Glaxon Specimen Genesis: A Pre-Workout Powered with Added Ketones

The R&D team at Glaxon rarely disappoints. These guys are absolutely on top of supplement research, steadfastly taking the industry’s game to the next level by creatively applying new or slept-on ingredients.

Put simply, there’s methodology behind their formulas that we think is unsurpassed. Their Specimen Pre-Workout series has gone through several iterations now. If you’re curious to see how it’s evolved over the years, check out our blog posts:

Glaxon Specimen Genesis

The next evolution of Glaxon’s Specimen Series of pre-workouts is here, and it’s a ketone powered version in the form of Specimen Genesis

But launched on St. Patrick’s Day 2023 next to the third version of Plasm Surge (Glaxon’s stimulant-free counterpart), the next evolution of the stim-based Specimen series is upon us:

Introducing: Glaxon Specimen Genesis

Today we’re talking about the latest reinvention of Specimen – Glaxon Specimen Genesis.

No doubt, this new formula will show itself to be improved as well. But will this be the final form of Specimen? Who knows! Probably not. Glaxon is not a company that rests on their laurels.

But this one does include something that Glaxon wanted all the way back in their original V1 launches in 2019/2020: exogenous ketones. Let’s get into how it works, but first, check the PricePlow news and deals:

Glaxon Specimen Genesis – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

This area is reserved for Team PricePlow's upcoming videos.

Subscribe to our channel and sign up for notifications so you catch it when it goes live!

Subscribe to PricePlow on YouTube!

Glaxon Specimen Genesis Ingredients

In a single 2-scoop (15 gram) serving of Specimen Genesis from Glaxon, you get the following:

  • Beta-Alanine – 3,200 mg

    Glaxon Specimen Genesis Ingredients

    Beta-alanine is an ergogenic aid (defined as any substance or technique that enhances athletic performance) that’s one of the longest-running standard pre-workout ingredients in the history of the supplement industry.

    It works to increase athletic endurance by combining with an amino acid called L-histidine to produce carnosine.

    Carnosine is a dipeptide that can be found at high concentrations in muscle tissue. There, carnosine works to help your body get rid of lactic acid (also known as lactate), a metabolic waste product that progressively worsens muscular fatigue as it accumulates during intense exercise.[1]

    By reducing the amount of lactate in your muscles through beta-alanine supplementation, you can delay or even (depending on the level of intensity at which you’re exercising) prevent the onset of anaerobic fatigue.

    This naturally leads to better endurance.

    If carnosine is what we’re after, why don’t we supplement with carnosine directly? The answer is that carnosine’s oral bioavailability is poor, so taking it by mouth won’t do much.

    Beta Alanine

    Carnosine helps your body flush lactic acid out of the muscles. Beta alanine helps you get more muscle carnosine content.

    Beta-alanine, on the other hand, is significantly bioavailable – and since the body’s supply of beta-alanine almost always holds up carnosine production,[2,3] giving it more is a reliable method for increasing carnosine production.

    Two meta-analyses looking at over 40 peer-reviewed beta-alanine studies concluded that it’s best at increasing endurance during exercise sessions conducted at a particular level of intensity. That intensity refers to what you can sustain for anywhere from 30 seconds to 10 minutes.[1-8]

    The 3,200-milligram dose is well-studied, well-tolerated, and has repeatedly been found efficacious in the research literature.

    Beta-alanine tingles

    The safety profile of beta-alanine is excellent. However, most people experience a tingling sensation in their upper body when taking it. This can definitely feel weird, but it’s no cause for concern: Researchers have concluded that these tingles are harmless.[9]

    When we see beta-alanine first, we can usually be sure that it’s a citrulline-free formula — and that’s the case here. So what does Glaxon use to generate nitric oxide pumps? See next:

  • Betaine Nitrate (as NO3-T) – 2,000 mg

    Betaine nitrate is simply betaine combined with nitrate. So, let’s talk about the benefits of each.

    Nitrate for nitric oxide (NO) boosting and vasodilation (pumps)

    After you ingest nitrates, they go through the following conversion pathway:[10-12]

    nitrate → nitrite → nitric oxide (NO)

    Nitrates are converted into nitrite, which enters the bloodstream through intestinal walls, and is then converted into NO once it reaches salivary glands.[10-12]

    Glaxon Specimen Genesis

    So why do we want more NO? Lots of reasons, but the main one is that NO activates vasodilation, a mechanism that causes your arteries to expand in diameter. This allows the same volume of blood to flow through a bigger cross sectional area, thus reducing blood pressure and heart rate while leading to gains in athletic performance.

    According to a 2013 meta-analysis[13] on nitrate supplementation, it can improve or increase:

    • Circulation[14]
    • Aerobic efficiency[14-17]
    • Strength[18,19]
    • Athletic endurance[16,17]
    • Recovery from exercise[13]
    • Cellular energy production[19-21]

    Betaine – another ergogenic aid

    To read about the benefits of the betaine side of betaine nitrate, scroll down to the betaine anhydrous section below. Betaine nitrate is ~35% nitrate by weight, meaning we have 1.3 grams of betaine and about 0.7 grams of nitrate. This will come in handy later.

  • D-Beta Hydroxybutyrate (Magnesium and Calcium Salts as goBHB) – 1,500 mg

    D-Magnesium Beta Hydroxybutyrate and D-Calcium Beta Hydroxybutyrate are exogenous ketones. Ordinarily ketones are generated when your body metabolizes fat while in a state of ketosis.[22] Here, we’re taking them supplementally, providing an alternative energy source separate from glucose.

    BHB Supplement Benefits

    BHB Supplement Benefits, courtesy NNB Nutrition

    Importantly, Glaxon has opted to use only the right-handed isomers of these ketones, which is denoted by the D- prefix (as opposed to R- or L-). This is because the right-handed isomers are the most biologically active, which makes goBHB a better choice of ingredient than generic BHB blends that use a 50/50 D/R blend.

