Christian Guzman’s Ghost Legend V3 Brings Low-Tingle Beta Alanine?!
Christian Guzman gives you less tingles?!?! Not in this universe!!
As the summer months approach, most of us search for ways to cool off, relax, and enjoy some downtime. Not Ghost, and certainly not Christian Guzman! Instead, they’re responding to the heat by staying hot themselves. By firing off new products and flavors by the week, things don’t seem to be slowing down at all!
Led by Dan Lourenço, the award-winning team’s hard-working mentality has created a lifestyle brand that’s more than just looks, finding new ways to stay ahead of the competition in terms of formulas on top of the flavors and marketing.
Fresh off a new flavoring partnership with both Welch’sⓇ and SonicⓇ (releasing Grape Juice and Cherry Limeade flavors, respectively) and an incredible full-spectrum EAA formula in Amino V2 as well as the fat-burning Burn powder, Ghost has announced another special edition of their pre-workout, Ghost LegendⓇ. Ghost Legend Christian Guzman V3 is the third iteration in the line of pre-workouts formulated with the help of famous fitness influencer, Christian Guzman. This fully-transparent formula is insane, and seriously re-sets the bar its predecessors set!
Low-tingle beta alanine?!
We loved both V1 and V2 within this series, and we’re thrilled these guys teamed up for V3. Christian’s formlulas always brought a bit more caffeine and energy to the table, and this one’s no different. But this one also has something game-changing to it, which shouldn’t be surprising if you’re familiar with either Ghost or Christian. We’re talking about a low tingle version of beta alanine!!
Read on to hear all about what Ghost Legend CG V3 is bringing to the party, and how it can help you get some extraordinary training sessions. Before that, make sure you’re subscribed to PricePlow for the best deals, news, reviews, and interviews in the supplement industry!
Ghost Legend – Deals and Price Drop Alerts
Get Price Alerts
No spam, no scams.
Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.
Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.
Legend CG V3 – developed with Christian’s preferences in mind
CG V1 and CG V2 were essentially the same formula, just released in two different flavors. Based on those labels, though, we were able to gain some insight into the kind of pre-workout Christian Guzman prefers — energy!
Christian clearly is a fan of both hype and focus when in the gym. That takes a combination of both energy-boosting and cognitive-boosting ingredients. Keeping in faith with its predecessors, that’s exactly what we have in CG’s Legend V3 – with some serious pumps tossed in, too!
Christian Guzman’s Ghost Legend V3 Ingredients
CG V3 packs a heavy 31g of ingredients into each serving, with each full serving requiring two scoops — if you want that much energy. You’ll get about 20 of those full servings per container, and thus perhaps the 20 best Guzman-level workouts you’ve had in a long time.
This formula is comprised of 3 complexes, each one delivering on a different goal. Let’s go piece by piece:
Ghost LegendⓇ x CG
This matrix is what makes this version of Legend different than the others. The formulators at Ghost put together a label that coincided with both Ghost’s style and Christian’s personal preferences. The answer: endurance, power, a solid pump, and…reduced tingling?!
What’s this?! A beta alanine based ingredient with reduced tingles?! But look at the BA dose! How’s this going to happen? Keep reading…
Beta-Alanine – 6400mg
If you’re familiar at all with pre workout supplements, the sight of beta-alanine on this label should be expected. Simply put, it’s one of the better muscular endurance ingredients we have. Research has continuously proven its endurance-enhancing effects, specifically where powerful exercises lasting between 60 to 240 seconds are concerned. Beta-alanine’s ability to reduce time to exhaustion can benefit you in a variety of ways – more intense training sessions, better results, and an increase in training volume that can lead to enhanced fat-burning.
We typically see beta-alanine at 3200mg, which tends to be referred to as the clinical dose spread throughout a day. That being said, getting more than that is not a bad thing! In fact, one study that used a 6400mg dose of beta-alanine attributed a significant increase in work capacity to the ingredient. When it comes to beta-alanine, the name of the game is saturation – feeding your muscles adequate amounts gets the job done. With the 6400mg dose here, you won’t have to worry about whether or not you’re reaching saturation. You will be!!
But high doses usually mean tingles… right?
Despite having no adverse effects, all of these great benefits of beta-alanine come with a price. It’s called acute paresthesia, but you may know it more as that tingling sensation that runs through your skin when taking beta-alanine. Some people have a love-hate relationship with this feeling, with some people deciding to forgo the ingredient completely because of it.
