Ghost Pump V2: Still VICIOUS with Bigger Pumps in an Upgraded Formula

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2021 has a lot of “V2s” set for many of Ghost’s supplements – sign up for alerts on our Ghost news page so you don’t miss a single one!

In 2021, Ghost is taking a brief break from completely new releases, returning to some of their core products and reformulating them in what they call “The Year of the V2”. Ghost has begun launching their V2 Series of their foundational lineup starting with the pre-workouts — first came Ghost Legend V2, and now, we’re excited to discuss the newest iteration of their pump-based non-stimulant formula, Ghost Pump V2!

Originally bursting onto the scene in 2016, Ghost Lifestyle has taken the world of sports supplements by storm. The brand initially caught our attention with Ghost Legend, their flagship, stimulant-powered pre-workout formula. Next came Ghost Whey, a high-quality whey protein powder that was launched in delicious, cereal-themed flavors. In 2018, the brand came out with a potent pump pre-workout, Ghost Pump. Multiple other releases — Ghost Burn, Ghost Amino, Ghost Multi — have been equally as impressive.

Stronger pumps with in a smaller serving

Here are the major changes Ghost made to Pump V2, per each two-scoop serving:

Ghost Pump V2

Ghost Pump V2 is here, and it’s still vicious. More so, even with, more citrulline and arginine nitrate!

  • 6 grams L-citrulline, bumped up from 4 grams
  • An extra 500 milligrams of arginine nitrate, totaling 3 grams
  • The removal of glycerol powder and norvaline, the latter of which was also left out of Legend V2
  • The addition of PureWay-C, a patented form of bioflavonoids, and Setria, which is branded L-glutathione

Smaller scoop size, but more serving potency

There are key differences that jump out right away when comparing Pump V2’s label to its predecessor. Initially, you’ll notice that Ghost listed ingredient amounts for both one-scoop and one-scoop servings. The previous iteration of Ghost Pump only listed a two-scoop serving.

While we haven’t seen this from Ghost before, this kind of labeling is somewhat common in the industry as it allows for more user customization. Ghost knows some individuals might be relying on Pump V2 as their sole pre-workout, in which case a full two-scoop serving makes more sense. Others stack it with another formula (like Ghost Legend V2!), where either of the listed serving sizes would help make an excellent combination. This was stated in the fine print below the supplement facts label on the original Ghost Pump, but now, it’s prominently stated!

Ghost V2 Series

Always getting better – 2021 will be the year of the “V2s” with Ghost!

Take a closer look at the label and you’ll notice something else, too. The two-scoop serving of Pump V2 is actually smaller than the initial version. Again, this is a purposeful choice. Ghost removed two ingredients that came at relatively larger doses (glycerol powder and norvaline), replacing them with two ingredients (PureWay-C and Setria Glutathione) that are effective in much smaller amounts.

…more room for more citrulline and more nitrate!

This opens up more space on the label, which Pump V2 uses to bump up the amounts of a few key drivers in citrulline and arginine nitrate. All in all, a single two–scoop serving of Pump V2 comes in at 13.5 grams, a full 4.5 grams lower than the original. No need to worry, though. This just means that Pump V2 is more efficient, delivering powerful results at a smaller size.

Read on for a full breakdown of what Ghost Pump V2 packs in its smaller-yet-mightier formula, and subscribe below for more Ghost news, reviews, and deals from PricePlow. You can use the code PRICEPLOW at checkout to save on all Ghost supplements and apparel on their website.

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Ghost Pump V2 Ingredients

If you decide to go with the full two scoops, one tub of Ghost Pump V2 will get you 20 servings —just enough for around one month’s worth of workouts. That measures up close to the 25 servings that Ghost Legend V2 supplies, as Ghost wants to keep you stocked-up for roughly one month with both formulas. Of course, insane pumps are more useful on some days compared to others, making 20 servings a fitting amount.