    Peer-reviewed studies have found that taking supplement D-BHB significantly raises blood levels of the ketone beta-hydroxybutyrate.[23] Ultimately, this can increase your metabolic flexibility, leading to boosts in performance and endurance.[24]

    Nootropic effects of BHB

    Some studies have found that the ketones are actually the brain’s preferred source of energy.[25,26] They’re particularly effective in cases of energy rescue and insulin resistance.[25]

    This is why ketone supplementation and ketogenic diets are increasingly being used to help manage neurodegenerative illnesses,[27-29] which some scientists call “type 3 diabetes”,[30,31] thanks to the cerebral insulin resistance component that characterizes them.[32]

    Beta Oxidation Ketogenesis D-BHB

    Beta Oxidation of fatty acids leading to Ketogenesis. D-BHB is the primary ketone made that the body can use as an energy substrate. We can add more D-BHB for various reasons, since this fat burning process is slower and you may wish to have some BHB available immediately for more energy.

    Ketones can bypass the insulin bottleneck, thus rescuing neurons from death by energy insufficiency.

    Elevated serum BHB is associated with a corresponding increase in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),[33] a molecule that’s kind of like fertilizer for your brain in that it helps promote the growth of new neurons and neural networks.

    Unsurprisingly, BHB has been shown by some research to be neuroprotective.[34]

    In adults with memory impairment, increased BHB via dietary MCT oil has been shown to improve cognitive performance.[35]

    The application of D-BHB can even increase lifespan in lower organisms like C. elegans.[36]

    All of that is undeniably cool, but again, in the context of a pre-workout formula like Glaxon Specimen Genesis, the metabolic flexibility and potential associated performance benefits are really what we’re after with D-BHB.

  • Betaine Anhydrous – 1,250 mg

    Betaine, sometimes referred to by its chemical name trimethylglycine (TMG), is another ergogenic aid[37] in Specimen Genesis.

    Much of its ergogenic effect can be attributed to its status as an osmolyte, which is a molecule that helps regulate the balance of water in the body’s cells. Betaine does this by increasing the osmotic pressure around cells, thus forcing a higher than normal amount of water into them. The natural result of this is better hydrated cells,[38,39] which improves cellular access to nutrients, as well as resilience to heat stress.[40]

    Betaine is also a methyl donor, a molecule that donates a methyl group (chemical formula -CH3) to another molecule. As methyl groups are consumed by various cellular processes, including DNA methylation, protein function, and energy metabolism, your body must have access to an adequate supply for peak mental and physical performance.

    The body also uses methylation to regulate the amount of homocysteine in blood – if this methylating process is impaired by lack of methyl groups, homocysteine levels can get too high,[41] which statistically raises the risk of cardiovascular disease.[38,42]

    Betaine Muscle

    A landmark 2013 study showed that 2.5 grams of betaine every day can have profound effects on body mass and strength[38]

    Supplementation with betaine can thus be seen not only as a performance-boosting practice, but also an investment in your long-term cardiovascular health and overall athleticism.

    Research shows that supplementing with betaine can significantly improve strength, power, athletic endurance, and even body composition.[43-48]

    The dose adds up to over 2.5 grams betaine

    The clinically-validated dose of betaine is 2.5 grams per day (some research goes higher). Here, we have 1.25 grams in the form of betaine anhydrous, but there’s also ~1.3 grams of betaine coming from betaine nitrate, meaning Specimen Genesis provides over 2.5 grams of total betaine.

  • Astrolyte Electrolyte Blend (Fructooligosaccharides, Sodium Chloride, Potassium Citrate, Magnesium Citrate) – 1,100 mg

    Astrolyte is Glaxon’s in-house electrolyte blend that’s used in many of their supplements, including Specimen, Specimen GFY, their nitric-oxide-boosting formula Plasm Surge, and even their sleep aid, Tranquility.

    Astrolyte includes:

    1. Sodium chloride (salt) – key for muscle contractions and athletic performance[49,50]
    2. Potassium – good for cardiovascular health[51-54] and bone density[55,56]
    3. Magnesium – good for insulin sensitivity,[56-58] glycemic control,[56-58] and blood pressure[57,59-61]

    These electrolyte minerals are an awesome addition to any pre-workout formula since we lose them in sweat during intense exercise and need to replenish them for optimal performance and recovery.

    However, our favorite part of this ingredient is not a mineral – it’s the fructooligosaccharides (FOS). These FOS are a special type of carbohydrate that actually increases mineral bioavailability, like sodium, potassium, and magnesium.[62-65] So, by combining it with electrolytes, Glaxon provides more bang for your buck.

    The FOS also have a prebiotic effect,[66] meaning they can feed the good bacteria your gut needs to thrive.

    Finally, Astrolyte is naturally sweet – about 0.3 to 0.6 times as sweet as sugar[67,68] – which helps improve the taste of Glaxon Specimen Genesis.

    We actually wrote a whole article dedicated to this ingredient, which serves as its own hydration product, so if you want the full scoop, check out Glaxon Astrolyte: Hydrating Electrolytes That Do More.

  • Caffeine Anhydrous – 300 mg

    Next up we have yet another powerful ergogenic aid in the form of caffeine.

    Glaxon Astrolyte

    Glaxon Astrolyte bring hydrating electrolytes in style. In this article, we dig deeper into the added mineral absorption ingredient, fructooloigosaccharides.

    The vast majority of American adults consume some form of caffeine on a daily basis for its ability to fight fatigue, increase wakefulness, and promote psychomotor vigilance.

    Caffeine fights fatigue by inhibiting adenosine receptors.[69] The reason this works is that adenosine, a byproduct of ATP hydrolysis, builds up in the brain while neurons consume energy during the waking state. The more adenosine available in the brain to activate the adenosine receptors, the more tired you feel. Caffeine prevents this from happening, not by decreasing the adenosine levels in the brain, but by preventing it from activating the receptor.

    Adenosine downregulation leads to increased global brain activity,[69] which naturally leads to enhanced focus and motivation. So too does caffeine’s ability to promote the action of dopamine, your brain’s focus and motivation neurotransmitter.[70]

    Ergogenic, pro-metabolic

    Most of us know about and have experienced caffeine’s anti-fatigue and nootropic properties.

    Glaxon Supershrooms

    Experience the power of mushrooms with SuperShroom from Glaxon, now updated with L-Ergothioneine!