However, Christian and the people at Ghost don’t want anyone missing out on the increased endurance and work capacity benefits beta-alanine can deliver. As it turns out, there may be something that can help alleviate this tingling sensation!
CarnoPrime (Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Seed Extract, L-Theanine, Celastrus (Celastrus paniculatus) Seed Extract) – 1280mg
CarnoPrime is a new patent-pending ingredient blend from CarnoCo, LLC. Ghost is claiming that this ingredient actually helps reduce beta-alanine-related tingling, which makes this combination of ingredients extremely interesting. Looking at the marketing from Armada Nutrition, Ghost’s primary manufacturer, it seems that they’re involved in this joint venture as well (see images).
It’s so new to the market that we can’t seem to dig up any information on it, except for what it contains – jujube extract, l-theanine, and celastrus extract. However, that’s enough for us to piece together how CarnoPrime is able to work its magic – each ingredient in this blend offers a clue!
Jujube extract soothes the skin
Jujube is a jewel-shaped fruit commonly found in Asia, and despite its size, it packs an incredibly strong nutritional punch. It’s enormous antioxidant profile has warranted its use in ancient medicine, and recent research has highlighted just some of the areas it can applied.
While offering a variety of benefits, we believe jujube is on this label for one sole purpose – it’s skin-soothing effect. Research has shown that the fruit can be used to treat skin irritations, inflammations, and scars. Considering that the aforementioned tingling feeling occurs in the skin, it appears jujube extract can help subdue the sensation!
L-theanine helps you relax and focus
Theanine has found its way into numerous nutritional supplements due to its cognitive effects, specifically in terms of relaxation. This amino acid comes from green tea leaves, and when consumed, it acts as a neurotransmitter within the brain. Interestingly, science has proven that the amino acid has a relaxing, yet non-sedative effect once it reaches these receptors. It wants to calm you down, not put you to sleep!
Because theanine is able to help you “chill out”, you might be surprised to find it in a pre-workout supplement. However, research has identified a synergistic relationship between theanine and caffeine, suggesting that the two can deliver a more focused, more clean energy kick. When used with stimulants, the calming effect of theanine is capable of taking the edge off, helping you zone in and stay focused.
We think theanine has a role in helping relax the nerves and receptors that get affected by beta-alanine. It helps regulate their activity to keep tingling feelings lower, all the while working with caffeine to help you zone into your workout. We’d call that a win-win!
Celastrus extract = a nootropic and a skin-soother?!
While the previous two components here have distinct functions, it seems that celastrus bridges the two together. Research has shown that this Ayurvedic root can have a calming cognitive effect, in addition to possessing the ability to reduce skin irritation. Whether or not its as effective as either jujube or theanine in either respect is up for debate, but one thing is definitive – it teams up with both ingredients to amplify their effects!
CarnoPrime seems to attack paresthesia by inducing a slight relaxing, skin-soothing state within the body, specifically affecting the nerves and neurons responsible for this sensation.. The end result is a tingling-reduced dose of beta-alanine, without any dampening of its endurance benefits. Now, CarnoPrime still is extremely new, and this is the first time we’ve seen it anywhere. Based on the mechanisms we think it works through, though, we better get accustomed to seeing it more and more.
Can it overpower such a huge dose of beta alanine though?
Guzman and Team Ghost are putting this ingredient to the serious test here, because let’s not forget, there’s still a huge serving of beta alanine in here. Some people tingle on a quarter of this dose. So if CarnoPrime works, we’ll know for sure with this one.
Only one way to find out…
Ghost has long been a trendsetter within the industry, innovating while others are stagnating. They stay ahead of the game, and consistently sniff out new ingredients, flavors, and ingredient interactions. With CarnoPrime, we’ll see if they’ve discovered something that can ease many users’ relationship with beta-alanine!
L-Citrulline (Vegan Fermented) – 6000mg
With a tingle-reduced endurance boost covered, we can get into everything else this formula has to offer. That includes a heavy dose of pure citrulline, an amino acid that helps bring you some great intra-workout pumps.
Citrulline may be the single-most effective pump-inducing ingredient found in pre-workout formulas. That’s due to its direct involvement in the process the body uses to naturally produce nitric oxide, which helps open up the bloodstream and increase blood flow. Citrulline is a precursor to arginine, a semi-conditional amino acid that the kidneys produce to ignite nitric oxide production. But if the body uses arginine, then why take citrulline instead?
