Performax Labs HyperMax 3D Extreme Pre Workout is Out!

It’s here by September 10th of 2021, and it’s more extreme than ever. We’re talking about the next generation pre workout supplement from Performax Labs, HyperMax 3D.

Performax Labs Keeps it Extreme

Performax Labs HyperMax Extreme 3D

Performax Labs is bringing the house down with the latest in their HyperMax series. This could be your first chance to try 3DPUMP Breakthrough!

This comes with Performax Labs’ major rebranding and reformulation effort, where they’ve decided to keep their ultra-aggressive formulas. This should please customers, who are often disappointed when brands lighten up their formulas to reach more demographics. Not today!

After a wild round of beta testing, we can attest that Performax Labs has their most aggressive and well-dosed pre workout supplement yet. This is the brand who takes things to the max, and they’ve done just that in all the right areas.

The quick HyperMax 3D Extreme notes (in the two-scoop serving):

  • Energy from 400mg caffeine
  • 3DPUMP Breakthrough Citrulline / Glycerol pump blend
  • Quick-hitting PEA blend with high-dose L-Tyrosine
  • Bonus stim blend of Citrus Aurantium and Rauwolfia
  • Endurance from clinically-dosed Betaine and Beta Alanine

They’re also calling it “HYPERMAX-3D” because of the new 3DPUMP breakthrough, which we dive into today.

Performax Labs HyperMax

NEW HyperMax is here and it’s beyond extreme!

All in all, this one’s extremely high in energy, big on pumps (with a novel new ingredient), and has clinically-dosed ergogenic muscle-builders and endurance boosters. It hits all the angles, and you’re likely not going to need two scoops.

It’s all below, but first you can check out PricePlow’s prices and sign up for Performax Labs news and deal alerts since the brand slowly and steadily puts out rock star supplements:

Performax Labs HyperMax 3D Extreme - Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

Note: If looking for the previous formula, see PricePlow’s HyperMax Extreme page.

The Hypermax Labs 3D Ingredients

This is a 2-scoop serving with 20 full servings per container. Each scoop weighs 11.5g, so you have a 23g serving size if you dare to go all in. Due to the stimulant dosage, many will land at just under 1.5 scoops, but that’s up to how extreme you want to take things:

  • Pumps and Performance

    • 3DPUMP-Breakthrough (L-Citrulline (vegan fermented), Glycerol, Amla (phyllanthus emblica) (fruit) Extract) – 6000mg

      Performax Labs HyperMax 3D Ingredients

      Now this is an EXTREME ingredient label. Can you handle two scoops? If so, you’ll be flying high!

      3DPUMP-Breakthrough is a new pump blend that consists of L-Citrulline, Glycerol, and Amla Fruit Extract that promises to give you some of the most insane pumps you’ve ever seen.

      We cover L-Citrulline — a common nitric oxide boosting pump ingredient — below. With 3DPUMP-Breakthrough, the innovation is to include Amla with glycerol to increase its efficacy.

      Glycerol: The hyperhydration agent

      We’ve covered glycerol many times on this site, as the sugar alcohol is able to increase water retention and total water volume in the body,[1] creating a cellular hydration (“hyperhydration”) effect[2] that can promote better pumps, endurance, and thermoregulation when dosed well enough.[3-5]

      These effects, and far more, are covered in our article titled Glycerol: The Ultimate Guide for Hydration, Heat Protection, and Pumps.[6] The trick is to use this ingredient with plenty of water!

      Amla Fruit Extract (Phyllanthus emblica)
      3DPUMP Breakthrough Performax Labs

      Performax Labs brings you this unique new pump agent that will amplify your citrulline pumps… and then some!

      Also known as Indian Gooseberry, Amla is an antioxidant-rich fruit that encourages healthy endothelial function and improves cardiovascular function and reduces platelet aggregation.[7] Researchers call it “the ayurvedic wonder” due to its numerous health benefits.[8]

      When we see these types of endothelial effects, we generally see improvements in blood flow, which means improvements in pumps. This means that 3DPUMP-Breakthrough not only increases water volume with glycerol, but blood flow through citrulline and amla as well.

