ABE Pump: All Black Everything’s Stim-Free Pre-Workout with Nitrosigine

All Black Everything (ABE) is the latest venture from national-level bodybuilder and world-class entrepreneur TJ Humphreys. TJ is a legend in the supplement world – besides having an amazing athletic career, he also had a successful run as CEO of ProSupps.

All Black Everything ABE Pump

All Black Everything’s ABE Pump has a unique combination of both Nitrosigine and creatine monohydrate to keep the pumps coming strong

ABE is the American branch of a major English brand named Applied Nutrition, which is run by some good friends of TJ’s. They asked him to bring their brand to the United States, but with their massive catalog, it would be too much to do all at once. So they started with their All Black Everything pre-workout and energy drink, first bringing those to America, and creating the brand around those names. And that’s how “ABE” was born.

To understand the full story, check out our recent PricePlow Podcast episode: #114 – TJ Humphreys: All Black Everything – ABE Brings Edge.

With the pre-workout and energy drink success, it was time to get something stimulant-free into the mix. This means nitric oxide and pumps — and when you want pumps, you want Nitrosigine:

ABE Pump: The All Black Nitrosigine-Based Stim-Free Pre-Workout

Today we’re going to talk about ABE PUMP, the American brand’s non-stim pump formula. As discussed on the podcast linked above, it is based upon Nutrition21’s Nitrosigine, and differentiates itself with a full 5 gram dose of creatine as well as several nootropics — including, of course, Nitrosigine, which has research supporting cognitive outcomes in healthy individuals at the 1.5 gram dose we have here.

Let’s get into it, but first, check the PricePlow news and deals:

All Black Everything ABE Pump – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

This area is reserved for Team PricePlow's upcoming videos.

Subscribe to our channel and sign up for notifications so you catch it when it goes live!

Subscribe to PricePlow on YouTube!

ABE Pump Ingredients

In a single 2-scoop (25 gram) serving of Abe Pump Zero-Stim 500G, you get the following:

  • Citrulline Malate 2:1 – 9,000 mg

    ABE Pump Ingredients

    Citrulline is an amino acid that your body converts into nitric oxide (NO).[1] However, this conversion is indirect. There’s one intermediary step: Citrulline → arginine → NO.**

    The reason we want extra NO is that it triggers vasodilation, a process whereby arterial diameter increases to permit a greater throughput of blood. Thanks to this enhanced circulation and perfusion, oxygen and nutrients are delivered to your cells, and metabolic wastes are removed, more efficiently. Consequently, you will see better athletic performanceendurance especially – during your workouts. You’ll recover faster, too.

    Taking citrulline supplements can improve:

    • Power (via oxygen utilization)[2]
    • Endurance – by as much as 50%[3]
    • Post-workout soreness – also by about 50%[3]

    What about the malate?

    Citrulline is awesome on its own, but as it turns out, the malate half of citrulline malate can have some benefits as well! Malate (or malic acid) plays an important role in the Krebs cycle, one of your body’s major pathways for cellular energy generation.[4] Compared to other forms of citrulline, citrulline malate seems especially good at improving cells’ aerobic respiration, making more energy available during exercise.[5]

    The 2:1 ratio in this ingredient label tells you that for every 2 grams of citrulline in Abe Pump Zero-Stim, you’re getting 1 gram of malate (malic acid). So in a 9 gram serving of citrulline malate, you’re getting 6 grams of citrulline and 3 grams of malic acid.

    **Supplemental citrulline is used instead of standard L-arginine because it’s more orally bioavailable[6]… but more on this later, as Nitrosigine saves the day for arginine supplements.

  • Creatine Monohydrate — 5,000 mg

    All Black Everything ABE Pump

    Creatine is probably the most researched ingredient in sports nutrition science. This incredibly effective and safe ATP precursor[7-11] helps cells produce the energy they need to power through tough workouts, thus improving physical (and mental!) performance. Thanks to this fundamental mechanism of action, creatine is considered an ergogenic aid.