Well, it turns out arginine has poor bioavailability. The body takes awhile to absorb it, and thus its mostly broken down by the time it reaches your bloodstream. Research has shown that when taken orally, only around 70% of arginine is absorbed,[11,12] where whatever doesn’t get taken up can increase the chance of interrupting proper digestion functioning.
But thanks to citrulline, we don’t have to worry about any of that! Research shows that it’s almost 100% fully absorbed into the bloodstream, due to a shorter digestive path, and is pretty easy on the gut, too. But while we’re getting much more NO production with pure citrulline, the ingredient has proven to bring other benefits to the table, as well!
NO booster by day, pre-workout powerhouse by night!
Citrulline has been shown to promote aerobic energy production, increase muscle efficiency, boost anaerobic exercise performance, and even reduce muscle soreness! That not only sounds awfully similar to beta-alanine, but it also speaks volumes to how essential citrulline is in your pre-workout supplement. The clinical dose is around 3g, but we have twice that on this label. That heavy dose is going to be the key that unlocks the door to some insane pumps!
Ghost isn’t messing around here – that’s 6g of pure, vegan-friendly citrulline, not citrulline malate. There’s no breakdown that needs to occur within the body, as this ingredient is going to instantly pump up nitric oxide production. In turn, it’ll deliver some solid pumps alongside everything else going on here!
Full-Yield Betaine – 2500mg
Rather than enlisting the help of only one form of betaine, Ghost and Christian wanted to incorporate two different forms in order to deliver a full-spectrum of effects. Let’s break down each form used to achieve that full, clinically-supported 2.5 dose!
Betaine Anhydrous (1.28g delivering 1.25g)
This form of betaine is relatively simple, and is used here in a pretty straightforward manner, bringing the benefits of betaine to the table. With a large pool of research-backed results to pull from, leaving out betaine would be a mistake!
Betaine, sometimes referred to as trimethylglycine (TMG), is mostly known for its power-enhancing capabilities. In a study from 2013, 23 resistance-trained subjects were split into 2 groups, with one group receiving 2.5g of betaine per day, and the other a placebo. Each group followed the same weight training program for 6 weeks, where their changes in fat mass, lean body mass, bench press 1 RM, squat 1 RM, and vertical jumping ability were measured.
At the conclusion of the study, the betaine-supplemented group improved body composition, arm size, and work capacity relative to placebo. The scientists concluded that betaine was able to induce an increase in power output amongst the supplemented-group, which attributed to their increased training performance that led to the aforementioned results. Another study from 2012 backs up these findings, concluding that betaine can cause increases in peak power output. Training with more power means getting better results! Isn’t that the goal?!
Betaine Nitrate (NO3-TⓇ)(1.95g delivering 1.25g Betaine and 700mg Nitrate)
Betaine is often derived from beetroot juice, co-existing alongside natural nitrates in order to promote nitric oxide production. When isolated, betaine has been able to improve power output, but yet has no effect on plasma nitrate levels. Essentially, in taking only betaine, you’re losing out on all the nitric oxide potential you could be getting from a more comprehensive ingredient.
NO3-TⓇ is a patented compound synthesizing both betaine and nitrate together! Both of these constituents are actually what’s found in beet root powder, only here, we have a pure blend of it! Beet root powder has been shown to improve exercise capacity, increase anaerobic performance, and raise VO2 max! It’s also maintained the power-boosting effects of betaine alone. With 1.25g of betaine and 700mg of nitrates coming from NO3-TⓇ, it effectively gives you the best of both worlds!
Clearly, Christian and those at Ghost didn’t want to leave any potential on the table. They are sure to include a clinical dose of betaine on the label, but also don’t forget to bring the naturally-vasodilating nitrates to the party. At the end of the day, you get a fully-dosed power-booster alongside even more pump!
GlycerPump (Glycerol Powder) – 2000mg
Rounding out the trifecta of pump-chasing ingredients CG V3 provides, glycerol is quite the knockout blow. GlycerPump is a 65% yield glycerol powder formulated by Pinnacle Ingredients, and is perhaps one of the top forms of glycerol in the game. What makes it so great?