      We’re told that at the time of manufacturing, the 6 gram dose contains 3 grams fermented l-citrulline, 1.2 grams of glycerol, and 200 milligrams of Amla extract (standardized for 40% low molecular weight tannins). We can further look at the 2021 patent to understand the mechanisms:[9]

      The 3DPUMP Pilot Study

      In the patent, the inventors discuss a pilot study performed on resistance trained males (average age 28) giving them four different treatments for four different workouts, 30 minutes before training each time:[9]

      1. Placebo (water) to establish baseline
      2. 1500 milligrams of 65% glycerol
      3. 150 milligrams of Amla fruit extract
      4. 1350 milligrams of 65% glycerol + 150 milligrams Amla fruit extract

      They then followed leg workouts consisting of seated leg/knee extensions and loaded goblet squats (3 sets of 10, 10-12 reps per set, 60 second inter-set rest). Between exercises, the subjects rested for two minutes.

      Performax Labs 2021 Rebrand Teaser

      We teased the new rebrand, and now you can see why it’s such a big deal! Get ready.. Performax Labs is updating a few things, doubling down on what they do best: aggressive formulas!

      The researchers then measured thigh circumference and performed DEXA scans immediately after the workout.

      While all treatments achieved gains in leg size and lean body mass, treatment 4 (glycerol + Amla) vastly outperformed the other groups, with a 2.21 centimeter increase in thigh circumference and an average of 693.1 gram increase in total body mass! This is compared to 1.12 centimeters of thigh increase and 30.4 grams total body mass in the placebo group.[9]

      Interestingly, the Amla-only group outperformed glycerol-only, showing a lot of promise for the ingredient. But it was the combination that set it apart.

      This is a new ingredient that we expect to be seeing more of, but Performax Labs is one of the first to have it — innovators as always at Team Performax!

    • Beta Alanine – 3200mg

      Most users will know beta alanine at this point, and Performax Labs takes it EXTREME with the daily clinical dose* — if you can handle two scoops!

      Beta Alanine

      Carnosine helps your body flush lactic acid out of the muscles. Beta alanine helps you get more muscle carnosine content.

      Beta alanine increases of skeletal muscle carnosine concentration, and thanks to that, it has demonstrated an increase in athletic performance,[10] increased work capacity,[11] reduced fatigue,[12] and increased peak power output.[13]

      The carnosine produced protects from lactic acid build-up — it acts as a buffer during exercise bouts,[14] especially in the bouts that are anywhere from 30 seconds to 10 minutes long. This makes it a muscular endurance-enhancer,[14,15] and if you’re hitting enough volume, we posit that it can indirectly help you reduce body fat (and/or build more muscle) thanks to more training capacity[16] — so long as you eat right!

      *Note that in the studies cited, those doses were typically spread throughout the day, so there is some discrepancy, but we just like to keep things at saturation and slamming 3.2g per day seems like a convenient and viable way to do that.

    • L-Citrulline – 3000mg

      No messing around here, Performax Labs hypes the pump machine even more with an added 3g dose of straight L-Citrulline!! Just in case we weren’t at clinical doses from the 3DPUMP, we are definitely there now!

      Citrulline

      The citrulline pathway we’re going for starts at the top right and goes down to the bottom right!

      Citrulline is a precursor to arginine – ingesting the former gives you more of the latter. And that’s important because arginine leads to nitric oxide production. And as we’ve discussed several times on this site, citrulline supplementation beats arginine supplementation because arginine has poor bioavailability and gets broken down by arginase in the gastrointestinal tract.[17] You can skip that with L-citrulline.

      So we get a ton more NO production here, and this incredible molecule relaxes the vasculature and allows more blood to flow… bringing pumps! In turn (and possibly from other beneficial mechanisms), this may improve recovery, increase nutrient uptake, improve oxygen utilization during exercise, reduce fatigue, and even reduce soreness.[18-21]

      As for the dose.. we’re in great territory here. 3g citrulline or 6g of citrulline malate are the clinical doses, which puts us over the clinically-demonstrated doses here in HyperMax 3D. If you want to just do a single scoop to keep caffeine (and costs) lower, you’re still likely in great pump territory here!!

    • Betaine Anhydrous – 2500mg

      Another clinical dose! Betaine is popular in many pre workouts, and on top of the muscle gains, strength boost, and fat loss studies we’re about to cite, we strongly believe that it helps with pumps as well!

