SteelFit Steel Pump: Pre-Workout Strength Amplifier with Peak ATP

One of the industry’s hottest brands, SteelFit has grown quite a lot in recent years. This is no rookie brand, though – those behind the label came from Pro TanⓇ, bringing over 30 years of fitness industry experience.

SteelFit Steel Pump

Despite the name, SteelFit Steel Pump is most interesting in the strength game, with a few ingredients that could help you take your lifts to the next level

SteelFit not only failed to disappoint, they’ve succeeded any expectations we could’ve possibly had! Within the past year in particular, the brand has ramped things up to new heights. We’ve covered already covered a few of their top products, such as Shredded Steel (our top rated fat burner with a high dose of yohimbine) and Steel Multi-V, but we of course need to backtrack and talk about their pre workout!

Steel Pump is SteelFit’s flagship pre-workout supplement, and it does more than the name implies. While this name of course prioritizes the pump, it still makes it a point to provide a litany of energy-enhancing performance aids that are incredibly useful in terms of training. In fact, it’s not the most insane pump, but it’s just right for SteelFit’s primary demographic: dieters and high level female athletes.

Thus, this product covers a few spheres, some not always associated with pre-workouts: energy, strength, and stress relief. The pump is literally bonus compared to those benefits! Steel Pump takes aim at all of these, and does so in interesting ways!

Before we get into the ingredients, however, make sure you’re subscribed to PricePlow so we can hook you up with all the supplement deals, news, reviews, and interviews you need!

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Steel Pump Ingredients

What you’ll notice here is that despite the name, SteelFit doesn’t go too hard in any one direction. In fact, the pump is less exciting than the strength and stress support, thanks to a big dose of Peak ATP and betaine along with some KSM-66 Ashwagandha next to an “average nowadays” hit of 300mg caffeine that’s further tempered down by 200mg L-Theanine.

  • Steel Pump™️ Performance Matrix

    Given the comprehensive approach SteelFit is taking with this pre-workout, it should come as no surprise that the brand utilizes multiple ingredients that have long been regarded among the industry’s best. In this Performance Matrix, we see quite an effective blend of what’s tried-and-true and some more progessive, unique inclusions!

    • L-Citrulline Malate – 3000mg

      SteelFit Steel Pump Ingredients

      PeakATP and KSM-66 are two unique inclusions not normally used in pre workouts… and neither is MCT or glutathione! Very interesting and unique label, just like everything else from the brand

      Citrulline is often the first ingredient we find in pre-workout labels, with its presence virtually never going unnoticed. It’s one of the top nitric oxide (NO) production enhancers on the market, as the ingredient has been shown to raise arginine production within the blood, which effectively boosts NO synthase.[1] Furthermore, citrulline has a very high bioavailability, which means the body is able to efficiently digest and use it. In fact, citrulline is so potent and so readily-absorbed that it’s more capable of raising blood arginine levels than arginine itself.[1]

      That’s all well and good, but surely you’re more interested in tangible results this yields in terms of workout performance. Increased levels of nitric oxide production encourages vasodilation, which opens up blood vessels and enhances blood flow. This pumps more oxygenated blood throughout the body, but when exercising, a good portion of these oxygenated and nutrient-packed blood cells flow towards your working muscles. Thus, it’s no wonder citrulline has shown capable of reducing fatigue! In a study from 2010, subjects supplementing with citrulline saw a 52.92% increase in exercise repetitions, while also reporting less soreness and muscle damage post-workout.[2] Feeling less taxed both during and after training makes it easier to train longer and train sooner!

      The Citrulline Pathway

      The Citrulline Pathway – This is how you get more arginine and then more nitric oxide

      This isn’t just citrulline, however – its citrulline malate, or citrulline mixed with (or sometimes bonded to) malic acid, and that brings forth a few additional benefits. Primarily, this form of citrulline is often used for its better taste, smoother digestion, and faster absorption. Science has also come across another interesting finding, seeing that citrulline malate may enhance amino acid utilization.[3] This may help explain how citrulline offsets fatigue muscle soreness, as using muscle-building amino acids is an effective way to fuel muscular performance. Although these amino acids aren’t present in this label, if your peri-workout nutrition is on point, you’ll likely reap the benefits of this effect!