More water retention = better performance
Glycerol is a naturally-occurring sugar alcohol, and acts as an intermediate for the breaking down of carbohydrates and fats within the body. When consumed with fluids such as water, though, it actually enhances fluid retention and expands various bodily fluid spaces. It helps hydrate the muscles, allowing them to hold more water. This state of hyperhydration has actually shown some extraordinary research results:
- 24% improvement in endurance,
- Significant increase in aerobic power,
- Enhanced exercise performance,
These results can be attributed to an induced state of hyperhydration thanks to glycerol. On top of that, by holding more water within the muscles, they swell up a bit more than normal. That can enhance vasodilation, and leads to an insane pump when incorporating other pump ingredients, such as the ones on this label.
Ultra-stable glycerol powder
While glycerol offers some highly desirable results, glycerol powders have historically been difficult to work with for manufacturers. Specifically, glycerol clumps up within powders, resulting in a grainy, chewy texture – something most people aren’t looking for in a pre-workout supplement.
Pinnacle Ingredients has found a way to avoid this, though. GlycerPump is only 65% glycerol, with a substantial amount of the remaining mixture being silicon dioxide. This inclusion actually helps keep the glycerol from clumping up, injecting an unprecedented level of stability into the product. You won’t have to worry about any clumps within this formula; no, all you’ll have to worry about is guzzling down enough water to keep up with the insane pumps this 2g dose is going to bring!
GhostⓇ Smart Energy
Taurine – 2000mg
Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid that helps regulate numerous bodily functions, and is heavily concentrated within the brain, eyes, heart, and muscles. You may have even seen it on the can of your favorite energy drink – this stuff is so effective at enhancing endurance, it’s even found its way into gas station coolers!
Fights onset fatigue
A study from 2012 was interested in whether acute taurine supplementation could have an effect in aerobic activity. After receiving 1000mg of the amino acid, subjects saw a significant increase in performance compared to placebo. A further study, conducted in mice, found that taurine gets its performance-boosting from its ability to reduce lactic acid build-up within muscles.
Due to these mechanisms, it’s no surprise that taurine has also significantly increased work capacity and time to exhaustion in research. In fact, it’s so effective at fending off lactic acid, which itself is notorious for bringing about post-workout soreness, that some have found a significant reduction in muscle soreness brought about by taurine.
Taurine plays more of an active defense when it comes to energy – it doesn’t necessarily give you energy, put it helps you preserve energy. It’s a bit more natural to the body, which bodes well for long-term usage. The 2g here is a perfect amount, making this a worthy adjunct to the other energy-promoting ingredients on the label.
Alpha-GPC (Alpha-Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline 50%) (delivering 600mg Alpha-GPC) – 1200mg
Alpha-GPC, more formally known as alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, is a choline-containing molecule found naturally in red meat and eggs. Choline is a precursor to acetylcholine, typically referred to as the learning neurotransmitter. This neurotransmitter helps evoke numerous other molecules, including both dopamine and serotonin, also known as the “feel-good” neurotransmitters.
Specifically, alpha-GPC works mainly within the frontal cortex of the brain, showing to be extremely effective at elevating acetylcholine levels in this area. This part of the brain houses the controls for motor function and attention management, thus meaning alpha-GPC should amplify those specific outputs. Research has validated this, citing increases in focus and alertness when alpha-GPC is consumed alongside caffeine.
Potential strength gains too
There’s also a study out there that cites a 600mg dose of alpha-GPC causing an increase in leg strength, where mid-thigh peak force was significantly increased from baseline tests compared to placebo. However, while the nootropic effects of alpha-GPC are well-documented, there isn’t much else out there regarding strength gains. We don’t doubt it, but we’d love more proof!
Alpha-GPC is the most bioavailable form of choline
Essentially, alpha-GPC elevates choline levels within the body, which raises an interesting question. If choline helps induce a euphoric, focused state, why take Alpha-GPC instead of choline?
In 1991, scientists ran a study comparing the absorption efficiencies of multiple forms of choline. They found that alpha-GPC possessed higher efficacy and was able to induce more acetylcholine production, and was deemed the most bioavailable form of choline supplementation. In fact, research has even found that CDP-choline, an inferior alternative, couldn’t affect the frontal cortex like alpha-GPC could!
We’re big fans of nootropics over here at PricePlow, so when we see alpha-GPC on a label, we can’t help but get excited. When it’s appropriately labeled and still well-dosed, we’re even more excited! (Many brands don’t mention it’s 50% yield, and if they don’t, you can almost assume you’re really getting half of what they say you’re getting.) This brain-boosting ingredient is one of our favorites, and it no doubt helps CG V3 reach new cognitive heights!
