain Development;” Nutrition today; 2007;42(4):181-186; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518394/
    77. Sanders, Lisa M, and Steven H Zeisel. “Choline: Dietary Requirements and Role in Brain Development.” Nutrition today vol. 42,4 (2007): 181-186. doi:10.1097/01.NT.0000286155.55343.fa https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518394/
    78. Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al.; “Neuroscience;” 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001. Acetylcholine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11143/
    79. Hasselmo ME; “The role of acetylcholine in learning and memory;”Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006;16(6):710–715; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2659740/
    80. Jones BE; “From waking to sleeping: neuronal and chemical substrates”. Trends Pharmacol. Sci.; 2005; 26 (11): 578–86; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16183137
    81. Marcus L, et al; “Evaluation of the effects of two doses of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on physical and psychomotor performance;” J Int Soc Sports Nutr; 2017;14:39; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5629791/
    82. Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania, et al. “Modulatory Effect of Coffee Fruit Extract on Plasma Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Healthy Subjects.” The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 110, no. 3, 28 Aug. 2013, pp. 420–425, 10.1017/S0007114512005338. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/modulatory-effect-of-coffee-fruit-extract-on-plasma-levels-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-healthy-subjects/8B291E8D053143AA5A8D33B65496B034
    83. Phillips, Cristy. “Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Depression, and Physical Activity: Making the Neuroplastic Connection.” Neural Plasticity, vol. 2017, 2017, pp. 1–17, 10.1155/2017/7260130; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5591905/
    84. Miranda, Magdalena, et al. “Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A Key Molecule for Memory in the Healthy and the Pathological Brain.” Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, vol. 13, 7 Aug. 2019, 10.3389/fncel.2019.00363; https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2019.00363/full
    85. ‌Lu, B et al. “BDNF and synaptic plasticity, cognitive function, and dysfunction.” Handbook of experimental pharmacology vol. 220 (2014): 223-50. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-45106-5_9; https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-45106-5_9
    86. Piepmeier, Aaron T., and Jennifer L. Etnier. “Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) as a Potential Mechanism of the Effects of Acute Exercise on Cognitive Performance.” Journal of Sport and Health Science, vol. 4, no. 1, 1 Mar. 2015, pp. 14–23; 10.1016/j.jshs.2014.11.001; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095254614001161
    87. Nicastri, Casey M., et al. “BDNF Mediates Improvement in Cognitive Performance after Computerized Cognitive Training in Healthy Older Adults.” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, vol. 8, no. 1, Jan. 2022, 10.1002/trc2.12337; https://alz-journals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/trc2.12337
    88. Zuccato, Chiara, and Elena Cattaneo. “Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Neurodegenerative Diseases.” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 5, no. 6, June 2009, pp. 311–322, 10.1038/nrneurol.2009.54; https://www.nature.com/articles/nrneurol.2009.54
    89. Bello, M.L., Walker, A.J., McFadden, B.A. et al. “The effects of TeaCrine® and caffeine on endurance and cognitive performance during a simulated match in high-level soccer players”;J Int Soc Sports Nutr 16, 20 (2019); https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472067/
    90. Sheng, Yue-Yue et al. “Theacrine From Camellia kucha and Its Health Beneficial Effects.” Frontiers in nutrition vol. 7 596823. 17 Dec. 2020, doi:10.3389/fnut.2020.596823; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773691/
    91. Qiao, Haoyi, et al. “Theacrine: A Purine Alkaloid from Camellia Assamica Var. Kucha with a Hypnotic Property via the Adenosine System.” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 659, 17 Oct. 2017, pp. 48–53, 10.1016/j.neulet.2017.08.063; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28864241/
    92. Feduccia, Allison A., et al. “Locomotor Activation by Theacrine, a Purine Alkaloid Structurally Similar to Caffeine: Involvement of Adenosine and Dopamine Receptors.” Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, vol. 102, no. 2, 1 Aug. 2012, pp. 241–248, 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.04.014; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22579816/
    93. ‌Taylor, Lem et al. “Safety of TeaCrine®, a non-habituating, naturally-occurring purine alkaloid over eight weeks of continuous use.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 13 2. 13 Jan. 2016, doi:10.1186/s12970-016-0113-3 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711067/