      Betaine Benefits

      The placebo effect was definitely strong with this group. But… the real gains obliterated placebo in due time![22]

      Betaine is an osmolyte, which means it helps your body transfer water between cells. This leads to endurance and power output based benefits.[23] At this dose, many users feel added pumps when used with drink plenty of water – something you should definitely be doing thanks to the glycerol above.

      But it goes beyond water — betaine has also been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis![24] This works in a manner similar to creatine, but we still recommend getting both in to be sure.

      Muscle building and fat loss effects

      A study performed by Jason Cholewa showed clinical gains in men at 2.5g per day,[22] and more recently in 2018, he published a follow-up study showing fat loss and performance increases in women too![25]

      The long story short is that betaine is an ingredient we see a lot for a good reason, and one we’d rather not go without in a well-rounded, maxed-out pre workout supplement.

    • S7 – 50mg

      HyperMax Rocket Pop

      For those of you who loved the last formula’s Rocket Pop flavor, have no fear — it’s back again with the new HyperMax!

      S7 is a blend of green coffee bean extract, green tea extract, turmeric extract, tart cherry, blueberry, kale, and broccoli. It functions as a potent antioxidant blend that reduces oxidative stress, and there’s a study showing that a 50mg dose of S7 boosts bioavailable nitric oxide concentrations by 230%![26]

      We definitely want to see further research on this blend, but it’s a great add-on to have atop the other clinically-dosed ingredients above.

  • Energy and Focus

    Note: Because of the next three ingredients, HyperMax 3D should never be used with prescription drugs such as SSRIs. As always, speak to your doctor before starting any new diet or supplementation program!

    • L-Tyrosine – 2g

      We kick off a massively euphoric, high-energy focus blend with a serious dose of L-Tyrosine, a precursor to the ‘energetic’ catecholamines like epinephrine, dopamine, and norepinephrine.[27]

      L-Tyrosine

      Long story short from our analysis — For the best effects from tyrosine, choose the regular L-Tyrosine version!

      This is twice the dose that was in the previous version of HyperMax (Extreme), so Performax is betting big on this one – and it’ll still pack a punch at one gram if you only one-scoop it.

      When combined with caffeine, we have a one-two punch here — tyrosine boosts catecholamine production, and caffeine also encourages the system to release more of them into systemic circulation. This means more production and more release. Ultimately you’re left with yet another feel-good combo,[28] something Performax Labs is great at.

      In addition, some research even shows a reduction in stress,[29] and there are great benefits for sleep deprived individuals as well.

      We gladly welcome the doubled dose of tyrosine, but next, it’s time to get into the mood-boosting, motivation-elevating PEA blend that Performax Labs is so well-known for:

    • ThinFen (B-Phenylethylamine HCl) – 400mg

      Here’s our first form of PEA, straight Beta-Phenylethylamine. This is the kickstarter for the feel-good, euphoric effects in HyperMax 3D, and is a fantastic “engine starter” inside. When you take PEA, it quickly helps the body release more catecholamines — especially dopamine[30] — providing a feel-good sensation.[31]

      PEA 2D Structure Receptor with PEA Backbone Highlighted

      PEA 2D Structure Receptor with PEA Backbone Highlighted

      The major issue, however, is that beta-PEA wears off quickly (your monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme will cleave it off the dopamine receptor and quickly break it down). Good news, however: as always, Performax Labs adds in another advanced form of PEA to prolong the PEA rush.

      In addition, we might also get some MAO-inhibiting hordenine from the citrus aurantium extract as well.

      If you feel HyperMax 3D nearly immediately, such as within 5 minutes and before you’d even expect the caffeine to strike, it’s this ingredient.

    • Caffeine Anhydrous (400mg)

      Performax Labs Brand New Look

      Brand new look, even more aggressive formulas

      And now for the legendary stimulant, none other than caffeine. 400mg is a serious dose, and will likely be what controls your usage between one and two scoops. We landed at just under 1.5 scoops, consistent with the ~300mg caffeine we enjoy taking (and there were still plenty of pumps there).

      As to the research, there’s a ton of it with caffeine, as it can increase energy expenditure and lipolysis, so you may get a bit of fat burning from it when training. To top it off, it also helps oxidize fatty acids.[32-34]

      Now at this dose, if you can handle two or so scoops, we may be able to see strength gains, as there’s been clinical differences shown at around 5-6mg caffeine per kg body weight![35,36] Extreme!