    More specifically, creatine supplementation can:

    • Enhance power output[12,13]
    • Promote lean mass gains[14-19]
    • Improve sprinting capabilities[20-22]
    • Improve hydration status[23]
    • Reduce fatigue levels[24-27]
    • Enhance sense of well-being[28-30]
    • Improve cognition[31,32]
    • Increase testosterone levels in the bloodstream[33-37]
    • Increase bone density[38]

    Besides the dozens of studies we’ve cited on creatine’s benefits, there are hundreds of comparable studies and meta-analyses in scientific literature all pointing to the same conclusion: Creatine supplementation is a no-brainer for anyone who’s looking to increase their athletic capability.

  • Beta-Alanine – 3,000 mg

    TJ Humphreys: All Black Everything on the PricePlow Podcast

    The man, the myth, the legend TJ Humphreys joins the PricePlow Podcast for Episode #114 to talk about All Black Everything, and their new ABE Pump with Nutrition21’s Nitrosigine

    Beta-alanine is another ergogenic aid that’s particularly good at increasing athletic endurance. It does this because it’s a precursor to carnosine, which is formed when beta-alanine is chemically bonded to the amino acid histidine. Carnosine, a dipeptide molecule that concentrates in muscle tissue, helps your body remove lactic acid. Because lactic acid causes mental and physical fatigue, improving your body’s clearance of lactic acid through beta-alanine supplementation can delay the onset of fatigue.[39]

    Once again, we have a situation where the precursor is more bioavailable than the target molecule itself: carnosine is poorly absorbed, but beta-alanine makes for a great oral supplement. Additionally, histidine is abundant in commonly-eaten foods, meaning that supplementation with the amino acid is not likely to be necessary. Beta-alanine is much more often the limiting factor in your body’s synthesis of carnosine.[40,41]

    According to two big meta-analyses, beta-alanine is best at improving endurance during exercises conducted at an intensity that can be sustained for 30 seconds to 10 minutes.[39,42]

    What about those beta alanine tingles?

    It’s common to experience a tingling sensation in the face or torso following beta-alanine supplementation. If this happens to you, don’t worry – it’s benign.[43]

  • Arginine Silicate Inositol (as Nitrosigine®) – 1500 mg


    Move over L-arginine, Nitrosigine (inositol-stabilized arginine silicate) actually makes it work as originally desired!

    Nitrosigine® is a premier nitric oxide booster made by Nutrition21. It’s a patented ingredient made up of an arginine molecule bound to inositol and silicate molecules.[44] When not called by its brand name, Nitrosigine is known as inositol-stabilized arginine silicate, or ASI for short.

    Understanding arginine’s bioavailability problem, and how to make it better

    Citrulline Malate vs. Nitrosigine

    An independent study at the University of Arkansas showed that 1.5g Nitrosigine performed as well as (if not better than!) 8g citrulline malate![53]

    As mentioned above in the citrulline section, the oral bioavailability of generic L-arginine is generally poor. This gives rise what’s known as the arginine paradox,[45] a phenomenon where arginine doses large enough to be efficacious are impractical because the sheer volume of arginine causes gastrointestinal distress.[46,47]

    The specific reason why straight L-arginine doesn’t work so well is that it’s more likely to bind to an enzyme called arginase than it is to bind to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the enzyme that produces nitric oxide from arginine.[48] Arginase degrades arginine, rendering it unusable to eNOS. This premature breakdown of arginine is known as the first pass effect.[49-52]

    Nitrosigine’s standard 1.5-gram dose acts quickly and lasts a long time

    Nutrition21 Nitrosigine Graphic

    Nitrosigine is primarily found in pre-workouts due to its ability to boost nitric oxide levels… but don’t forget about its cognitive-supporting capabilities!