    94. Lundberg, Jon O., and Mirco Govoni. “Inorganic Nitrate Is a Possible Source for Systemic Generation of Nitric Oxide.” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, 1 Aug. 2004, pp. 395–400, 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.04.027. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15223073/
    95. Qu, X. M., et al. “From Nitrate to Nitric Oxide: The Role of Salivary Glands and Oral Bacteria.” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 95, no. 13, 1 Dec. 2016, pp. 1452–1456, 10.1177/0022034516673019; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27872324/
    96. Eisenbrand, G., et al. “Nitrate and Nitrite in Saliva.” Oncology, vol. 37, no. 4, 1980, pp. 227–231, 10.1159/000225441; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7443155/
    97. Larsen, F; “Effects of dietary nitrate on oxygen cost during exercise”; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet; 2007; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17635415/
    98. Lansley, K; “Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: a placebo-controlled study”; School of Sport and Health Sciences, Univ. of Exeter; 2011; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.01070.2010
    99. Bailey, S; “Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans”; School of Sport and Health Sciences, Univ. of Exeter; 2009; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00722.2009
    100. Bescos, R; “Acute administration of inorganic nitrate reduces VO(2peak) in endurance athletes”; National Institute of Physical Education-Barcelona, University of Barcelona; 2011; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21407132/
    101. Fulford, J; “Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on human skeletal muscle metabolism and force production during maximum voluntary contractions”; NIHR Exeter Clinical Research Facility, University of Exeter Medical School; 2013; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23354414/
    102. Bailey, S; “Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans”; School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter; 2010; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00046.2010
    103. Lundberg, J; “The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics”; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute; 2008; https://www.nature.com/articles/nrd2466
    104. Larsen, F; “Dietary inorganic nitrate improves mitochondrial efficiency in humans”; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet; 2011; https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(11)00005-2
    105. Lee I. Betaine is a positive regulator of mitochondrial respiration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Jan 9;456(2):621-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.12.005; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25498545/
    106. Zhao, Guangfu et al. “Betaine in Inflammation: Mechanistic Aspects and Applications.” Frontiers in immunology vol. 9 1070. 24 May. 2018, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01070 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5976740/
    107. Craig, Stuart AS. “Betaine in Human Nutrition.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 3, 1 Sept. 2004, pp. 539–549, 10.1093/ajcn/80.3.539. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002916522035602
    108. Ganguly, Paul, and Sreyoshi Fatima Alam. “Role of homocysteine in the development of cardiovascular disease.” Nutrition journal vol. 14 6. 10 Jan. 2015, doi:10.1186/1475-2891-14-6; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326479/
    109. Olthof, M. R., & Verhoef, P. (2005). Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health. Current drug metabolism, 6(1), 15-22; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15720203
    110. Boel De Paepe; “Osmolytes as Mediators of the Muscle Tissue’s Responses to Inflammation: Emerging Regulators of Myositis with Therapeutic Potential”; EMJ Rheumatol. 2017;4undefined:83-89; https://www.emjreviews.com/rheumatology/article/osmolytes-as-mediators-of-the-muscle-tissues-responses-to-inflammation-emerging-regulators-of-myositis-with-therapeutic-potential/
    111. Cholewa, Jason M et al. “Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 10,1 39. 22 Aug. 2013, doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-39; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3844502/
    112. Caldas, Teresa, et al. “Thermoprotection by Glycine Betaine and Choline.” Microbiology, vol. 145, no. 9, 1 Sept. 1999, pp. 2543–2548, 10.1099/00221287-145-9-2543; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10517607/
    113. Roti, M; “Homocysteine, Lipid and Glucose Responses to Betaine Supplementation During Running in the Heat”; Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2003 – Volume 35 – Issue 5 – p S271; https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2003/05001/HOMOCYSTEINE,_LIPID_AND_GLUCOSE_RESPONSES_TO.1501.aspx
    114. Armstrong, Lawrence E, et al. “Influence of Betaine Consumption on Strenuous Running and Sprinting in a Hot Environment.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 22, no. 3, May 2008, pp. 851–860, 10.1519/jsc.0b013e31816a6efb; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18438230
    115. Hoffman, Jay R, et al. “Effect of Betaine Supplementation on Power Performance and Fatigue.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 6, no. 1, 27 Feb. 2009, 10.1186/1550-2783-6-7; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-6-7