    What’s discussed and understood less is caffeine’s ability to boost metabolism. As it turns out, caffeine doesn’t just give you more energy in a figurative sense – it increases the amount of literal energy your cells produce.

    Caffeine does this by activating AMPK-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which increases the rate at which your body burns fat, thus making more energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), available to your cells.[71,72]

    Caffeine can also inhibit phosphodiesterase, an enzyme responsible for degrading cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).[71,72] This has the same effect – cAMP signals your cells to synthesize more ATP, leading to additional calories burned and a larger pool of cellular energy available to do useful work.[73]

    All of this adds up to an ergogenic effect, and research shows that caffeine can improve strength, power, and endurance.[74]

  • Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens) [Seed] Extract – 250 mg

    Mucuna pruriens, known colloquially as velvet bean, is jam-packed with antioxidants and the dopamine precursor, L-dopa.[75]

    Glaxon Specimen Genesis and Plasm Surge V3

    Glaxon Specimen Genesis and Plasm Surge V3 both launched on the same day – St. Patrick’s Day 2023

    Velvet bean extracts are almost always standardized for L-dopa,[76] as supplemental L-dopa can increase dopamine production.[77] Dopamine is, again, your brain’s focus and motivation neurotransmitter, so upregulating it is of obvious value in the context of a preworkout formula.

    Mucuna extracts can also help reduce stress, as they have been shown to downregulate cortisol, the infamous stress hormone.[78-80] This makes Mucuna a great ingredient to combine with stimulants like caffeine, which tend to increase cortisol production. Importantly, this pairing gives you the upside of caffeine with less downside.

    Keeping cortisol under control is of paramount importance since excessive cortisol can actually decrease testosterone levels, potentially compromising performance and recovery.[81,82]

    The L-dopa in Mucuna can also increase your body’s production of growth hormone,[83-85] which is highly anabolic.

    Last but not least, Mucuna can help prevent prolactin levels from rising too high,[86] which is beneficial as prolactin tends to be elevated following exercise.

  • Choline L+Bitartrate (as VitaCholine) – 200 mg

    The essential nutrient choline is required to build and maintain cellular membranes,[87] the phospholipid bilayer envelopes that enclose the contents of your cells.

    In the central nervous system, choline is the precursor to acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that we often refer to as the learning neurotransmitter because of the indispensable role it plays in learning and memory consolidation.[88]

    Glaxon Super Greens Pink Lady

    See the brand’s previous release, Glaxon Super Greens Pink Lady flavor

    Upregulated acetylcholine improves performance in multiple dimensions of cognition, ranging from learning and memory to balance and coordination.[89,90] This can be beneficial for any workout that requires high levels of dexterity or hand-eye coordination.

    Choline deficiency is not good. Besides the obvious cognitive dysfunction it can cause, it’s also associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia.[91]

    VitaCholine is 100% choline-L, the most bioavailable form of choline bitartrate. And there’s a bit more choline coming as well:

  • CDP-Choline (Cytidine 5′-Diphosphocholine as Cognizin) – 100 mg

    Next we have a little extra choline in the form of Cognizin citicoline CDP-choline.

    So how does this differ from the VitaCholine? Research shows that citicoline is particularly good for improving certain dimensions of cognitive performance, including focus, attention, and mental energy.[92,93]

    It’s made up of choline and uridine, which synergize to improve cerebral blood flow and mitochondrial function.[94,95]

    Citicoline is more or less the feel-good form of supplemental choline, thanks to its specific nootropic effects and ability to significantly upregulate dopamine,[96] in addition to the usual acetylcholine.

    Overall, we’ve seen choline blends in Glaxon pre-workouts before – it’s nice to have the formula opened up so we know exactly how much of each one we’re getting.

  • English Ivy (Hedera helix) [Leaf] Extract – 100 mg

    English ivy contains high levels of saponins and flavonoids,[97] both of which are associated with better fat metabolism[98] and body composition.[99]

    In rats, Hedera extract has been found to protect against diabetes by reducing HbA1c and improving glycemic control.[100] This effect was so significant that researchers were able to see differences between the organ tissue structure of the Hedera rats compared to placebo rats.

    Hedera can also benefit people with respiratory disease. Several peer-reviewed studies found that Hedera can open airways (bronchodilation).[101-103] In the context of a pre-workout formula, this can potentially support peak performance by making breathing easier.

  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) – 90 mg (100% DV)

    It’s famed for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and there are about a million different things we could write about vitamin C, but we want to highlight two angles that are particularly important for a pre-workout formula, especially one with nitrates.

    Glaxon Specimen Genesis Alien Pop

    First, research has shown that vitamin C reduces nitrate tolerance.[104] This comes in handy since Specimen Genesis also includes betaine nitrate, discussed above, and the powerful antioxidant in vitamin C will help it work just as well from the tub’s first scoop to its last.

    The second angle is the role that vitamin C can play in reducing or preventing adrenal fatigue.

    Believe it or not, your adrenal cortex – the gland responsible for producing stress hormones and some of your body’s androgens — actually has one of the highest concentrations of vitamin C in your entire body.[105]

    During a period of stress – such as an intense workout – your adrenal glands actually secrete vitamin C.[106] Over time, this opens the door to vitamin C deficiency and possible adrenal dysfunction.

    Thus, if you’re training hard, supplementing with a little C isn’t a bad idea. We like seeing this moderate dose, which is enough to help cover requirements without wandering into megadose territory.

  • Magnesium (as magnesium citrate and D-betahydroxybutyrate) – 157 mg (37% DV)

    We’re glad to see a hefty dose of magnesium in Glaxon Specimen Genesis. After all, magnesium is an electrolyte mineral, meaning it’s liable to be depleted during periods of stress or lost in sweat.

    Magnesium deficiency is a growing public health concern, as the magnesium content of our food has been in steady decline for at least 100 years, thanks to the prevalence of certain agricultural practices.

    Peer-reviewed studies show that fixing even a mild magnesium deficiency can improve:

    • Blood pressure[107-110]
    • HbA1c and blood glucose[107,111,112]
    • Insulin production[107,111,113]
    • Insulin sensitivity[107,111,112,114]
    • Type 2 diabetes risk[115-117]
    • Bone mineral density[118]
    • PMS symptoms[119-122]
    • Lactic acid disposal[123]
    • Muscle gains[124]
    • C-reactive protein level and effects[124,125]
    • Systemic inflammation[124-126]
    • Exercise-induced muscle damage[127]
    • Migraine symptoms and frequency[128-130]

    Magnesium is a true superstar supplement ingredient and we’re happy to see it in pretty much any formula.