    • NeuroPEA (Eria Jarensis (whole plant) Extract – 250mg

      To augment the straight PEA trace amine above, we have Eria Jarensis Extract, which is generally standardized for N,N-Phenethyldimethylamine, an “advanced” form PEA. This feel-good stimulant adds to the mood boost that we experience when taking any version of HyperMax, which is unsurprising given this is what PEA type molecules do.[31]

      If we indeed have this form of PEA, the secret to its success is where it differs from other PEA molecules: it has two alkyl groups attached to the PEA backbone, which physically keep the compound from getting broken down as quickly by the MAO enzyme. This keeps the ‘pop’ going longer and stronger, and when it’s combined with PEA above, we get a crazy good two-phase burst.

      N-Phenethyldimethylamine 2D Receptor with Protection Highlighted

      N-Phenethyldimethylamine is like a PEA molecule, but with an N,N’ Alkyl section that also prevents MAO from cleaving it… meaning a longer-lasting euphoric ‘buzz’ than regular PEA

      If you’re a fan of Performax Labs stimulant-based supplements, then you’re no doubt a fan of this ingredient, because it’s in most stim-based products they sell.

      The pleasant surprise is that they’re keeping it in through 2021, while other brands remove it to try to get into big box retailers and push more volume. Performax Labs has decided they are staying extreme and they’ll push more volume by staying true to their customer base!

      Performax has been riding the maximum speed train since nearly the beginning, and there’s no stopping them now!

    • Cocoabuterol – 60mg

      Cocoabuterol is a trademarked cocoa extract standardized for cocoa alkaloids from theobroma cacao. One of its main compounds is theobromine, which is a methylxanthine often found alongside caffeine in plants.[10]

      It’s structurally similar to caffeine and behaves similarly in that it blocks adenosine receptors.[37] However, it’s milder in its approach yet has a longer half-life, keeping the flow coming.

      NeuroPEA

      HyperMax has a ton of stimulatory ingredients!

      In addition, there may be some other constituents in cocoabuterol that are designed to help burn fat — research has shown that theobromine and related compounds can boost energy, induce fat oxidation, and reduce appetite.[37,38]

    • Citrus Aurantium – 60mg

      With a full two scoop serving, we get an impressive 60 milligrams of citrus aurantium, which will bring further stimulation. However, we’re not exactly sure what it’s standardized for. Our best guesses are synephrine and hordenine, but there could be other energetic compounds as well.

      Synephrine is a beta agonist (as is hordenine), and is strong in those regards. It’s like a much milder ingredient than something like ephedrine (and thus more safely tolerated) at similar doses.[39]

      Extracts from citrus aurantium act as both Beta-2 and Beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonists,[40] which means they help free stored fatty acids, getting them released into the bloodstream for use — which is why it’s great to take pre workout! Next, what if we have hordenine inside as well? Above, we mentioned the need for something to keep our PEA-based boost going a bit longer. Can we “downtune” the MAO enzyme? The answer is yes, with hordenine.

      If we indeed have some hordenine inside, this ingredient works on multiple angles, and the first is that it acts as an MAO inhibitor.[41,42] By inhibiting the MAO enzyme, it prolongs the mood-boosting PEA compounds up above. This can turn into even more increased “sense of wellness”, mood, and general good vibes!

      But to top it off, it also behaves like a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist,[43] which means it may free fatty acids that your body can use as a fuel source. Fat burning, energy, and ingredient enhancement? Perfect.

      50mg is usually the standard dose of citrus aurantium, and Performax Labs of course keeps it extreme here!

    • Rauwolfia Vomitoria Extract (std to min 90% Rauwolscine) – 2mg

      HyperMax What's New

      In 2021, we get quite the pre workout!

      And last but certainly not least, Rauwolfia Vomitoria Extract, standardized for Alpha Yohimbine. This is a 90% extract, so it’s a bit less than 2mg rauwolscine (or “alpha yo” as we affectionately call it) in the two scoop dose. This is actually less than the original HyperMax, but the same as the 2019 version of HyperMax Extreme. We think this is a smart play – this dose range is closer to where we like it.

      Alpha Yohimbine is an alkaloid that brings an intense adrenaline-releasing effect, and getting the dose right is key. We landed on 1.5 scoops mainly because of this ingredient, where the positive effects were felt but none of the anxiousness that can come when taking too much.