Caffeine Blend (Yielding 274mg)
Ah yes, what would an energy matrix be without caffeine! Split into two forms, the 274mg of total caffeine put forth here will definitely help power you through your workouts. This two-piece caffeine hit lives up to the “Smart Energy” name Christian and the team at Ghost tagged this entire matrix – it’s a smart, multi-faceted way of getting a clean energy boost!
Caffeine Anhydrous (200mg)
Caffeine anhydrous is the fastest-hitting form of supplemental caffeine you can get your hands on. It’s as simple as it gets, delivering the energy-boosting, performance-enhancing cognitive enhancement stimulants are supposed to. At 200mg, Christian’s pre-workout is on the upper end of caffeine anhydrous dosages that boost alertness without getting you too wired. That’s not all we have here, however…
Di-Caffeine Malate (100mg delivering 74mg caffeine)
Once caffeine anhydrous wears off, the dreaded “crash” begins to set in. We’ve all had it, and we’ve all hated it. Dicaffeine malate is here specifically to keep you from crashing. Essentially, its caffeine bound to malic acid, which slows down its time of absorption. That means once the effects of caffeine anhydrous begin to wear off, dicaffeine malate keeps you from falling too hard.
The end result is a quick-hitting jolt to get you started, followed by a long, smooth boost in energy to carry you through your workout. Rather than hit you all at once, you’re getting a much cleaner energy kick. That sounds pretty “smart” to us!
NeuroFactor Coffee (Coffea arabica) Fruit Extract – 100mg
NeuroFactor is an ingredient from that’s growing increasingly popular these days, and for good reason! This patented form of coffee fruit extract boasts a ridiculous polyphenol profile, and has shown to be quite beneficial when it comes to nootropic effects.
Research from 2019 assessed the effects of the fruit on 25 subjects. After an acute dose of 100mg of coffee fruit extract, subjects showed a 143% increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which translates to improved cognition, alertness, and focus.
These high levels of BDNF help elevate your brain power, putting you in a more focused state. In conjunction with everything else in this matrix, this stuff will help you get absolutely zeroed in on your training session.
Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium) Fruit Extract – 60mg (yielding 30mg synephrine)
Bitter orange, sometimes called synephrine, is an ingredient we mostly see in fat-burning products. Due to its ability to increase metabolism and suppress appetite, it proves quite influential in these types of supplements. However, that doesn’t mean it can’t be of use here!
Due to its action as a beta-2 and beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonist, bitter orange helps free up fatty acids for use as energy. In other words, it takes energy you’ve stored in your body (as fat) and allows you to use it up in the gym. When you also consider a synergistic relationship with caffeine, bitter orange sounds like a pre-workout ingredient to us!
The resulting 30mg dose here is not too high – we often see 50mg – so it’s great to see Ghost fully disclosing it. Due to its heart-rate elevating effects, some find it a tad too much for them at high doses, but we’re not concerned at all. If you’re new to this stimulant, you can still start light (such as with 1-1.5 scoops) and assess from there, but we’re extremely confident in a full two-scoop dose of this one!
AstraGinⓇ (Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng) Root Extracts) – 100mg
In order to ensure you’re getting the full effect of everything we’ve discussed, Ghost has a trick up its sleeve. We would’ve referred to Christian’s sleeves, but they fell off due to all the pump-chasing ingredients in this formula!!
AstraGinⓇ comes from NuLivScience, and this patented blend of astragalus and panax notoginseng has some true strength to it. This stuff is one of the most effective absorption-enhancers out there, increasing the bioavailability of numerous supplemented ingredients![40,41]
It also has essentially no taste, meaning it doesn’t take away from the awesome flavor Ghost and Christian are making this one in! About that…
Legend Guzman V3 has one very familiar flavor…
So far, each Legend CG has been made in one exclusive flavor. V1 released in Christian’s favorite flavor, lemon lime. The second release took some inspiration for the initial version, but this time changing it up with blue lime. As with the other Guzman releases, this one is only coming to you in one flavor, and it’s going back to where it all started.
Legend CG V3 will be available only in lemon lime, returning to the flavor that originally inspired this collaborative series. Ghost consistently nails its flavors, no matter the product. Why else would huge companies like Warheads, Sour Patch Kids, Swedish Fish, Sonic, and Welch’s work with them?! The first two versions of this pre-workout were phenomenal, and we expect the taste here to be just as great!