  • Other ingredients

    Glaxon Specimen Genesis

    Finally, Glaxon Specimen Genesis has some other ingredients for supporting metabolism through intense physical stress, including hefty doses of water-soluble B vitamins that act as energy production cofactors and trace electrolyte mineral support. These can help keep your energy levels up during workouts, as well as support recovery afterwards.

    We like seeing methylcobalamin B12 used instead of cyanocobalamin, as the methylated form is significantly more bioavailable and can donate methyl groups to various metabolic processes (much like betaine).

    • Vitamin B2 (as riboflavin) – 10 mg (769% DV)
    • Vitamin B3 (as nicotinic acid) – 40 mg (250% DV)
    • Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxal-5′-Phosphate) – 5 mg (294% DV)
    • Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin) – 200 mcg (8,333% DV)
    • Calcium (from the D-BHB) – 214 mg (16% DV)
    • Chloride – 182 mg (8% DV)
    • Sodium – 120 mg (5%)
    • Potassium – 96 mg (2%)

Flavors Available

    Conclusion: The Genesis of Glaxon’s Next Pre-Workout

    Glaxon Specimen Genesis mostly sticks to tried-and-true, heavy-hitter pre-workout ingredients like beta-alanine, betaine, and caffeine. And they’re all generously dosed.

    Glaxon Collagen

    With the new-and-improved Glaxon Collagen formula, Glaxon takes collagen supplementation to the next level with ingredients like MFGM and hyaluronic acid.

    But it wouldn’t be a Glaxon product without the company bringing some innovative and forward-looking flair to the formula selection, and that’s where nootropic ingredients like Mucuna and choline come in – as well as English ivy, which is a Glaxon favorite. In fact, we rarely see anyone else use it.

    As the nootropic stack in Glaxon Specimen Genesis can upregulate dopamine, acetylcholine, and BDNF—and also improve cerebral blood flow— these ingredients will get you focused, motivated, and happy during your time in the gym, which any serious gym goer can tell you is crucial for long-term athletic success.

    We also love the Astrolyte electrolyte blend – this is a Glaxon ingredient that seems to fit in pretty much anywhere.

    But the real show-stopper here is the big dose of D-BHB. Very few pre-workout formulas include exogenous ketones. We think the metabolic flexibility afforded by this ingredient will give even the veteran supplement consumer a new experience in the gym, even if it’s subtle.

    Next up: our updates to Plasm Surge, whose V3 launch came alongside Specimen Genesis!

    Glaxon Specimen Genesis – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

    Get Price Alerts

    No spam, no scams.

    Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    About the Author: Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is an n=1 diet experimenter with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several experiments done on himself while sharing lab tests.

    Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public.

    No Comments | Posted in | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .


    1. Trexler, E.T., Smith-Ryan, A.E., Stout, J.R. et al.; “International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine.”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr 12, 30 (2015);
    2. Harris, R. C., et al. “The Absorption of Orally Supplied β-Alanine and Its Effect on Muscle Carnosine Synthesis in Human Vastus Lateralis.” Amino Acids, vol. 30, no. 3, 24 Mar. 2006, pp. 279–289, 10.1007/s00726-006-0299-9;
    3. Dunnett, M., and R. C. Harris. “Influence of Oral ß-Alanine and L-Histidine Supplementation on the Carnosine Content of Thegluteus Medius.” Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 31, no. S30, July 1999, pp. 499–504, 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1999.tb05273.x;
    4. Hobson, R M, et al; “Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Exercise Performance: a Meta-Analysis.”; Amino Acids; Springer Vienna; July 2012;
    5. Sale, Craig, et al; “Effect of β-Alanine plus Sodium Bicarbonate on High-Intensity Cycling Capacity.”; Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Oct. 2011;
    6. Van, R, et al; “Beta-Alanine Improves Sprint Performance in Endurance Cycling.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Apr. 2009;
    7. Kern, Ben D, and Tracey L Robinson; “Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Performance and Body Composition in Collegiate Wrestlers and Football Players.”; Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; July 2011;
    8. Saunders, Bryan, et al. “β-Alanine Supplementation to Improve Exercise Capacity and Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 51, no. 8, 18 Oct. 2016, pp. 658–669;
    9. Dolan, Eimear, et al. “A Systematic Risk Assessment and Meta-Analysis on the Use of Oral β-Alanine Supplementation.” Advances in Nutrition, vol. 10, no. 3, 13 Apr. 2019, pp. 452–463, 10.1093/advances/nmy115;
    10. Lundberg, Jon O., and Mirco Govoni. “Inorganic Nitrate Is a Possible Source for Systemic Generation of Nitric Oxide.” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, 1 Aug. 2004, pp. 395–400, 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.04.027.
    11. Qu, X. M., et al. “From Nitrate to Nitric Oxide: The Role of Salivary Glands and Oral Bacteria.” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 95, no. 13, 1 Dec. 2016, pp. 1452–1456, 10.1177/0022034516673019;
    12. Eisenbrand, G., et al. “Nitrate and Nitrite in Saliva.” Oncology, vol. 37, no. 4, 1980, pp. 227–231, 10.1159/000225441;
    13. Hoon, Matthew W., et al. “The Effect of Nitrate Supplementation on Exercise Performance in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 23, no. 5, Oct. 2013, pp. 522–532, 10.1123/ijsnem.23.5.522.
    14. Larsen, F; “Effects of dietary nitrate on oxygen cost during exercise”; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet; 2007;
    15. Lansley, K; “Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: a placebo-controlled study”; School of Sport and Health Sciences, Univ. of Exeter; 2011;
    16. Bailey, S; “Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans”; School of Sport and Health Sciences, Univ. of Exeter; 2009;
    17. Bescos, R; “Acute administration of inorganic nitrate reduces VO(2peak) in endurance athletes”; National Institute of Physical Education-Barcelona, University of Barcelona; 2011;
    18. Fulford, J; “Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on human skeletal muscle metabolism and force production during maximum voluntary contractions”; NIHR Exeter Clinical Research Facility, University of Exeter Medical School; 2013;
    19. Bailey, S; “Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans”; School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter; 2010;
    20. Lundberg, J; “The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics”; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute; 2008;
    21. Larsen, F; “Dietary inorganic nitrate improves mitochondrial efficiency in humans”; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet; 2011;
    22. McPherson, Peter Andrew C, and Jane McEneny; “The Biochemistry of Ketogenesis and Its Role in Weight Management, Neurological Disease and Oxidative Stress.”; Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Mar. 2012;
    23. Hagenfeldt, L., and J. Wahren. “Human Forearm Muscle Metabolism during Exercise III Uptake, Release and Oxidation Ofβ-Hydroxybutyrate and Observations on Theβ-Hydroxybutyrate/Acetoacetate Ratio.” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 21, no. 4, Jan. 1968, pp. 314–320, 10.3109/00365516809076999;
    24. Cox, Pete J., et al. “Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes.” Cell Metabolism, vol. 24, no. 2, Aug. 2016, pp. 256–268, 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.07.010;
    25. Cuenoud B, Hartweg M, Godin J-P, Croteau E, Maltais M, Castellano C-A, Carpentier AC, and Cunnane SC; “Metabolism of Exogenous D-Beta-Hydroxybutyrate, an Energy Substrate Avidly Consumed by the Heart and Kidney”; Front. Nutr. 7:13; 2020; 10.3389/fnut.2020.00013;
    26. Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre, et al. “Inverse Relationship between Brain Glucose and Ketone Metabolism in Adults during Short-Term Moderate Dietary Ketosis: A Dual Tracer Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Study.” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 37, no. 7, 1 Oct. 2016, pp. 2485–2493, 10.1177/0271678×16669366;
    27. Fortier, Mélanie, et al. “A Ketogenic Drink Improves Brain Energy and Some Measures of Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment.” Alzheimer’s & Dementia, vol. 15, no. 5, 23 Apr. 2019, pp. 625–634, 10.1016/j.jalz.2018.12.017;
    28. Croteau, Etienne, et al. “Ketogenic Medium Chain Triglycerides Increase Brain Energy Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease: JAD, vol. 64, no. 2, 2018, pp. 551–561, 10.3233/JAD-180202;
    29. Neth, Bryan J., et al. “Modified Ketogenic Diet Is Associated with Improved Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Profile, Cerebral Perfusion, and Cerebral Ketone Body Uptake in Older Adults At-Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Pilot Study.” Neurobiology of Aging, Sept. 2019, 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2019.09.015;
    30. de la Monte, Suzanne M, and Jack R Wands; “Alzheimer’s disease is type 3 diabetes-evidence reviewed”; Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology; vol. 2,6: 1101-13; 2008;
    31. Kandimalla, Ramesh et al; “Is Alzheimer’s disease a Type 3 Diabetes? A critical appraisal”; Biochimica et Biophysica acta. Molecular Basis of Disease; vol. 1863,5: 1078-1089; 2017;
    32. Ferreira, Laís S S et al; “Insulin Resistance in Alzheimer’s Disease”; Frontiers in Neuroscience; vol. 12; 830. 13; Nov. 2018;
    33. Sleiman, Sama F, et al. “Exercise Promotes the Expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) through the Action of the Ketone Body β-Hydroxybutyrate.” ELife, vol. 5, 2 June 2016, 10.7554/elife.15092;