Here’s what each two-scoop serving of Ghost Pump V2 (13.5 grams) delivers:

  • L-Citrulline – 6g

    Ghost Pump V2 Ingredients

    The Ghost Pump V2 Ingredients. Funny enough, when Ghost Pump originally came out with 2.5g arginine nitrate, we asked “Is this the most nitrate we’ve ever seen in one serving?”… and here we are again, now at a 3g dose!

    What’s a pump supplement if it doesn’t include L-citrulline, let alone one that doesn’t include a massive dose of it?!

    A carry-over from the original Ghost Pump, citrulline is an absolute powerhouse in the world of nitric oxide (NO) boosters. This non-essential amino acid is a key intermediate in the nitric oxide cycle, as it’s metabolized by the kidneys to yield L-arginine,[1] which itself interacts with NO synthase (NOS) to produce NO. Nitric oxide production encourages vasodilation, opening up blood vessels to increase blood flow and nutrient delivery in the body.[1] With more blood flow comes serious pumps, but this ingredient actually brings some real performance benefits to the table, too.

    Citrulline also plays a role in the urea cycle, where it helps the body remove ammonia produced by working muscles. Ammonia is a byproduct inherent in the metabolism of amino acids and other nitrogen-containing compounds and is produced in especially high amounts in response to exercise.[2] Elevated blood ammonia levels are an indicator of muscular fatigue and can be problematic in other metabolic and neurologic processes, as well.[3] In addition to promoting NO synthesis, arginine is also used to remove ammonia from the body,[2] which makes citrulline a means of keeping muscles feeling fresh and energized.

    Ghost Energy RedBerry Athlete

    Enjoy your energy bubbly? Then Ghost Energy Sour Patch Kids Redberry Ghost Energy can be stacked in for a unique experience!

    Capable of improving blood flow and removing metabolic waste, citrulline supplementation can be highly effective in improving athletic performance. A 2020 meta-analysis published in the Journal of Sport and Health Science found that citrulline significantly reduces perceived exertion and post-workout muscle soreness.[4] Enhanced NO production moves oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood through the body at a higher rate, which in conjunction with ammonia removal, helps muscles work harder longer and recover better.

    Notably, exogenous citrulline is actually far more bioavailable than exogenous arginine, as the latter is metabolized too rapidly in the gastrointestinal tract.[5] Pump V2 wants to increase NO production as efficiently as possible, and opting for citrulline does just that.

    Coming in at a large 6 grams, this dose of citrulline lies on the higher end of clinical recommendations, where 3 to 6 grams is often suggested.[4] Ghost Pump V2 packs an additional 2 grams of citrulline compared to its predecessor, kicking things off with a serious hit of endurance enhancement with even more NO production on the way…

  • Arginine Nitrate (NO3-T) – 3g

    Despite arginine being less bioavailable than citrulline, supplementing with the amino acid directly can still be beneficial. A 2014 study published in Biology of Sport saw pre-exercise ingestion of arginine extend time to exhaustion in elite male wrestlers.[6] However, when choosing between citrulline or arginine alone, the former represents the superior option.

    Ghost Pump Review

    Ghost Pump is an epic stim-free pre workout!! Look at that label above! (This product image was from the original formula)

    But Ghost Pump V2 doesn’t use just arginine, but arginine nitrate. Coming in the form of NO3-T, arginine nitrate is simply arginine bonded to nitrates — polyatomic ions found in various vegetables (beets, kale, spinach) that, when ingested, are used to create NO in the body.[7] Elevated NO levels lower blood pressure, improve blood flow, and increase oxygen circulation, regardless of whether such elevation is facilitated by citrulline, arginine, or nitrates.[7] According to a meta-analysis published in a 2013 edition of the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, supplementing with nitrates can improve endurance and overall performance.[8]

    Why use arginine nitrate

    Unlike other nitrates, having arginine alongside helps keep nitrate tolerance at bay,[9] making your last scoop of Ghost Size work just as well for you as it did the first time. This makes arginine nitrate an incredible choice, since it has two portions to give pumps (the nitrate is stronger, but the L-arginine portion itself still may help a touch), and we get the tolerance benefits. We’ll also get some additional benefits with the vitamin C discussed below.