All of the Ghost Legend Flavors in stock:
Conclusion: Wow. Best Legend Yet? Probably Definitely.
Christian Guzman wouldn’t be where he is today if he didn’t have the drive to train hard and improve. That being said, we all know how difficult staying motivated can be sometimes, especially in the gym. Some days you just aren’t feeling it, but still have to get a workout in.
Christian clearly had a trick in his back pocket when it came to staying on track – a energy-boosting, brain-powering, pump-chasing pre-workout! Use a supplement like this to help fuel your workouts, and we have no doubt you’re crushing the types of workouts Christian and the people at Ghost had in mind when they put this one together.
But the real question is if CarnoPrime can chill the tingles off of a whopping 6.4g beta alanine. Everything else here is known – it’s a fantastic formula – but this is what we’re most interested in.
The earlier two versions were released in a limited supply – each one was extremely popular, and sold out quickly. Based on past sales, and the potency of this new formula, we think this one may be even more popular.
Ghost Legend Christian Guzman V3 achieves everything a third iteration of a product should. It stays true to what its been in the past, yet challenges itself to be better. In taking a serving of this stuff before you step into the gym, you’ll be able to challenge yourself to be better, too!
Ghost Legend – Deals and Price Drop Alerts
Get Price Alerts
No spam, no scams.
Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.
Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.
- Hobson, R M, et al; “Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Exercise Performance: a Meta-Analysis.”; Amino Acids; Springer Vienna; July 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374095/
- Sale, Craig, et al; “Effect of β-Alanine plus Sodium Bicarbonate on High-Intensity Cycling Capacity.”; Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Oct. 2011; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21407127
- Kern, Ben D, and Tracey L Robinson; “Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Performance and Body Composition in Collegiate Wrestlers and Football Players.”; Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; July 2011; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21659893
- Liu, Qin, et al; “Mechanisms of Itch Evoked by β-Alanine.”; The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 17 Oct. 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491570/
- Zhang, H, et al; “Systematic Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacities of the Ethanolic Extract of Different Tissues of Jujube (Ziziphus Jujuba Mill.) from China.”; Food and Chemical Toxicology; Pergamon; 15 Mar. 2010; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691510001602
- Juneja, L. R., et al; “L-Theanine-a Unique Amino Acid of Green Tea and Its Relaxation Effect in Humans.;” Trends in Food Science & Technology; Elsevier; 17 Dec. 1999; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0924224499000448
- Lu, Kristy, et al; “The Acute Effects OfL-Theanine in Comparison with Alprazolam on Anticipatory Anxiety in Humans.”; Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental; vol. 19; no. 7; 2004; pp. 457–465; https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:284103
- Haskell, C F, et al; “The Effects of L-Theanine, Caffeine and Their Combination on Cognition and Mood.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Feb. 2008; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18006208
- Bhagya, V, et al; “Neuroprotective Effect of Celastrus Paniculatus on Chronic Stress-Induced Cognitive Impairment.”; Indian Journal of Pharmacology; Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd’ 2016; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5155471/
- Arora, Neha, et al; “Inhibition of Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-like Dermatitis in Mice by Herbal Extracts from Some Indian Medicinal Plants.”; Protoplasma; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Mar. 2016; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26016607
- Bode-Böger, S M et al; “L-arginine-induced vasodilation in healthy humans: pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship”; British journal of clinical pharmacology; vol. 46,5; 1998; 489-97; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1873701/
- Schwedhelm, Edzard et al; “Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism”; British journal of clinical pharmacology; vol. 65,1; 2007; 51-9; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2291275/
- Curis, E, et al; “Citrulline and the Gut.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Sept. 2007; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17693747
- Bendahan, D, et al; “Citrulline/Malate Promotes Aerobic Energy Production in Human Exercising Muscle.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Aug. 2002; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12145119
- Giannesini, B, et al; “Citrulline Malate Supplementation Increases Muscle Efficiency in Rat Skeletal Muscle.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 30 Sept. 2011; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21664351
- Pérez-Guisado, J, and P M Jakeman; “Citrulline Malate Enhances Athletic Anaerobic Performance and Relieves Muscle Soreness.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; May 2010; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20386132
- Jason M Cholewa, et al; “Effects of Betaine on Body Composition, Performance, and Homocysteine Thiolactone.”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 22 Aug. 2013; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-10-39
- Pryor, J Luke, et al; “Effect of Betaine Supplementation on Cycling Sprint Performance.”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 3 Apr. 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3353850/