    34. Gasior, Maciej, et al. “Neuroprotective and Disease-Modifying Effects of the Ketogenic Diet.” Behavioural Pharmacology, vol. 17, no. 5-6, 1 Sept. 2006, p. 431;
    35. Reger, Mark A., et al. “Effects of Beta-Hydroxybutyrate on Cognition in Memory-Impaired Adults.” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 25, no. 3, 1 Mar. 2004, pp. 311–314, 10.1016/S0197-4580(03)00087-3;
    36. Edwards, Clare, et al. “D-Beta-Hydroxybutyrate Extends Lifespan in C. Elegans.” Aging, vol. 6, no. 8, 7 Aug. 2014, pp. 621–644, 10.18632/aging.100683;
    37. Thein, L A et al. “Ergogenic aids.” Physical therapy vol. 75,5 (1995): 426-39. doi:10.1093/ptj/75.5.426;
    38. Cholewa, Jason M et al. “Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 10,1 39. 22 Aug. 2013, doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-39;
    39. Boel De Paepe; “Osmolytes as Mediators of the Muscle Tissue’s Responses to Inflammation: Emerging Regulators of Myositis with Therapeutic Potential”; EMJ Rheumatol. 2017;4undefined:83-89;
    40. Caldas, Teresa, et al. “Thermoprotection by Glycine Betaine and Choline.” Microbiology, vol. 145, no. 9, 1 Sept. 1999, pp. 2543–2548, 10.1099/00221287-145-9-2543;
    41. Olthof, M. R., & Verhoef, P. (2005). Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health. Current drug metabolism, 6(1), 15-22;
    42. Prasad K. Homocysteine, a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease. Int J Angiol. 1999 Jan;8(1):76-86. doi: 10.1007/BF01616850;
    43. Roti, M; “Homocysteine, Lipid and Glucose Responses to Betaine Supplementation During Running in the Heat”; Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2003 – Volume 35 – Issue 5 – p S271;,_LIPID_AND_GLUCOSE_RESPONSES_TO.1501.aspx
    44. Armstrong, Lawrence E, et al. “Influence of Betaine Consumption on Strenuous Running and Sprinting in a Hot Environment.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 22, no. 3, May 2008, pp. 851–860, 10.1519/jsc.0b013e31816a6efb;
    45. Hoffman, Jay R, et al. “Effect of Betaine Supplementation on Power Performance and Fatigue.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 6, no. 1, 27 Feb. 2009, 10.1186/1550-2783-6-7;
    46. Lee, Elaine C, et al. “Ergogenic Effects of Betaine Supplementation on Strength and Power Performance.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 7, no. 1, 2010, p. 27, 10.1186/1550-2783-7-27;
    47. Trepanowski, John F, et al. “The Effects of Chronic Betaine Supplementation on Exercise Performance, Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Saturation and Associated Biochemical Parameters in Resistance Trained Men.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 25, no. 12, Dec. 2011, pp. 3461–3471, 10.1519/jsc.0b013e318217d48d;
    48. Pryor, J Luke, et al. “Effect of Betaine Supplementation on Cycling Sprint Performance.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 9, no. 1, 3 Apr. 2012, 10.1186/1550-2783-9-12;
    49. Strazzullo P., Leclercq C.; “Sodium.” Advanced Nutrition; March 2014; 5(2) 188-190;
    50. Valentine, V. 2007. “The Importance of Salt in the Athlete’s Diet.” Current Sports Medicine Reports vol. 6,4 (2007): 237-40.
    51. Weaver, Connie M. “Potassium and Health.” Advances in Nutrition, vol. 4, no. 3, 1 May 2013, pp. 368S377S, 10.3945/an.112.003533;
    52. Fulgoni, Victor L., et al. “Foods, Fortificants, and Supplements: Where Do Americans Get Their Nutrients?” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 141, no. 10, 24 Aug. 2011, pp. 1847–1854, 10.3945/jn.111.142257;
    53. Cook, Nancy R. “Joint Effects of Sodium and Potassium Intake on Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease.” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 169, no. 1, 12 Jan. 2009, p. 32, 10.1001/archinternmed.2008.523;
    54. Lemann, Jacob, et al. “Potassium Administration Increases and Potassium Deprivation Reduces Urinary Calcium Excretion in Healthy Adults.” Kidney International, vol. 39, no. 5, May 1991, pp. 973–983, 10.1038/ki.1991.123;
    55. Gregory, Naina Sinha, et al. “Potassium Citrate Decreases Bone Resorption in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial” Endocrine Practice, vol. 21, no. 12, Dec. 2015, pp. 1380–1386, 10.4158/ep15738.or;
    56. Rodriguez-Moran, M., and F. Guerrero-Romero. “Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 4, 1 Apr. 2003, pp. 1147–1152, 10.2337/diacare.26.4.1147;
    57. Guerrero-Romero, Fernando, and Martha Rodríguez-Morán. “Magnesium Improves the Beta-Cell Function to Compensate Variation of Insulin Sensitivity: Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 41, no. 4, 17 Jan. 2011, pp. 405–410, 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2010.02422.x;
    58. Mooren, F. C., et al. “Oral Magnesium Supplementation Reduces Insulin Resistance in Non-Diabetic Subjects – a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial.” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 13, no. 3, 24 Jan. 2011, pp. 281–284, 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01332.x;
    59. Hatzistavri, L. S., et al. “Oral Magnesium Supplementation Reduces Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Patients with Mild Hypertension.” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 22, no. 10, 1 Oct. 2009, pp. 1070–1075, 10.1038/ajh.2009.126;
    60. Kawano, Yuhei, et al. “Effects of Magnesium Supplementation in Hypertensive Patients.” Hypertension, vol. 32, no. 2, Aug. 1998, pp. 260–265, 10.1161/01.hyp.32.2.260;
    61. Guerrero-Romero, F, and M Rodríguez-Morán. “The Effect of Lowering Blood Pressure by Magnesium Supplementation in Diabetic Hypertensive Adults with Low Serum Magnesium Levels: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 23, no. 4, 20 Nov. 2008, pp. 245–251, 10.1038/jhh.2008.129;
    62. Nzeusseu, A; “Inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides differ in their ability to enhance the density of cancellous and cortical bone in the axial and peripheral skeleton of growing rats”; Bone; 38(3):394-9; 2006 Mar;
    63. Ohta, A., et al. “Calcium and Magnesium Absorption from the Colon and Rectum Are Increased in Rats Fed Fructooligosaccharides.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 125, no. 9, 1 Sept. 1995, pp. 2417–2424, 10.1093/jn/125.9.2417;
    64. Delzenne, N., et al. “Effect of Fermentable Fructo-Oligosaccharides on Mineral, Nitrogen and Energy Digestive Balance in the Rat.” Life Sciences, vol. 57, no. 17, Sept. 1995, pp. 1579–1587, 10.1016/0024-3205(95)02133-4;
    65. Sakai, Kensuke, et al. “The Effect of Short Chain Fructooligosaccharides in Promoting Recovery from Post-Gastrectomy Anemia Is Stronger than that of Inulin.” Nutrition Research, vol. 20, no. 3, Mar. 2000, pp. 403–412, 10.1016/s0271-5317(00)00133-0;