    Nitrate + Citrulline = Strong Nitric Oxide

    Leveraging nitrates with citrulline consumption may be especially effective in yielding the benefits of raised NO production. In a 2019 study from Aging, researchers gathered 24 adults between 60 and 70 years old and split them into two groups. One group consumed 520 milligrams of nitrates with 6 grams of citrulline daily for one month, while the other group served as a placebo. They found that the nitrates/citrulline group saw significant improvements in blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen consumption, and maximal power output.[10] Despite most users of Ghost Pump V2 not fitting this demographic, the methodology used here can still be constructive — using both citrulline and nitrates can elevate NO production in a two-fronted effort.

    This version of Ghost Pump surpasses the original in NO3-T content by 500 milligrams, as it supplies a full 3 grams. Working synergistically with citrulline, arginine nitrate raises the bar even higher in terms of muscle pumps.

  • Taurine – 2g

    Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid typically found in various animal products like meat, fish, and dairy. Amino acids serve multiple roles in the body, such as facilitating protein synthesis and hormone regulation, but taurine specifically is incredibly versatile. This amino acid plays a role in various bodily processes:

    • Regulation of cell volume, acting as an osmolyte that balances cellular fluids
    • Production of bile salts, which facilitate lipid metabolization
    • Modulation of intracellular calcium levels
    • Scavenging of free radicals
    • Attenuation of oxidative stress[11,12]

    Thus, taurine has quite extensive reach in the body. It helps regulate hydration, digestion, organ function, inflammation, and free radical levels.[11] In fact, its multifaceted nature extends to its potential uses as a sports supplement, where it may provide both ergogenic and cognitive benefits.

    Taurine Benefits

    Taurine’s Benefits (endurance-wise) can be seen after a single use![13]

    In a 2018 meta-analysis published in Sports Medicine, researchers reviewed 10 studies in which the capabilities of taurine as an ergogenic aid were assessed. The researchers found that at doses between 1 gram to 6 grams, taurine can improve time to exhaustion in athletic efforts.[13] Moreover, this analysis concluded that these endurance gains were achievable in both short-term and long-term supplementation.[13] This followed a 2013 study from Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, in which scientists saw taurine reduce delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and muscle damage following high-intensity exercise.[14]

    Perhaps some of this fatigue reduction can be attributed to increased NO production. According to a 2020 study published in Nitric Oxide, taurine influences eNOS activity and, by extension, increases NO levels in the body.[15] While citrulline and NO3-T power much of the vasodilation encouraged by this formula, taurine triples down on the NO-boosting efforts here.

    Lastly, taurine also acts as a nootropic, capable of improving cognitive function through multiple pathways:

    • Restoring the function of taurine transporters and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors
    • Activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression, which defends cells from oxidative stress
    • Regulating the Akt-CREB-PGC1⍺ pathway, which holds widespread physiological responsibilities
    • Stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis and synaptic function[16]

    These nootropic effects, in addition to improved endurance and blood flow, make taurine an ingredient that fits on almost any pre-workout label. At an efficacious 2 grams in Ghost Pump V2, this versatile amino acid’s presence is certainly appreciated.

  • PureWay-C (Ascorbic Acid and Citrus Bioflavonoids) – 390mg

    Ghost Lifestyle App

    A Ghost Lifestyle Supplement App is coming, and there are some great user engagement tools planned

    The first of two new additions in Ghost Pump V2, the inclusion of PureWay-C. We know how important vitamin C is for our overall health. This powerful antioxidant helps regulate immune health, regulate enzymes tied to hormones and key transcription factors, and scavenge free radicals.[17] In short, vitamin C helps maintain a healthy body…so what exactly is it doing in a pre-workout pump formula?