    116. Lee, Elaine C, et al. “Ergogenic Effects of Betaine Supplementation on Strength and Power Performance.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 7, no. 1, 2010, p. 27, 10.1186/1550-2783-7-27; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-7-27
    117. Trepanowski, John F, et al. “The Effects of Chronic Betaine Supplementation on Exercise Performance, Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Saturation and Associated Biochemical Parameters in Resistance Trained Men.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 25, no. 12, Dec. 2011, pp. 3461–3471, 10.1519/jsc.0b013e318217d48d; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22080324/
    118. Pryor, J Luke, et al. “Effect of Betaine Supplementation on Cycling Sprint Performance.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 9, no. 1, 3 Apr. 2012, 10.1186/1550-2783-9-12; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-9-12
    119. Palmer RM, Rees DD, Ashton DS, Moncada S. L-arginine is the physiological precursor for the formation of nitric oxide in endothelium-dependent relaxation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Jun 30;153(3):1251-6. doi: 10.1016/s0006-291x(88)81362-7. PMID: 3390182. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006-291X(88)81362-7
    120. Javanmard SH, Nematbakhsh M, Mahmoodi F, Mohajeri MR. l-Arginine supplementation enhances eNOS expression in experimental model of hypercholesterolemic rabbits aorta. Pathophysiology. 2009 Jun;16(1):9-13. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2008.11.003. Epub 2009 Jan 24. PMID: 19168337. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0928468008000692?via%3Dihub
    121. Li C, Huang W, Harris MB, Goolsby JM, Venema RC. Interaction of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase with the CAT-1 arginine transporter enhances NO release by a mechanism not involving arginine transport. Biochem J. 2005 Mar 15;386(Pt 3):567-74. doi: 10.1042/BJ20041005. PMID: 15743275; PMCID: PMC1134876. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1134876/
    122. Alvares TS, Conte CA, Paschoalin VM, Silva JT, Meirelles Cde M, Bhambhani YN, Gomes PS. Acute l-arginine supplementation increases muscle blood volume but not strength performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Feb;37(1):115-26. doi: 10.1139/h11-144. Epub 2012 Jan 17. PMID: 22251130. https://cdnsciencepub.com/doi/10.1139/h11-144?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%20%200pubmed
    123. Álvares TS, Meirelles CM, Bhambhani YN, Paschoalin VM, Gomes PS. L-Arginine as a potential ergogenic aid in healthy subjects. Sports Med. 2011 Mar 1;41(3):233-48. doi: 10.2165/11538590-000000000-00000. PMID: 21395365. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/11538590-000000000-00000
    124. Bassenge, E, et al. “Dietary Supplement with Vitamin c Prevents Nitrate Tolerance.” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 102, no. 1, 1 July 1998, pp. 67–71. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC509066/
    125. National Institutes of Health. “Vitamin B6 – Fact Sheet For Health Professionals.” Office of Dietary Supplements; https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB6-HealthProfessional/
    126. Verhoef P, Pasman WJ, Van Vliet T, Urgert R, Katan MB. Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee: a randomized controlled trial in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;76(6):1244-8. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/76.6.1244; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12450889/
    127. Shorter KR, Felder MR, Vrana PB. Consequences of dietary methyl donor supplements: Is more always better? Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2015 Jul;118(1-2):14-20. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2015.03.007. Epub 2015 Apr 2. PMID: 25841986. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0079-6107(15)00043-7
    128. Spriet, Lawrence L, and Jamie Whitfield. “Taurine and skeletal muscle function.” Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care vol. 18,1 (2015): 96-101. doi:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000135; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25415270/
    129. Vidot, Helen et al. “Randomised clinical trial: oral taurine supplementation versus placebo reduces muscle cramps in patients with chronic liver disease.” Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics vol. 48,7 (2018): 704-712. doi:10.1111/apt.14950 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/apt.14950
    130. Bryan, Nathan S., and Jack R. Lancaster. “Nitric Oxide Signaling in Health and Disease.” Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease, 2017, pp. 165–178, 10.1007/978-3-319-46189-2_13; https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-46189-2_13
    131. Ghellam, Mohamed & Koca, Ilkay. “Nitrate in All Respects: Metabolic Pathways, Sources, and Human Health”; Derleme Review; Volume 3, Issue 2, 120 – 130, May 27, 2019; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333405488_Nitrate_in_All_Respects_Metabolic_Pathways_Sources_and_Human_Health

    Comments and Discussion (Powered by the PricePlow Forum)