      This ingredient is like yohimbine… but “enhanced”. Its molecule has a different orientation than yohimbine,[44] and seems to bind better. It acts as an alpha-2 antagonist, reducing the effects of this pathway. By blocking these receptors, you may get fat loss because it helps the body remove fat from adipocytes and prevents further storage.[45]

      What a way to go out!

Now that’s a formula!

Our Beta Test HyperMax Extreme 3D Review: POTENT.

Before knowing all of the ingredients, we were honored to participate in Performax Labs’ beta test, and came away with a couple intense workouts. But the thing we noticed most was the potency and euphoria with Hypermax 3D:

The PEA blend acts in well under 10 minutes, and hits with a wave of quality mood and energy support that should get you fired up to train no matter your situation. The pumps are as fantastic as advertised – but it’s the mood and energy burst that we keep coming back for — consistent with Performax Labs’ previous supplements.

This brand has set such a high bar for itself, we expect this level of energy from them.

HyperMax 3D Flavors

HyperMax Extreme Flavors

The initial 2021 HyperMax 3D flavors

Below is a list of available flavors. The 2021 version launches in four unique flavors, Hawaiian Papaya Pineapple, Mango Kiwi Cooler, Rocket Bomb, and Raspberry Limeade, but maybe more will be added over time:

    The history of Hypermax

    Performax Labs HyperMax Extreme

    Our previous featured image for this article, with the 2019 label shown

    The HyperMax pre workout series has been through a couple revisions over the years, and the new 2021 formula is the most promising one yet. Taking a stroll down memory lane:

    It all started with HyperMax, which we covered as far back as 2014. Around 2015, Performax Labs then released HyperMax XT, which took on a new level of aggressive formulation, similar to what we see today. In late 2017, they changed the name back to “HyperMax”, and once that ran its course, 2019 brought us HyperMax Extreme. HyperMax Extreme was so good, they allowed the other formulas to discontinue.

    Then, another two years later, we have this latest version of HyperMax Extreme, and it’s mower powerful, unique, and visionary than ever!

    Performax Labs Goes Extreme

    What an aggressive and novel pre workout supplement. As always, Performax Labs takes things to the max, and basically goes as hard as you can go without using DM*A ingredients.

    Performax Labs

    See all of Performax Labs‘ well-formulated products. This is a brand with brains, and that’s why we love them.

    We’ve long been a huge fan of Performax Labs’ products, and the HyperMax family has always been the flagship. However, don’t count out OxyMax, an incredibly popular fat burner that sells a huge amount, with high repeat customer rates. HyperMax 3D brings intense stimulation from that and adds a whole truckload of pumps, endurance boosters, and ergogenics. What more could you ask for?

    The biggest question is where you’ll land dosage-wise. We ended up just under 1.5 scoops, but if you can rock out two whole scoops, you’re going to be training on another planet, with strength gains from even the caffeine, let alone everything else like the dual citrulline dose and your first time using 3DPUMP.

    Performax Labs lives up to their name, and executed extremely well on an “Extreme”-themed supplement. Are you extreme enough to handle it?

    Performax Labs HyperMax 3D Extreme - Deals and Price Drop Alerts

    Get Price Alerts

    No spam, no scams.

    Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    Note: If looking for the previous formula, see PricePlow’s HyperMax Extreme page.

    About the Author: Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is an n=1 diet experimenter with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several experiments done on himself while sharing lab tests.

    Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public.

    No Comments | Posted in , , | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