    Normally, we talk about vitamin C’s potency as an antioxidant. However, it’s included here because high doses of Vitamin C have been shown to enhance nitric oxide production from the nitrates when taken pre-workout.[18,19] But going further:

    Prevent Nitrate Tolerance!

    The above nitrate boost is great, but the real reason to include Vitamin C alongside nitrates is because Vitamin C prevents nitrate tolerance build-up![20] Researchers believe that it may be due to a stabilizing effect on enzymes involved in the bioconversion to nitric oxide — so Vitamin C keeps the conversion humming smoothly along yet should be “re-upped” over time.

    Long story short, this means that your tub of Ghost Pump should be just as strong when you finish it as when you start it, especially because the arginine form of nitrates also prevents tolerance!

    While on the topic of antioxidants

    As for the free radical protection we normally talk about with Vitamin C:

    Vitamin C Citrulline Nitric Oxide

    Vitamin C stirrin up that citrulline![18]

    Antioxidants do a variety of things in the body, most of which are tied to scavenging free radicals. Free radicals are highly unstable molecules that are natural byproducts of the metabolic process, generated via energy conversion and in muscular contractions.[21] These molecules cause oxidative stress, which in excess, can damage cells and cause serious health issues when left unattended. This is why antioxidants such as vitamin C are so integral to our overall health. However, according to a 2016 study published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine, high levels of oxidative stress can limit vasodilation and impair blood flow.[22]

    In some twisted irony, exercise itself causes oxidative stress, directly contributing to the potential limitation of blood flow over time.

    By including vitamin C here, Ghost is looking to both reduce free radicals and prevent nitrate tolerance in an effort to open up blood vessels and keep the product working well throughout the entire tub. PureWay-C is an extremely well-absorbed form of vitamin C, as well, showing to be more bioavailable than other variants of this crucial vitamin.[23]

    Good for your health and good for the pumps? Ghost takes an interesting approach toward pumps here and we’re all for it.

  • Pine Bark (Pinus pinaster) extract (95% Proanthocyanidins) – 200mg

    Pine bark extract takes a similar angle as vitamin C, supplying key antioxidants to help defend the body from oxidative stress. Also known as Pinus pinaster, pine bark extract contains multiple compounds that do just that: polyphenolic monomers, phenolic acids, and proanthocyanidins.[24,25] The inclusion of this particular ingredient is standardized to 95% proanthocyanidins, an important note considering proanthocyanidins are believed to contribute much of pine bark’s antioxidant capabilities.[24]

    However, pine bark extract actually offers a bit more — and yes, it has to do with NO! According to a review published in a 2011 edition in Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, pine bark extract stimulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), resulting in increased NO production.[24]

  • Setria L-Glutathione – 200mg

    Rounding out this triumvirate of potent antioxidants is the other new addition to Ghost Pump’s label, glutathione. An extremely powerful antioxidant, glutathione is a major player in terms of oxidative stress defense, nutrient metabolism, and cellular functioning.[26] In relation to this formula, it’s supposed to contribute similarly to that of the other antioxidants at work here, namely less oxidative stress, more vasodilation. However, oral glutathione has poor bioavailability.[27] As such, most formulators have turned to things like N-acetylcysteine, a precursor to glutathione, instead.

    Setria Nitric Oxide

    The data point we’re looking at is on the right side, where the Setria group had more nitric oxide later on. Combined with nitrate, this may give you some insane “all day pumps” for your beach day after your AM workout

    Setria is a standardized form of glutathione from Kyowa Hakko that may be able to circumvent the antioxidant’s poor bioavailability…when teamed up alongside citrulline, which Ghost Pump V2 delivers in a rather large dose. In a 2015 study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, researchers conducted a three-phase analysis that tested the effects of supplementing with this tandem. In phase one, endothelial cells were treated in vitro with either citrulline, glutathione (specifically Setria), or both. This resulted in increased nitric levels in cells treated with both, encouraging considering that nitrites facilitate NO production. Phase two reached similar results in mice, as combined supplementation resulted in higher nitrite and nitrate levels. Phase three was a seven-day human study in which, each day, subjects were given either 2 grams of citrulline, 1 gram of glutathione, 2 grams of citrulline plus 200 milligrams of glutathione, or a placebo.[28] After the seven-day treatment, the group taking both ingredients had higher levels of nitrites and nitrates 30 minutes post-exercise compared to the other groups, though no tangible performance benefits were statistically significant.[28]