      Now, as happy as we are to see citrulline malate on this label, we do wish this 3g dose was slightly larger. The clinical dose of citrulline malate sits around 6g, or double what Steel Pump is working with. That being said, there’s still so much going on in this formula that this is hardly an issue. At 3g, it’s enough to get some NO production going, while simultaneously complementing the other ingredients!

    • Betaine Anhydrous (Trimethylglycine) – 2000mg

      Following in suit of citrulline, betaine is another recurring pre-workout inclusion, although it’s currently enjoying a bit of an industry-wide awakening of sorts. Betaine has garnered more and more attention as of late, and rightfully so, as the research behind this natural ergogenic aid is quite promising.

      Betaine Women

      The data is in, and betaine works for fat loss in newly-exercising women over placebo! But… the study was on 2.5g!

      Studies have shown that supplementing with betaine can increase work capacity and power in exercise,[4] unlocking more muscle-building potential. This has been evidenced in further research citing increased strength and force exertion as a result of betaine supplementation.[5] This boost in performance yields benefits elsewhere, too – studies have linked betaine with improved body composition,[4] most likely a result of being able to exercise at more intense levels.

      It’s also worth noting that betaine is an osmolyte, which means its helps water flow throughout the body. This effect works well with the other pump-inducing ingredients on the label and helps the product live up to its name, Steel Pump!

      Sitting at 2g, we fully expect this dose of betaine to play a massive role in the overall performance-based effects in this pre-workout, despite coming in just short of the clinical 2.5g dose. Betaine is a natural power-boosting ingredient that we love to see, and that’s no different here!

    • Beta-Alanine – 1600mg

      Rounding out the trifecta of common pre-workout powerhouses, beta-alanine may perhaps be the most familiar to most. A derivative of the amino acid alanine, this ingredient is closely tied to endurance, while also displaying abilities in terms of power, too! The caveat is in the dose, though, so we’ll be up front and let you know that this alone isn’t a full clinical dose.

      @Jesroesch_fit shows off her Steel Pump. Women looking to get some strength benefits of 300mg caffeine but without the crazy jitters will love the added theanine and KSM-66 ashwagandha inside!

      Since beta alanine’s been in our industry for quite some time, we are fortunate enough to have multiple studies available when trying to assess just how effective the ingredient is. We often come to the same conclusion – this compound is one of the top pre-workout ingredients out there, full stop! A meta-analysis from 2012 found that beta-alanine enhanced endurance in exercises lasting between 60 to 240 seconds,[6] while another study found that it induced reduced blood lactate levels in trained cyclists.[7]

      It’s not difficult to deduce what improved endurance could breed in regards to power. With more energy readily available, you should be able to exert more force, which would help you lift more, run faster, or pedal harder. In a study from 2009, cyclists administered beta-alanine daily for eight weeks saw an increase in peak power output of 11.4%, compared to only a 5% increase in placebo.[8] Being able to reach higher levels of power could be the difference between an old and a new training PR, and when looking to testing those boundaries, beta-alanine is something you’ll want in your corner!

      1.6g == Less clinical, but less tingles

      Although we typically see beta-alanine at the clinical 3.2g dose, SteelFit is notably only including 1.6g of this endurance-booster. That being said, beta-alanine is an ingredient that works in saturation as opposed to acute dosing – it doesn’t matter how much beta-alanine you take at once, but over the course of an entire day. Considering that we get most of our carnosine from meat, unless you’re following a vegan or vegetarian lifestyle, this shouldn’t be an issue!

      In fact, a 1.6g dose may help you avoid the ever-divisise skin tingles, or acute paresthesia,[9] often tied to beta-alanine. If that’s been something that’s deterred you from the ingredient in the past, perhaps this dose may work a bit better for you!

      Regardless, if you want to back up the whole clinical doses, you’ll need to find more elsewhere in your day.

    • Peak ATP

      Peak ATP is a revolutionary new ingredient that increases extracellular levels of ATP, allowing you to push harder and train longer.

      Adenosine 5’-Triphosphate Disodium (PEAK ATPⓇ) – 450mg

      Think back into your days in high school biology, and the term “ATP” should ring a bell. Adenosine triphosphate is the primary source of energy the body functions on, where it comes in two forms – intracellular ATP, which is used within cells, and extracellular ATP, which flows in the blood and affects muscle activity.