    References

    1. Patlar, Suleyman, et al. “The Effect of Glycerol Supplements on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance of Athletes and Sedentary Subjects.” Journal of Human Kinetics, vol. 34, no. 1, 1 Oct. 2012, pp. 69–79, 10.2478/v10078-012-0065-x. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3590833/
    2. Nelson, Jeff L, and Robert A Robergs. “Exploring the Potential Ergogenic Effects of Glycerol Hyperhydration.” Sports Medicine, vol. 37, no. 11, 2007, pp. 981–1000, 10.2165/00007256-200737110-00005. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17953468
    3. Montner, P., et al. “Pre-Exercise Glycerol Hydration Improves Cycling Endurance Time.” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, 1 Jan. 1996, pp. 27–33, 10.1055/s-2007-972804. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8775573/
    4. Patlar, Suleyman, et al. “The Effect of Glycerol Supplements on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance of Athletes and Sedentary Subjects.” Journal of Human Kinetics, vol. 34, no. 1, 1 Oct. 2012, pp. 69–79, 10.2478/v10078-012-0065-x. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3590833/
    5. Anderson, M. J., et al. “Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Thermoregulation and Metabolism during Exercise in the Heat.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition, vol. 11, no. 3, 29 Sept. 2001, pp. 315–333. https://research.monash.edu/en/publications/effect-of-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration-on-thermoregulation-and
    6. Roberto, Mike; “Glycerol: The Ultimate Guide for Hydration, Heat Protection, and Pumps”; The PricePlow Blog; August 20, 2020; https://blog.priceplow.com/supplement-research/glycerol
    7. Khanna, Savita, et al. “Supplementation of a Standardized Extract from Phyllanthus Emblica Improves Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Platelet Aggregation in Overweight/Class-1 Obese Adults.” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 18, no. 4, Apr. 2015, pp. 415–420, 10.1089/jmf.2014.0178; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC4390209/
    8. Mirunalini, S., and M. Krishnaveni. “Therapeutic Potential of Phyllanthus Emblica (Amla): The Ayurvedic Wonder.” Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 21, no. 1, Jan. 2010, 10.1515/jbcpp.2010.21.1.93; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20506691/
    9. Ziegenfuss, T, et al; “Compositions and methods for increase in muscle volume”; United States Patent and Trademark Office; Patent #US10993978B1; May 4, 2021; https://patents.google.com/patent/US10993978B1/en
    10. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. “Theobromine.” Nih.gov, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2011. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507032/
    11. Stout JR, et al; “Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold”; J Strength & Cond Research; 2006 20(4): 928−931; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17194255
    12. Smith A E, et al; “The effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on neuromuscular fatigue and muscle function”; Eur J Appl Physiol; 2009; 105: 357−363; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18989693
    13. Van Thienen R, et al; “Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling”; Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise; American College of Sports Medicine; 2009; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19276843
    14. Hoffman, J R, et al; “β-Alanine Ingestion Increases Muscle Carnosine Content and Combat Specific Performance in Soldiers”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Mar. 2015; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25510839
    15. Stout, J R, et al; “Effects of Beta-Alanine Supplementation on the Onset of Neuromuscular Fatigue and Ventilatory Threshold in Women.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2006; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17136505
    16. Kern, B D, and T L Robinson; “Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Performance and Body Composition in Collegiate Wrestlers and Football Players.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; July 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21659893
    17. Schwedhelm, E., Maas, R., Freese, R., Jung, D., Lukacs, Z., Jambrecina, A., Spickler, W., Schulze, F., Böger, R. H; “Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism”; British journal of clinical pharmacology, 65(1), 51-9; 2007; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2291275/
    18. Giannesini B, et al; “Citrulline malate supplementation increases muscle efficiency in rat skeletal muscle”; Eur J Pharmacol; 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21664351
    19. Bendahan D, et al; “Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle”; 2002; Br J Sports Med. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12145119
    20. Suzuki T, Morita M, Kobayashi Y, Kamimura A; “Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2016; 13:6; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4759860/
    21. Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. M; “Citrulline Malate Enhances Athletic Anaerobic Performance and Relieves Muscle Soreness”; Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1215-1222; 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386132
    22. Cholewa JM, Wyszczelska-Rokiel M, Glowacki R et al; “Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr; 10:39; 2013; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3844502/
    23. Lee, Elaine C et al; “Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; vol. 7 27. 19; Jul. 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2915951/