    This begs the question of whether enhanced NO levels post-exercise are worthwhile, as most supplements look to elevate NO during workouts. We think there’s certainly benefits to improved blood flow post-workout, though. This would increase the delivery of nutrients to depleted muscles, facilitating faster recovery. Not only that, but maintaining higher levels of vasodilation after you leave the gym could prolong the aesthetic effect of enhanced pumps, leaving you feeling nice and “swole” after your workout.

    Performance benefits are inconclusive…

    Setria Glutathione Logo

    Glutathione is one of the most powerful antioxidants in the body. Can we make it more bioavailable, and if so, how does that help nitric oxide production? Setria’s on a quest to find out.

    In 2018, another study in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition tested the joint supplementation of citrulline and glutathione. Seventy five male subjects followed a daily regimen for eight weeks. They were randomly divided into three groups — one received 2 grams of citrulline plus 200 milligrams of glutathione, another 2 grams of citrulline malate, and the last a placebo. At the end of the eight weeks, changes in lean mass and one-rep maxes on the bench and leg press were tested.[29]

    The results of this study were confounding, though. While the men who took citrulline and glutathione displayed significant differences in strength and lean mass after four weeks, those gains were no longer statistically significant after eight weeks (though they remained superior).[29] Further complicating things though, was the fact that the second group was given citrulline malate, which contains less citrulline than an equivalent pure citrulline dose. This raises an eyebrow toward the “fairness” of the results, since it was not comparing equal amounts of actual L-citrulline.

    However, the combination of glutathione and citrulline did show to be effective at increasing performance, despite the inconsistencies cited above. We’d prefer to see another study testing this relationship soon; and particularly one that compares apples-to-apples.

  • AstraGin (Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng) Root extracts – 50mg

    AstraGin

    AstraGin is a combination of Astragalus and Panax Notoginseng that’s been shown to increase ingredient absorption, especially of amino acids!

    AstraGin is Ghost’s go-to absorption-boosting ingredient. The brand tosses this patented ingredient from NuLiv Science into many of their formulas. With research showing that this blend of Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng can significantly improve the bioavailability of various nutrients, its prevalence in Ghost’s products is justified. AstraGin can improve the absorption of a wide array of ingredients, including amino acids, creatine, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals.[30]

    AstraGin holds generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status from the FDA and is also Informed-Sport/Informed-Choice certified, important notes that in conjunction with the ingredient’s effectiveness make it one of the industry’s top absorption-boosting agents.

    AstraGin Nutrient Transport Study Results

    AstraGin hits nutrient transportation from multiple angles!

    At 50 milligrams, Ghost Pump V2 delivers enough of this ingredient to help maximize the potency of everything else in the formula.

Ghost Pump V2 Flavors

The formula of Ghost Pump V2 is impressive, but if you’re at all familiar with Ghost, you’re likely just as excited to see which of their awesome flavors it’s available in! We’ve got you covered. Here’s a list of all the Ghost Pump V2 flavors currently available:

    Trailblazing with flavor collabs

    Ghost Pump Warheads Sour Watermelon

    WARHEADS was Ghost’s first authentic flavor collab, and works so well with PUMP!

    Where Ghost has really stood out, however, is with their incredible array of flavors. Thanks to an excellent flavoring system and licensed flavor collaborations, Ghost has absolutely changed the flavoring game. Partnerships with brands like Sour Patch Kids, Welch’s, Warheads, and Chips Ahoy have helped launch Ghost to the forefront of not only product and branding innovation, but of the industry at large.