- Bloomer, Richard J, et al; “Effect of Betaine Supplementation on Plasma Nitrate/Nitrite in Exercise-Trained Men.”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 18 Mar. 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3066115/
- Domínguez, Raúl, et al; “Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Athletes. A Systematic Review.;” Nutrients; MDPI; 6 Jan. 2017; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5295087/
- Domínguez, Raúl, et al; “Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Intermittent High-Intensity Exercise Efforts.”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 5 Jan. 2018; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5756374/
- “Glycerol.”; National Center for Biotechnology Information; PubChem Compound Database; U.S. National Library of Medicine; https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/753
- Patlar, Suleyman, et al; “The Effect of Glycerol Supplements on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance of Athletes and Sedentary Subjects.”; Journal of Human Kinetics; Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego w Katowicach; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3590833/
- Beyranvand, M R, et al; “Effect of Taurine Supplementation on Exercise Capacity of Patients with Heart Failure.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; May 2011; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21334852
- Balshaw, T G, et al; “The Effect of Acute Taurine Ingestion on 3-Km Running Performance in Trained Middle-Distance Runners.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Feb. 2013; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22855206
- Manabe, S, et al; “Decreased Blood Levels of Lactic Acid and Urinary Excretion of 3-Methylhistidine after Exercise by Chronic Taurine Treatment in Rats.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Dec. 2003; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14974726
- Zhang, M, et al; “Role of Taurine Supplementation to Prevent Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Healthy Young Men.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Mar. 2004; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15042451
- Silva, L, et al: “Effects of taurine supplementation following eccentric exercise in young adults”; Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism; 2014; 39(1); 101-104; https://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/apnm-2012-0229#.XF2lEfZFz40
- Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow, et al; “Effect of Choline-Containing Phospholipids on Brain Cholinergic Transporters in the Rat.”; Journal of the Neurological Sciences; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 15 Mar. 2011; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21195433
- Villines, Zawn; “Frontal Lobe: Functions, Structure, and Damage.”; Medical News Today; MediLexicon International; https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318139.php
- Hoffman, Jay R, et al; “The Effects of Acute and Prolonged CRAM Supplementation on Reaction Time and Subjective Measures of Focus and Alertness in Healthy College Students.”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 15 Dec. 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3009695/
- Bellar D, LeBlanc NR, Campbell B; “The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015; 12(1):42; https://www.jissn.com/content/12/1/42
- Di Perri, R, et al; “A Multicentre Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine versus Cytosine Diphosphocholine in Patients with Vascular Dementia.”; The Journal of International Medical Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 1991; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1916007
- Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow, et al; “Modulation of Monoaminergic Transporters by Choline-Containing Phospholipids in Rat Brain.” CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 1 Feb. 2013; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23244432
- Childs, Emma, and Harriet de Wit; “Subjective, Behavioral, and Physiological Effects of Acute Caffeine in Light, Nondependent Caffeine Users.”; Psychopharmacology; U.S. National Library of Medicine; May 2006; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16541243
- Paton, Carl D, et al; “Caffeinated Chewing Gum Increases Repeated Sprint Performance and Augments Increases in Testosterone in Competitive Cyclists.”; European Journal of Applied Physiology; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Dec. 2010; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20737165
- Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania, et al; “Modulatory Effect of Coffee Fruit Extract on Plasma Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Healthy Subjects | British Journal of Nutrition.”; Cambridge Core; Cambridge University Press; 14 Jan. 2013; https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/modulatory-effect-of-coffee-fruit-extract-on-plasma-levels-of-brainderived-neurotrophic-factor-in-healthy-subjects/8B291E8D053143AA5A8D33B65496B034
- Seifert, John G, et al; “Effect of Acute Administration of an Herbal Preparation on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Humans.”; International Journal of Medical Sciences; Ivyspring International Publisher; 2 Mar. 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3053490/
- Seifert, John G, et al; “Effect of Acute Administration of an Herbal Preparation on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Humans.”; International Journal of Medical Sciences, Ivyspring International Publisher; 2 Mar. 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3085176/
- AstraGin product dossier, sections 6.4 – 6.17.
- AstraGin product dossier, section 6.9.