    The clinically verified 1,500 milligram dose, which is what we have in ABE Pump Zero-Stim, has been repeatedly demonstrated to upregulate nitric oxide from the first day of supplementation,[53,54] and compounding effects over time.[54] It’s been shown to increase the arginine blood level in as few as 30 minutes; and for up to 6 hours.[54,55]

    According to one human study that compared this 1.5 gram dose of Nitrosigine to 8 grams of citrulline malate, both were shown to improve blood flow, but Nitrosigine was just as effective at 1/5th the dose! More specifically, Nitrosigine increased flow-mediated dilation (FMD for short, a measure of arterial blood flow) by an incredible 31%.[53]

    But as discussed in Episode #114 of the podcast with TJ Humphreys, ABE Pump has quite a few nootropic ingredients, and it turns out that Nitrosigine can support cognitive function as well:

    Nitrosigine’s brain benefits

    While nitric oxide discussions tend to focus on physical or athletic performance, the molecule can also have hugely beneficial cognitive effects. After all, your brain needs blood and the critical nutrients in blood no less than the rest of your body. No wonder, then, that improving systemic circulation could end up benefiting your brain as well!

    Nitrosigine 2022 Cognitive Study Infographic

    A nitric oxide booster that improves cognition?! Yes – Nutrition21 passed around this helpful infographic after the Nitrosigine cognition study on healthy young adults was published.[58]

    So far, Nitrosigine studies have shown that a 1.5 gram dose can:

    So, as you can see, there’s a lot more to Nitrosigine, and nitric oxide, than just getting a pump.

    Read our long-form Nitrosigine article

    Believe it or not, there’s even more to say about this incredible ingredient. If you want to read our full discussion of what it does and how it works, check out our featured article Nitrosigine: The Nitric Oxide Booster That Enhances Brain Function.

    Between the 6 grams of citrulline and the 1.5 grams of Nitrosigine, we have plenty of research supporting nitric oxide production and cognitive function — and there’s more cognitive support on the way:

  • Taurine – 1,000 mg

    Taurine is a sulfurous amino acid that naturally concentrates in cardiac, ocular, neural, and muscular tissue.[59] It’s gaining recognition as an ergogenic aid, since taurine supplementation has been shown to improve:

    Taurine Endurance

    Taurine’s effect on endurance, with success in doses anywhere from 1 gram to 6 grams.[62]

    • Muscular power[60]
    • Endurance[61,62]
    • Anti-oxidant capacity[61]
    • Insulin sensitivity[63]

    In addition to its serious physical benefits, taurine has some awesome effects on cognition as well. In the brain, taurine imitates the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA),[64-68] meaning it opposes the excitatory effects of glutamate. This can lead to anti-anxiety effects,[69] while also enhancing focus, learning ability, and memory.[70,71]

    In fact, taurine has actually been used to help manage clinical anxiety symptoms.[72-74]

  • Choline Bitartrate (as VitaCholine) – 500 mg

    Choline is an essential B vitamin that’s needed for the synthesis and maintenance of the phospholipid bilayer membranes that enclose the contents of all your body’s cells.[75] These membranes are absolutely crucial for cellular function, making choline one of the most important nutrients.

    Choline is also required for the synthesis of acetylcholine, which we often call the learning neurotransmitter because of the key role it plays in learning and memory consolidation.[76] Increasing acetylcholine levels can have a positive impact on multiple aspects of cognitive performance, including learning, memory, balance, and coordination.[77,78]

    Yes, that’s right: balance and coordination – although we typically think of nootropics as having effects on only the mental side of cognition, acetylcholine is also found within neuromuscular junctions,[76] where it helps facilitate muscle contractions and can support neuromotor functions.[77,78]

    VitaCholine is a form of choline that consists entirely of choline-L, the active choline isomer, making it a bioavailable form of choline.

  • Himalayan Pink Salt – 300 mg

    All Black Everything ABE Pump

    Pink Himalayan salt is included in ABE Pump Zero-Stim to provide extra electrolyte support. During intense workouts, we lose significant amounts of electrolytes through sweat, with sodium being the most prominent loss. Additional salt intake is generally advisable to replenish these lost electrolytes.

    Although pink Himalayan salt contains trace amounts of other minerals, its primary component is sodium.