    Try stacking with Ghost Legend V2

    With such a loaded formula, there’s certainly merit for using Ghost Pump V2 as your sole pre-workout supplement. This is especially true if you’re looking to limit or avoid stimulants — perhaps due to tolerance issues or late-night training. In these instances, or even if you just want sleeve-busting pumps, Ghost Pump V2 is an excellent choice.

    That being said, you can take things up a notch by stacking either one scoop or two scoops of Ghost Pump V2 with the brand’s other V2 pre-workout, Ghost Legend V2. The two complement each other extremely well. Legend V2 prioritizes energy and focus, two key areas that Pump V2 doesn’t really go after. Make sure you check out our full breakdown of the newest iteration of Ghost Legend (linked above), but here’s what a full, two-scoop serving of that formula delivers.

    Try the “Natty” (natural / unflavored) Pump V2 for stacking!

    Ghost Pump V2 Natty

    “Natty” is Natural / Unflavored for those who stack it with a flavored pre like Legend

    If you do want to stack with a flavored pre workout like Legend, you can get the “Natty” flavor, which is unflavored so that you don’t have to worry about mixing and matching flavors – let Legend’s flavor system do the talking!

    Contained within the Ghost Legend matrix:

    • 4 grams of L-citrulline for endurance gains, as well as improved vasodilation
    • 3.2 grams of beta-alanine, one of the most effective ergogenic aids we have in sports supplements
    • 1.5 grams of Nitrosigine, a highly-bioavailable form of the NO-boosting amino acid, arginine
    • 50 milligrams of Senactiv, a relatively new ingredient with encouraging performance and recovery boosting effects that we’re quite excited about. Check out our feature article about this ingredient for more: Senactive from NuLiv Science: Regenerate Senescent Cells and Perform Better

    And found in the Ghost Smart Energy blend, we have:

    Ghost Legend V2

    Ghost Legend V2 is upon us!

    • 1 gram of L-tyrosine, an amino acid that improves cognition and focus
    • 1 gram of taurine
    • 300 milligrams of alpha-GPC, one of our favorite ways to raise acetylcholine levels for improved focus, mental clarity, and training performance
    • 250 milligrams of natural caffeine for a clean boost in energy
    • 100 milligrams of theobromine, a stimulant that has a bit more of a prolonged effect compared to caffeine. Its inclusion alongside caffeine allows for a longer, more sustained uptick in energy levels
    • 50 milligrams of AstraGin to boost the bioavailability of the entire label

    As you can see, Legend V2 and Pump V2 overlap in a few instances (citrulline and taurine, for example). But for the most part, they operate within their own respective areas. One goes after energy and cognition, the other blood flow — combine the two, and you can get the best of both worlds. We recommend trying out one scoop (a half-serving) of each to start, which can make for a well-rounded pre-workout experience.

    Want something more powerful and intense? Leverage the synergy of full servings of both Legend V2 and Pump V2…you’ll thank us later!

    V2 Season Gets Pumped up…What Else is Ghost up to?

    Ghost Pump V2 is the latest introduction from the lifestyle brand’s revamp. We’ve already seen the reformulation of their top-notch energy drink, Ghost Energy. That product saw the replacement of acetyl-L-carnitine with L-carnitine L-tartrate, which is more stable in liquids. Ghost Legend V2 improves upon its predecessor, as well, raising a few doses while bringing new, effective ingredients into the fold. Pump V2 follows in a similar vein, elevating the previous iteration’s formula to higher levels of vasodilation and muscle pumps.

    Ghost Sonic Flavor Collabs

    When it comes to Ghost Gamer, nearly everyone is fired up for this Ocean Water collab with Sonic!!