      Peak ATP Rathmacher Study

      Participants in the Rathmacher Study were able to exercise for a longer duration before succumbing to fatigue when using Peak ATP.

      PEAK ATPⓇ, a patented from of extracellular ATP from TSI Inc., is one of the few true exogenous ATP-promoting ingredients in the industry. Once ingested, PEAK ATPⓇ has been shown to raise extracellular ATP levels, which through enhanced muscle excitability, increases both vasodilation and anabolic signaling.[10] It’s extremely effective in these areas as well. Consider that research from 2013 found that subjects receiving 400mg of the ingredient daily saw a 147% increase in strength and 100% increase in lean body mass over a placebo group.[10] If that’s not enough for you, additional research has found the fatigue-reducing effects you’d expect in something that truly raises ATP levels,[11] which, based on existing science, PEAK ATPⓇ seems to do!

      50mg over clinical… because why not?!

      Most research supports a 400mg dose of this ingredient, but SteelFit decided to go higher than that here with a massive 450mg hit. That gives Steel Pump one of the largest PEAK ATPⓇ doses on the pre-workout market, and helps push this formula above its competition!

      SteelFit always uses (at least) a few trademarked ingredients in their supplements. For whatever reason — likely cost — too few brands have included Peak ATP. This is a clear differentiator here. The next ingredient is similar:

    • Ashwagandha Root Standardized Extract (Withania Somnifera) (5% withanolides) (KSM-66Ⓡ) – 300mg

      KSM-66

      KSM-66 bills itself as the World’ Best Ashwagandha… and we don’t disagree!

      Ashwagandha is an extremely potent adaptogen that is among the most popular Ayurvedic herbs that have made their way into the supplement industry in recent years. It’s been anecdotally used to promote balance between the “mind, body, and consciousness”, but we’re quickly learning that this root has much more to offer.

      Hormonal and mental health

      Withania somnifera is most commonly associated with stress, as it has shown to be quite powerful in this regard. Cortisol is a rather problematic hormone, as it wreaks havoc on various bodily processes when it reaches very high levels. Unfortunately, this excretion happens when we’re stressed, as the adrenals pump out cortisol to compensate. Long story short, high cortisol levels are as much of an issue now as ever, as a lot of us find ourselves stressed out more often than not.

      Ashwagandha has shown extreme promise in reducing cortisol levels. In 2012, scientists tested serum cortisol levels in individuals receiving 300mg of ashwagandha twice daily and compared their results to placebo after 60 days. They found that the herb reduced cortisol levels by 28%,[12] a much larger drop than the 8% reduction seen in placebo.

      Ashwagandha Strength Gains

      These are some serious strength gains on the big lifts!

      With such a huge impact on cortisol levels, it only makes sense that ashwagandha affects mental health in other ways, too. This same study also found that the root helped lower scores on tests related to anxiety and depression,[12] as subjects felt more at ease thanks to supplementation.

      However, to get that other 300mg, you’d need to take another dose of it – possibly from Shredded Steel, our favorite fat burner on the market!

      For workouts – more strength and power, clinical at 300mg!

      Although we had to mention the stress-related effects of ashwagandha, its presence in Steel Pump is due to its effects on strength. In 2015, 57 male subjects were split into two groups in a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment, one receiving 300mg ashwagandha twice daily and the other a placebo. After eight weeks, those supplementing with the herb saw increases in strength on the bench press and leg extension, in addition to larger increases in muscle size of the chest and arms.[13] Researchers also found evidence supporting reduced fatigue levels, as well.

      KSM-66Ⓡ is one of the top ashwagandha extracts available – its an extremely high-quality solution complete with a potent 5% withanolides content, which are the active ingredients within ashwagandha crucial for yielding the effects we’ve mentioned. At 300mg total, we’re within the 300mg to 600mg range that the research supports. An alternative route to increasing strength, ashwagandha is a welcome addition to this solid formula!

      SteelFit Steel Pump Hungary

      SteelFit Steel Pump has gone worldwide, with this image coming from their Hungarian account! Hello to our European friends!