    66. Sabater-Molina, M, et al. “Dietary Fructooligosaccharides and Potential Benefits on Health.” Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 65, no. 3, 2009, pp. 315–28, 10.1007/BF03180584;
    67. Crittenden, R.G., and M.J. Playne. “Production, Properties and Applications of Food-Grade Oligosaccharides.” Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 7, no. 11, Nov. 1996, pp. 353–361, 10.1016/s0924-2244(96)10038-8;
    68. Yun, Jong Won. “Fructooligosaccharides—Occurrence, Preparation, and Application.” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 19, no. 2, Aug. 1996, pp. 107–117, 10.1016/0141-0229(95)00188-3;
    69. Goldstein, E.R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D. et al.; “International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr 7, 5 (2010);
    70. Cappelletti, Simone et al. “Caffeine: cognitive and physical performance enhancer or psychoactive drug?.” Current neuropharmacology vol. 13,1 (2015): 71-88. doi:10.2174/1570159X13666141210215655
    71. Nehlig A, Daval JL, Debry G.; “Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects”; Brain Res Rev. 1992;17(2):139-170.
    72. Goldstein, E.R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D. et al.; “International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance.”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr 7, 5 (2010);
    73. Diepvens, K et al; “Obesity and thermogenesis related to the consumption of caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, and green tea;” American Journal of Physiology; 2007;
    74. Burke LM. Caffeine and sports performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Dec;33(6):1319-34. doi: 10.1139/H08-130. PMID: 19088794.
    75. Agbafor, K. N., and N. Nwachukwu. “Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Property of Leaf Extracts of Vitex Doniana and Mucuna Pruriens.” Biochemistry Research International, vol. 2011, 2011, 10.1155/2011/459839.
    76. Misra, Laxminarain, and Hildebert Wagner. “Extraction of Bioactive Principles from Mucuna Pruriens Seeds.” Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, vol. 44, no. 1, 1 Feb. 2007, pp. 56–60.
    77. Gandhi, Kavita R, and Abdolreza Saadabadi. “Levodopa (L-Dopa).”, StatPearls Publishing, 27 Oct. 2018;
    78. Boden, G., et al. “Influence of Levodopa on Serum Levels of Anterior Pituitary Hormones in Man.” Neuroendocrinology, vol. 10, no. 5, 1972, pp. 309–315, 10.1159/000122100;
    79. Müller, T., et al. “Acute Levodopa Administration Reduces Cortisol Release in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease.” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 114, no. 3, 24 Aug. 2006, pp. 347–350, 10.1007/s00702-006-0552-0;
    80. Shukla, Kamla Kant, et al. “Mucuna PruriensReduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Semen in Infertile Men.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, 2010, pp. 137–144, 10.1093/ecam/nem171;
    81. Negro-Vilar, A. “Stress and Other Environmental Factors Affecting Fertility in Men and Women: Overview.” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 101, no. suppl 2, July 1993, pp. 59–64, 10.1289/ehp.93101s259;
    82. Axelrod, J, and T. Reisine. “Stress Hormones: Their Interaction and Regulation.” Science, vol. 224, no. 4648, 4 May 1984, pp. 452–459, 10.1126/science.6143403;
    83. “Stimulation of Growth Hormone Secretion by Levodopa-Propranolol in Children and Adolescents.” Pediatrics, vol. 56, no. 2, 1 Aug. 1975, pp. 262–266;
    84. Chihara, K., et al. “L-Dopa Stimulates Release of Hypothalamic Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Humans.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 62, no. 3, 1 Mar. 1986, pp. 466–473, 10.1210/jcem-62-3-466;
    85. Galea-Debono, A., et al. “Plasma DOPA Levels and Growth Hormone Response to Levodopa in Parkinsomism.” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, vol. 40, no. 2, 1 Feb. 1977, p. 162, 10.1136/jnnp.40.2.162;
    86. Shukla, Kamla Kant, et al. “Mucuna Pruriens Improves Male Fertility by Its Action on the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis.” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 92, no. 6, 1 Dec. 2009, pp. 1934–1940, 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.09.045;
    87. Sanders LM, Zeisel SH; “Choline: Dietary Requirements and Role in Brain Development;” Nutrition today; 2007;42(4):181-186;
    88. Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al.; “Neuroscience;” 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001. Acetylcholine.
    89. Hasselmo ME; “The role of acetylcholine in learning and memory;”Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006;16(6):710–715;
    90. Jones BE; “From waking to sleeping: neuronal and chemical substrates”. Trends Pharmacol. Sci.; 2005; 26 (11): 578–86;
    91. Ueland, P. M.; “Choline and betaine in health and disease;” Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease; 2010; 34(1), 3–15;
    92. Scientific Research Publishing; “Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women.”; Advances in Infectious Diseases; Scientific Research Publishing; 20 June 2012;
    93. Fioravanti M, Buckley AE. Citicoline (Cognizin) in the treatment of cognitive impairment. Clin Interv Aging. 2006;1(3):247–251. doi:10.2147/ciia.2006.1.3.247;
    94. Silveri, MM et al; “Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy”; NMR Biomed. 2008 Nov;21(10):1066-75. doi: 10.1002/nbm.1281;
    95. Cognizin® Citicoline Ingredient Information; Kyowa Hakko USA: 2020;
    96. Secades, JJ; “Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, 2016 update;” Rev Neurol; 2017;
    97. Yu M, Shin YJ, Kim N, Yoo G, Park S, Kim SH. Determination of saponins and flavonoids in ivy leaf extracts using HPLC-DAD. J Chromatogr Sci. 2015 Apr;53(4):478-83. doi: 10.1093/chromsci/bmu068. Epub 2014 Jun 30. PMID: 24981979.
    98. Marrelli, Mariangela et al. “Effects of Saponins on Lipid Metabolism: A Review of Potential Health Benefits in the Treatment of Obesity.” Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 21,10 1404. 20 Oct. 2016, doi:10.3390/molecules21101404
    99. Bertoia, Monica L et al. “Dietary flavonoid intake and weight maintenance: three prospective cohorts of 124,086 US men and women followed for up to 24 years.” BMJ (Clinical research ed.) vol. 352 i17. 28 Jan. 2016, doi:10.1136/bmj.i17
    100. Saeed Khan S, Adil A, Naeem S, Jaffar N, Khatoon H, Ansar H, Shafiq Y. Evaluation of Acute and Chronic Antidiabetic Activity of Ivy (Hedera helix L.) Aqueous Leaf Extract in Rat Model. Pak J Biol Sci. 2020 Jan;23(11):1357-1368. doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2020.1357.1368. PMID: 33274862.
    101. Hoffman D. et al; “Efficacy of dry extract of ivy leaves in children with bronchial asthma–a review of randomized controlled trials”; Phytomedicine. 2003 Mar;10(2-3):213-20;
    102. Lang C. et al; “A Valuable Option for the Treatment of Respiratory Diseases: Review on the Clinical Evidence of the Ivy Leaves Dry Extract EA 575®”; Planta Med. 2015 Aug;81(12-13):968-74;