    Ghost went full throttle in 2020, introducing a variety of new products and flavor collabs:

    • Ghost Gamer
    • Ghost Glow
    • Ghost Multi
    • The initial launch of Ghost Energy
    • Bubblicious Strawberry Splash flavor collab
    • Nutter Butter Ghost Whey
    • Two seasonal proteins, Frosted Sugar Cookie Whey and a High-Protein Hot Cocoa Mix

    In fact, their activity was so impressive that it ultimately earned them our 2020 Brand of the Year award. If you thought this meant Ghost was going to take it easy in 2021, though, you’re sorely mistaken. Ghost has kept their foot on the gas and their momentum rolling with even more new releases:

    PricePlow Podcast #035: Dan Lourenco and Ryan Hughes at Ghost Tell All

    PricePlow Podcast #035: Dan Lourenco and Ryan Hughes at Ghost Tell All

    Believe it or not, Ghost has even more coming soon. Ghost Size, their creatine-based muscle-building product, is getting an update. Ghost Multi, which sold out insanely fast, will be getting a restock soon, too. They likely have some new flavors in the works, as well as additional surprises up their sleeves.

    While you join us in our not-so-patient wait to see what’s next, you can get your hands on Ghost Pump V2 to add some sleeve-busting pumps to your training in the meantime!

    Pump – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

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    About the Author: Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is an n=1 diet experimenter with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several experiments done on himself while sharing lab tests.

    Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public.

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    References

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    2. Takeda, K., Machida, M., et al. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology; “Effects of citrulline supplementation on fatigue and exercise performance in mice.” 2011; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21908948/
    3. Mutch, B., Banister, E. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; “Ammonia metabolism in exercise and fatigue: a review.” 1982; https://europepmc.org/article/med/6341752
    4. Rhim, H., Kim, S., et al. Journal of Sport and Health Science; “Effect of citrulline on post-exercise rating of perceived exertion, muscle soreness, and blood lactate levels: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” 2020l https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095254620300168
    5. Agarwal, U., Didelija, I., et al. The Journal of Nutrition; “Supplemental Citrulline Is More Efficient Than Arginine in Increasing Systemic Arginine Availability in Mice.” 2017; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5368575/
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    7. Clements, W., Lee, S., et al. Nutrients; “Nitrate ingestion: a review of the health and physical performance effects.” 2014; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4245587/
    8. Hoon, M., Johnson, N., et al. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism; “The effect of nitrate supplementation on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” 2013; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23580439/
    9. MacAllister RJ.; British journal of pharmacology; “Arginine and nitrate tolerance;” May 2000; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1572089
    10. Le Roux-Mallouf, T., Pelen, F., et al. Aging; “Effect of chronic nitrate and citrulline supplementation on vascular function and exercise performance in older individuals.” 2019; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6555465/
    11. Ripps, H., Shen, W. Molecular Vision; “Review: taurine: a “very essential” amino acid.” 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501277/
    12. Chen, C., Xia, S., et al. Life Sciences; “Roles of taurine in cognitive function of physiology, pathologies and toxication.” 2019; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31220527/
    13. Waldron, M., Patterson, S., et al. Sports Medicine; “The Effects of an Oral Taurine Dose and Supplementation Period on Endurance Exercise Performance in Humans: A Meta-Analysis.” 2018; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29546641/
    14. Ra, S., Miyazaki, T., et al. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; “Additional effects of taurine on the benefits of BCAA intake for the delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric exercise.” 2013; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23392882/
    15. Guizoni, D., Vettorazzi, J., et al. Nitric Oxide; “Modulation of Endothelium-Derived Nitric Oxide Production and Activity by Taurine and Taurine-Conjugated Bile Acids.” 2019; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1089860319302113
    16. Chen, C., Xia, S., et al. Life Sciences; “Roles of taurine in cognitive function of physiology, pathologies and toxication.” 2019; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31220527/
    17. Carr, A., Maggini, S., Nutrients; “Vitamin C and Immune Function.” 2017; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707683/
    18. Heller R, et al; “L-Ascorbic acid potentiates nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells”; J Biol Chem; 1999; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10075731
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