      So this brings the same story as Peak ATP – research-backed at this dose, but not frequently used in pre workouts. Another differentiator.

    • Grape Seed Extract (Vitis Vinifera) (95% Proanthocyanidins) – 200mg

      Grape seed extract, also known as Vitis vinifera, is one of the most potent antioxidants on the planet. It’s used for a variety of its health-promoting benefits, most of which relate to its high content of proanthocyanidins. This ingredient is incredibly versatile, as we’ve seen it used anywhere from on-cycle therapy products to nootropic formulas. In this case, it’s here for its vasodilating properties! Research has shown that grape seed extract can encourage more blood flow,[14, 15] an effect that work synergistically with the pump-inducing likes of citrulline and betaine.

      Given its well-rounded complex of auxiliary health benefits, a little grape seed extract is usually a quality addition. In this formula, it’s appreciated even more, as it helps complement the pumps promised by the product’s name!

    • L-Glutathione – 50mg

      Glutathione is an antioxidant built from three amino acids – glutamine, glycine, and cysteine – that happens to be one of the most versatile, powerful antioxidants out there, While it has been linked to a variety of benefits, such as improved insulin sensitivity and liver health,[16,17] its mainly used here for its blood flow-improving properties. Research has found that glutathione may improve circulation,[18] although this effect has been most prominently shown in patients with peripheral obstructive arterial disease.

      Nonetheless, including a strong antioxidant into a formula is rarely a bad thing, and when it has the potential to further amplify the vasodilating effects of the entire label, it’s all the more welcome!

      The biggest question is bioavailability, but we do like how few-to-no other pre workouts use it, so it’s another differentiator in a saturated market of pre workouts.

  • Steel Pump™️ Energy and Focus Blend

    • Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) Powder (Coconut Oil) – 1000mg

      Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) powder is likely a substance you’ve heard of before, though probably not in a conversation regarding pre-workouts. MCTs are a relatively easy-digesting source of fuel, and these high-powered fats have a lot to offer.

      SteelFit Steel Pump Purple Steel Stack

      The original image used from Mike’s incredible “Purple Steel” Stack giveaway contest. This Grape Cola flavor is the BEST!

      MCTs are more commonly used for their potential fat loss-enhancing properties, most of which are tied to its ability to blunt hunger and increase satiety.[18] As great as these benefits are, that’s surely not its primary reason for being included here. That reason is as follows – MCTs, thanks to how easy they are on the digestive system, are an extremely fast-hitting source of energy.[19] Once ingested, they immediately get to work on fueling the body and your training. In fact, MCTs seem to provide energy in more ways than one -MCTs are an immediate source of ketones, the primary source of energy in those following the ketogenic diet!

      SteelFit is always looking to improve their formula, often implementing somewhat unorthodox methods of doing so. In this case, providing a bit of MCT powder is an excellent example of just that – its atypical compared to normal pre-workout energy sources, but effective nonetheless!

    • Caffeine Anhydrous – 300mg

      What would an energy-packed matrix be without our old friend, caffeine?! Perhaps the most popular stimulant on the planet, caffeine is no stranger within the supplement industry, as its been used to provide quick-hitting energy boost in countless formulas. When it comes to bringing energy levels up a notch, few compare to it. We’ve long understood its performance-improving, focus-inducing effects,[20,21] both of which make this ingredient incredibly useful within the gym.

      SteelFit Shredded Steel Label

      SteelFit’s Shredded Steel has a lower dose of caffeine and a big hit of yohimbine, so you can use it on the opposite end of the day from Steel Pump!

      Using caffeine anhydrous here, Steel Pump delivers one of the fastest-acting forms of caffeine on the market – you can bet on this product getting you moving immediately. 300mg is a solid dose, more than enough to get you going, so please make sure you understand your stimulant tolerances before taking a serving!

      Two ingredients to take the edge off

      Importantly, we notice that many of SteelFit’s consumers are female or dieters. If you’re in that demographic and are worried about this being too much caffeine, you should always take less than a full scoop, but also realize that the KSM-66 ashwagandha and the L-Theanine (described next) will really smooth the ride out.