    103. Schönknecht K. et al; “Efficacy of dry extract of ivy leaves in the treatment of productive cough”; Wiad Lek. 2017;70(6 pt 1):1026-1033;
    104. Bassenge, E, et al. “Dietary Supplement with Vitamin c Prevents Nitrate Tolerance.” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 102, no. 1, 1 July 1998, pp. 67–71.
    105. Patak P, Willenberg HS, Bornstein SR. Vitamin C is an important cofactor for both adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla. Endocr Res. 2004 Nov;30(4):871-5. doi: 10.1081/erc-200044126;
    106. Sebastian J Padayatty, John L Doppman, Richard Chang, Yaohui Wang, John Gill, Dimitris A Papanicolaou, Mark Levine, Human adrenal glands secrete vitamin C in response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 86, Issue 1, July 2007, Pages 145–149;
    107. Guerrero-Romero, Fernando, and Martha Rodríguez-Morán. “Magnesium Improves the Beta-Cell Function to Compensate Variation of Insulin Sensitivity: Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 41, no. 4, 17 Jan. 2011, pp. 405–410, 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2010.02422.x;
    108. Hatzistavri, L. S., et al. “Oral Magnesium Supplementation Reduces Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Patients with Mild Hypertension.” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 22, no. 10, 1 Oct. 2009, pp. 1070–1075, 10.1038/ajh.2009.126;
    109. Kawano, Yuhei, et al. “Effects of Magnesium Supplementation in Hypertensive Patients.” Hypertension, vol. 32, no. 2, Aug. 1998, pp. 260–265, 10.1161/01.hyp.32.2.260;
    110. Guerrero-Romero, F, and M Rodríguez-Morán. “The Effect of Lowering Blood Pressure by Magnesium Supplementation in Diabetic Hypertensive Adults with Low Serum Magnesium Levels: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 23, no. 4, 20 Nov. 2008, pp. 245–251, 10.1038/jhh.2008.129;
    111. Rodriguez-Moran, M., and F. Guerrero-Romero. “Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 4, 1 Apr. 2003, pp. 1147–1152, 10.2337/diacare.26.4.1147;
    112. Mooren, F. C., et al. “Oral Magnesium Supplementation Reduces Insulin Resistance in Non-Diabetic Subjects – a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial.” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 13, no. 3, 24 Jan. 2011, pp. 281–284, 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01332.x;
    113. Golf, S.W., et al. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, vol. 12, no. 2suppl, 1998, pp. 197–202, 10.1023/a:1007708918683;
    114. Simental-Mendía LE, Sahebkar A, Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effects of magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and glucose control. Pharmacol Res. 2016 Sep;111:272-282. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2016.06.019;
    115. Hruby A, Guasch-Ferré M, Bhupathiraju SN, Manson JE, Willett WC, McKeown NM, Hu FB. Magnesium Intake, Quality of Carbohydrates, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From Three U.S. Cohorts. Diabetes Care. 2017 Dec;40(12):1695-1702. doi: 10.2337/dc17-1143;
    116. Fang X, Han H, Li M, Liang C, Fan Z, Aaseth J, He J, Montgomery S, Cao Y. Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Nutrients. 2016 Nov 19;8(11):739. doi: 10.3390/nu8110739;
    117. Zhao B, Deng H, Li B, Chen L, Zou F, Hu L, Wei Y, Zhang W. Association of magnesium consumption with type 2 diabetes and glucose metabolism: A systematic review and pooled study with trial sequential analysis. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2020 Mar;36(3):e3243. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.3243;
    118. Carpenter, Thomas O., et al. “A Randomized Controlled Study of Effects of Dietary Magnesium Oxide Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content in Healthy Girls.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 12, Dec. 2006, pp. 4866–4872, 10.1210/jc.2006-1391;
    119. Ebrahimi, Elham, et al. “Effects of Magnesium and Vitamin B6 on the Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms.” Journal of Caring Sciences, vol. 2012, no. 4, pp. 183–189, 10.5681/jcs.2012.026;
    120. Quaranta, S., et al. “Pilot Study of the Efficacy and Safety of a Modified-Release Magnesium 250 Mg Tablet (Sincromag) for the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome.” Clinical Drug Investigation, vol. 27, no. 1, 2007, pp. 51–58, 10.2165/00044011-200727010-00004;
    121. Walker, Ann F., et al. “Magnesium Supplementation Alleviates Premenstrual Symptoms of Fluid Retention.” Journal of Women’s Health, vol. 7, no. 9, Nov. 1998, pp. 1157–1165, 10.1089/jwh.1998.7.1157;
    122. Facchinetti, F., et al. “Oral Magnesium Successfully Relieves Premenstrual Mood Changes.” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 78, no. 2, 1991, pp. 177–181;
    123. Zhang, Yijia et al. “Can Magnesium Enhance Exercise Performance?.” Nutrients vol. 9,9 946. 28 Aug. 2017, doi:10.3390/nu9090946;
    124. Welch, Ailsa A, et al. “Dietary Magnesium Is Positively Associated with Skeletal Muscle Power and Indices of Muscle Mass and May Attenuate the Association between Circulating C-Reactive Protein and Muscle Mass in Women.” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 31, no. 2, 11 Sept. 2015, pp. 317–325, 10.1002/jbmr.2692;
    125. Simental-Mendia LE, Sahebkar A, Rodriguez-Moran M, Zambrano-Galvan G, Guerrero-Romero F. Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on Plasma C-reactive Protein Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(31):4678-4686. doi: 10.2174/1381612823666170525153605;
    126. Steward CJ, Zhou Y, Keane G, Cook MD, Liu Y, Cullen T. One week of magnesium supplementation lowers IL-6, muscle soreness and increases post-exercise blood glucose in response to downhill running. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2019 Dec;119(11-12):2617-2627. doi: 10.1007/s00421-019-04238-y;
    127. Córdova A, Mielgo-Ayuso J, Roche E, Caballero-García A, Fernandez-Lázaro D. Impact of Magnesium Supplementation in Muscle Damage of Professional Cyclists Competing in a Stage Race. Nutrients. 2019 Aug 16;11(8):1927. doi: 10.3390/nu11081927;
    128. Chiu HY, Yeh TH, Huang YC, Chen PY. Effects of Intravenous and Oral Magnesium on Reducing Migraine: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Pain Physician. 2016 Jan;19(1):E97-112.
    129. von Luckner A, Riederer F. Magnesium in Migraine Prophylaxis-Is There an Evidence-Based Rationale? A Systematic Review. Headache. 2018 Feb;58(2):199-209. doi: 10.1111/head.13217;
    130. Shahrami A, Assarzadegan F, Hatamabadi HR, Asgarzadeh M, Sarehbandi B, Asgarzadeh S. Comparison of therapeutic effects of magnesium sulfate vs. dexamethasone/metoclopramide on alleviating acute migraine headache. J Emerg Med. 2015 Jan;48(1):69-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.06.055;

    Comments and Discussion (Powered by the PricePlow Forum)