    Sodium has gotten a lot of bad press lately, but at the end of the day it’s still an essential electrolyte mineral your body needs for optimal muscle function, peak performance, and recovery.[79] Inadequate sodium levels can impair these functions.[80]

    A 300-milligram dose of pink Himalayan salt provides roughly 120 milligrams of sodium. While this amount isn’t big enough to concern most individuals, it’s valuable for electrolyte support.

  • FitNox (Moringa Oleifera Extract (Leaf), Punica Granatum Extract (Peel), Kaempferia Parviflora Extract (root)) – 250 mg

    To finish off ABE Pump Zero-Stim’s complement of nitric oxide-boosting ingredients, we have FitNox. This ingredient consists of three carefully selected extracts known for their synergistic impact on nitric oxide synthesis.

    A study from 2018 demonstrated that a single 250-milligram dose of FitNox can increase nitric oxide levels by an incredible 336%. Equally impressive, this effect persisted for over 10 hours.[81]

    Fitnox Ingredient Components

    A look at how Fitnox is built, using Polar-Nonpolar-Sandwich (PNS) Molecular Technology described at the bottom of this article

    In another study, participants who supplemented with 250 milligrams of FitNox for 22 days experienced increased nitric oxide production and improved athletic endurance. Moreover, the supplementation led to reduced levels of compounds that induce muscular fatigue. The study also revealed that FitNox can increase dopamine levels, enhancing focus and motivation.[82]

  • AstraGin (Astragalus Membranaceus (Root) Extract and Panax Notoginseng (Root) Extract) – 35 mg

    AstraGin is a patented ingredient designed to enhance the bioavailability of food and supplements.[83-87] Its mechanism of action involves promoting the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in intestinal cells. Since intestinal cells need ATP to perform the work of absorbing nutrients from your digestive tract, giving them more ATP can increase the efficiency of that process.

    Thus, AstraGin may support the absorption and utilization of any substances taken in conjunction with it – which, in this case, includes every several ingredients in the ABE Pump Zero-Stim formula. This gives you, the consumer, a better bang for your buck.

    Consistent use may lead to gradual improvements in intestinal health over time.[88]

  • Huperzia Serrata Extract (Leaf & Stem) (1% Huperzine-A) – 100mcg

    To support the choline bitartrate in ABE Pump we have a medium-sized dose of Huperzine A, which acts to keep acetylcholine levels higher for longer. This is because it’s an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor,[89] meaning it downregulates the enzyme that breaks acetylcholine down.

    What’s really cool about this ingredient is that it has neuroprotective benefits, and has even been shown to promote hippocampal neurogenesis[90] — the formation of new neurons!

    Finally, we have a couple of vitamins to close it out with:

  • Niacin (Vitamin B3) – 40 mg (250% DV)

    ABE Pump Tiger's Blood

    Niacin (vitamin B3) is a precursor for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+).[91-93] Since NAD+ is involved in a huge variety of metabolic processes, including the all-important electron transport chain that generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for the entire body. NAD+ is also needed for liver function and DNA repair.[94-97]

    Niacin can also upregulate adiponectin,[98] a hormone that has a powerful impact on metabolic function. Adiponectin can increase insulin sensitivity,[99] and research has found that overweight and obese people are usually deficient in adiponectin.[99] Adiponectin also increases the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK),[100] a secondary messenger that increases your cells’ metabolic rate.

    Finally, niacin can downregulate the production of inflammatory cytokines by adipose tissue,[98] which is a huge deal since this type of inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction.[101]

  • Vitamin B12 (as Cyanocobalamin – 100 micrograms (4,000% DV)

    Vitamin B12 plays a crucial role in your body’s production of red blood cells (RBCs). Deficiencies in this vitamin can lead to megaloblastic anemia,[102,103] a type of anemia where the number of RBCs drops, while the RBCs themselves get bigger. This condition can lead to a decrease in overall aerobic capacity.