    • L-Theanine – 200mg

      Theanine is yet another ingredient that has gained significant amounts of popularity in recent years, and its usefulness is something we’ve been behind for quite awhile. An amino acid found in green tea, this nootropic originally garnered attention due to its relaxing yet non-sedating effect. As such, it immediately became relevant within the world of calming and mood-focused supplements. Recently, however, science has identified a very unique property that deems it important in energy-boosting supplements.

      Research has concluded that the combination of caffeine and theanine is extremely effective in improving cognition and alertness.[22] In using these two ingredients simultaneously, one can effectively raise energy levels and cognition while avoiding the dreaded “crash” often tied to caffeine-dependent energy. Theanine helps “help take the edge off” caffeine, creating a more stable, smooth source of focus and energy.

      The “clinical” L-theanine dose when paired with caffeine
      L-Theanine Attention

      L-Theanine increases attention and reduces reaction time — especially in stressed individuals!

      In the research showing “nootropic stimulant synergy”, we see theanine and caffeine dosed in a 1:1 ratio, yet the 200mg used here comes in shortly underneath that. We’re fine with that for a few reasons – first, 200mg is the clinical L-Theanine dose (it’s the caffeine that SteelFit’s bumping up higher), and the KSM-66 also helps with the “relaxation” effect. In addition, we don’t really feel the need for more without additional “exotic” stimulants, which SteelFit stays away from.

      So this is still an incredibly effective dose, providing more than enough of the amino acid to yield the improved energy levels we’ve discussed! It’s also admittedly not a cheap one, just like with PEAK ATP.

    • Alpha GPC (L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine) – 150mg

      Last but certainly not least, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, thankfully referred to as alpha GPC, is one of our favorite ingredients here at PricePlow. This choline-containing phospholipid has quite a lot to offer, with virtually all of its benefits being tied to its choline content. Choline is an essential nutrient, converted to acetylcholine by the body, a substance more commonly known as the “learning transmitter”. This neurotransmitter is a catalyst for various other neurotransmitter interactions, especially those concerning dopamine and serotonin.

      iamsteelfit

      Meet Rob Kaufman (@iamsteelfit), Co-Founder of SteelFit!

      As it turns out, having more acetylcholine offers some significant benefits in terms of training. With elevated levels of these neurotransmitters, a bit of a euphoric feeling arises, which can boost cognition by a significant margin. Research has shown that alpha GPC can improve motor control and attention more so than other choline supplements,[23] likely due to its unique ability to effectively cross the blood-brain barrier.

      Additional research cites more direct applications of this ingredient to training. Alpha GPC has been shown to increase focus and alertness in a dose-dependent manner,[24] while a massive 600mg dose was shown to increase leg strength in leg exercises.[25] That being said, while the cognitive effects are well-documented, that strength study is the only power-focused study on alpha GPC. More research is necessary, but the initial results are surely encouraging!

      150mg? Or 75mg?

      Coming in at 150mg, this dose of alpha GPC is a bit short of the clinical 300mg to 600mg dosage we typically look for. We’re also unsure if this is really 150mg of 50% Alpha-GPC, as the ingredient is sticky and often needs to be bound to something like silica or calcium phosphate.

      While we would’ve liked to see a bit more of the choline-packed phospholipid, we’re always happy to see it – in a packed label such as Steel Pump, this may still deliver a decent punch!

Available flavors

While SteelFit prioritizes an effective label above all else, they’re also sure to focus a good bit of their time on flavoring products, as well. Just as is the case with their formulas, they don’t disappoint – SteelFit knows how to make some great-tasting supplements! We were floored with the Apple Cider flavor of Multi-V, and now expect nothing but awesome flavors from the brand.

Pre-workouts tend to be a bit less adventurous in terms of flavors, and while Steel Pump does have its more conventional variations, it still has a unique offering or two! Here are the flavors you can find for Steel Pump:

SteelFit Steel Pump

We have to show this image one more time just to reinforce how good this Grape Soda flavor is! Watermelon Lemonade is next best for us!

    Hint: Grape Soda is king!

    Conclusion – turn up Strength with Steel Pump

    SteelFit is one of the largest names within the industry, and is surely a brand that goes against the grain when it comes to being ordinary. While there’s nothing new in here, per se, very few formulators are including the research-backed Peak ATP in their products, and for that, we’re excited. Add in the KSM-66 and some near-clinically dosed betaine, and you have a pre workout that’s actually strong on the strength side of things!