    24. del Favero S, et al; “Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance”; Amino Acids; 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21744011
    25. Jason Michael Cholewa, et al; “The Effects of Chronic Betaine Supplementation on Body Composition and Performance in Collegiate Females: a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 31 July 2018; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-018-0243-x
    26. Nemzer, Boris V., et al. “Oxidative Stress or Redox Signalling – New Insights into the Effects of a Proprietary Multifunctional Botanical Dietary Supplement.” Free Radical Research, vol. 52, no. 3, 1 Mar. 2018, pp. 362–372, 10.1080/10715762.2017.1390228; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29110555/
    27. Pietz J, Landwehr R, Kutscha A, Schmidt H, de Sonneville L, Trefz FK; “Effect of high-dose tyrosine supplementation on brain function in adults with phenylketonuria”; J Pediatr. 1995;127(6):936-943; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8523192
    28. Belza, A., Toubro, S., & Astrup, A. (2007); “The effect of caffeine, green tea and tyrosine on thermogenesis and energy intake”; European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63(1), 57-64; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17882140
    29. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Military Nutrition Research (1994, January 01); “Tyrosine and Stress: Human and Animal Studies”; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209061/
    30. Mesfioui, A., Math, F., Jmari, K., Hessni, A. E., Choulli, M. K., & Davrainville, J; “Effects of Amphetamine and Phenylethylamine on Catecholamine Release in the Glomerular Layer of the Rat Olfactory Bulb”; Neurosignals; 1998; 7(4), 235-243; https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/14548
    31. Mesfioui, A., Math, F., Jmari, K., Hessni, A. E., Choulli, M. K., & Davrainville, J. (1998). Effects of Amphetamine and Phenylethylamine on Catecholamine Release in the Glomerular Layer of the Rat Olfactory Bulb. Neurosignals, 7(4), 235-243; https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/14548
    32. Norager, C, et al; “Metabolic effects of caffeine ingestion and physical work in 75-year old citizens. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study”; Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); Aug;65(2):223-8; 2006; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16886964
    33. Astrup, A, et al; “Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers”; Am J Clin Nutr; 51(5):759-67; 1990; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2333832
    34. Keijzers, G, et al; “Caffeine Can Decrease Insulin Sensitivity in Humans”; Diabetes Care; 25(2): 364-369; February 2002; http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/25/2/364.long
    35. Coso, J. D., Salinero, J., González-Millán, C., Abián-Vicén, J., & Pérez-González, B. (2012). Dose response effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance: A repeated measures design. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1), 21; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3461468/
    36. McCormack, William P, and Hoffman, Jay R; “Caffeine, Energy Drinks, and Strength-Power Performance”; Strength and Conditioning Journal; August 2012; Volume 34, Issue 4, 11–16; https://journals.lww.com/nsca-scj/Fulltext/2012/08000/Caffeine,_Energy_Drinks,_and_Strength_Power.3.aspx,%20full-text%20at
    37. Marti­nez-Pinilla, Eva, et al. “The Relevance of Theobromine for the Beneficial Effects of Cocoa Consumption.” Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 6, 20 Feb. 2015, 10.3389/fphar.2015.00030. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4335269/
    38. Eteng, MU, et al. “Theobromine Rich Cocoa Powder Induces Weight Loss and Changes in Lipid Profile of Obese Wistar Rats.” Discovery and Innovation, vol. 18, no. 3, 6 July 2007, 10.4314/dai.v18i3.15745. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/dai/article/view/15745
    39. Preuss, HG, et. al; “Citrus aurantium as a thermogenic, weight-reduction replacement for ephedra: an overview;” Journal of Medicine; 2002; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12939122
    40. Stohs, Sidney J et al; “Effects of p-synephrine alone and in combination with selected bioflavonoids on resting metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate and self-reported mood changes”; International journal of medical sciences; vol. 8,4 295-301; 28 Apr. 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3085176/
    41. Hapke HJ, Strathmann W; [Pharmacological effects of hordenine]; Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr; 102(6):228-232; 1995; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8582256
    42. Barwell, C, et al; “Deamination of hordenine by monoamine oxidase and its action on vasa deferentia of the rat”; The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology; 41(6):421-3; June 1989; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2570842
    43. Nelson, B, et al; “Mass spectrometric determination of the predominant adrenergic protoalkaloids in bitter orange (Citrus aurantium)”;J Agric Food Chem; 55(24):9769-75; 2007; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966980
    44. Rockhold, R. W., & Gross, F. (1981). “Yohimbine diastereoisomers: Cardiovascular effects after central and peripheral application in the rat”; Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology, 315(3), 227-231; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00499839
    45. Perry BD, U’Prichard DC; “(3H)rauwolscine (alpha-yohimbine): a specific antagonist radioligand for brain alpha 2-adrenergic receptors”; Eur J Pharmacol; 1981; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6276200

    Comments and Discussion (Powered by the PricePlow Forum)