    SteelFit

    SteelFit is a relatively “new” brand but we’ve known them in the business forever. So far their formulas are intense and we’re loving them!

    Thanks to their openness in experimenting with new formulas and ingredients, SteelFit has made their business off of an incredibly diverse product profile, They offer various unique and effective products, most of which we’ve had the pleasure of trying and enjoying.

    Despite being a bit more creative than some, SteelFit still takes excellent care of the core products that build the foundation for virtually all supplement brands. Steel Pump is a perfect example – it’s a powerful, workout-enhancing pre-workout, utilizing multiple ingredients to deliver next-level focus, energy, and pump. It’s a supplement you’ll want in your corner when looking to attack your next training session, packed full of the things you’ll need to raise intensity and get after it!

    SteelFit Steel Pump - Deals and Price Drop Alerts

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    Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

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    About the Author: Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is an n=1 diet experimenter with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several experiments done on himself while sharing lab tests.

    Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public.

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    References

    1. Ochiai, M, et al; “Short-Term Effects of L-Citrulline Supplementation on Arterial Stiffness in Middle-Aged Men.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 8 Mar. 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21067832
    2. Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín, and Philip M Jakeman; “Citrulline Malate Enhances Athletic Anaerobic Performance and Relieves Muscle Soreness.”; Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; May 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386132
    3. Carvalho-Peixoto, J, et al; “Glutamine and Carbohydrate Supplements Reduce Ammonemia Increase during Endurance Field Exercise.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Dec. 2007; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18059593
    4. Cholewa, Jason M et al; “Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; vol. 10,1; 39; 22 Aug. 2013; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3844502/
    5. Lee, Elaine C, et al; “Ergogenic Effects of Betaine Supplementation on Strength and Power Performance.”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 19 July 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20642826/
    6. Hobson, R M, et al; “Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Exercise Performance: a Meta-Analysis.”; Amino Acids; Springer Vienna; July 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374095/
    7. Sale, Craig, et al; “Effect of β-Alanine plus Sodium Bicarbonate on High-Intensity Cycling Capacity.”; Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Oct. 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21407127
    8. Van, R, et al; “Beta-Alanine Improves Sprint Performance in Endurance Cycling.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Apr. 2009; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19276843
    9. Liu, Qin, et al; “Mechanisms of Itch Evoked by β-Alanine.”; The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 17 Oct. 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491570/
    10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849389/
    11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3483284/
    12. Chandrasekhar, K et al; “A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults”; Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine; vol. 34,3 (2012): 255-62; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3573577/
    13. Wankhede, Sachin et al; “Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and recovery: a randomized controlled trial”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; vol. 12 43; 25 Nov. 2015; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4658772/
    14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752876
    15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5343911/
    16. https://www.bcm.edu/news/geriatrics/glutathione-deficiency-fat-insulin-aging
    17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5549431/
    18. https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(11)62019-3/abstract
    19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4878196/
    20. Childs, Emma, and Harriet de Wit; “Subjective, Behavioral, and Physiological Effects of Acute Caffeine in Light, Nondependent Caffeine Users.”; Psychopharmacology; U.S. National Library of Medicine; May 2006; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16541243
    21. Paton, Carl D, et al; “Caffeinated Chewing Gum Increases Repeated Sprint Performance and Augments Increases in Testosterone in Competitive Cyclists.”; European Journal of Applied Physiology; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Dec. 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20737165
    22. Giesbrecht, T, et al; “The Combination of L-Theanine and Caffeine Improves Cognitive Performance and Increases Subjective Alertness.”; Nutritional Neuroscience; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Dec. 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21040626
    23. Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow, et al; “Effect of Choline-Containing Phospholipids on Brain Cholinergic Transporters in the Rat.”; Journal of the Neurological Sciences; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 15 Mar. 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21195433
    24. Hoffman, Jay R, et al; “The Effects of Acute and Prolonged CRAM Supplementation on Reaction Time and Subjective Measures of Focus and Alertness in Healthy College Students.”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 15 Dec. 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3009695/
    25. Bellar D, LeBlanc NR, Campbell B; “The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015; 12(1):42; http://www.jissn.com/content/12/1/42

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