    ABE Pump & Creatine

    Even the non-methylated cyanocobalamin form of B12 can help your body keep homocysteine levels under control, which is key for long-term cardiovascular health and aerobic performance.[104-106]

    Even though B12 deficiency is pretty rare in the developed world, there are tons of anecdotal reports that B12 megadosing can increase perceived energy. Since B12 is incredibly safe and incredibly cheap, there isn’t really any downside to putting it in a pre-workout.

Flavors Available

    Conclusion: ABE Pump Brings Edgy Pumps

    ABE Pump Zero-Stim lives up to its name – this is a super pump-heavy formula, but as mentioned in Episode #114 with TJ Humphreys, it’s also nootropic heavy.

    Between the clinically supported doses of Nitrosigine, citrulline, and FitNox for pumps, as well as the cognition-supporting doses of Nitrosigine, taurine, choline, creatine, and huperzine A, this is a pump supplement that will feel as good as it looks.

    We think you’ll love the feel of this one during your next lifting session — but you’ll just need to stay tuned to PricePlow and sign up for our All Black Everything news alerts to learn about the new Nitrosigine-based Pump Gel coming from ABE:

    All Black Everything ABE Pump – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

    Get Price Alerts

    No spam, no scams.

    Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    About the Author: Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is an n=1 diet experimenter with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several experiments done on himself while sharing lab tests.

    Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public.

    No Comments | Posted in | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .


    1. Morita, Masahiko, et al; “Oral Supplementation with a Combination of L-Citrulline and L-Arginine Rapidly Increases Plasma L-Arginine Concentration and Enhances NO Bioavailability.”; Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 7 Nov. 2014; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25445598
    2. Bailey, Stephen J, et al; “l-Citrulline Supplementation Improves O2 Uptake Kinetics and High-Intensity Exercise Performance in Humans.”; Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985); U.S. National Library of Medicine; 15 Aug. 2015; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26023227
    3. Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín, and Philip M Jakeman; “Citrulline Malate Enhances Athletic Anaerobic Performance and Relieves Muscle Soreness.”; Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; May 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386132
    4. “Malic Acid: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning.” WebMD; https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1495/malic-acid
    5. Bendahan, D. “Citrulline/Malate Promotes Aerobic Energy Production in Human Exercising Muscle.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 36, no. 4, 1 Aug. 2002, pp. 282–289, 10.1136/bjsm.36.4.282; https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/36/4/282
    6. Schwedhelm, Edzard et al.; “Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism.”; British journal of clinical pharmacology vol. 65,1 (2008): 51-9.; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2291275/
    7. Sheikholeslami Vatani, D., et al. “The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Performance and Hormonal Response in Amateur Swimmers.” Science & Sports, vol. 26, no. 5, Nov. 2011, pp. 272–277, 10.1016/j.scispo.2011.07.003; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0765159711001171
    8. Mujika, I., and S. Padilla. “Creatine Supplementation as an Ergogenic Aid for Sports Performance in Highly Trained Athletes: A Critical Review.” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 18, no. 07, Oct. 1997, pp. 491–496, 10.1055/s-2007-972670; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9414070
    9. Terjung, RL, et al; “Physiological and Health Effects of Oral Creatine Supplementation.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 32, no. 3, Mar. 2000, pp. 706–717, 10.1097/00005768-200003000-00024; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10731017
    10. Guzun, R., et al. “Systems Bioenergetics of Creatine Kinase Networks: Physiological Roles of Creatine and Phosphocreatine in Regulation of Cardiac Cell Function.” Amino Acids, vol. 40, no. 5, 10 Mar. 2011, pp. 1333–1348, 10.1007/s00726-011-0854-x; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21390528
    11. Adhihetty, Peter J., and M. Flint Beal. “Creatine and Its Potential Therapeutic Value for Targeting Cellular Energy Impairment in Neurodegenerative Diseases.” NeuroMolecular Medicine, vol. 10, no. 4, 13 Nov. 2008, pp. 275–290, 10.1007/s12017-008-8053-y; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19005780
    12. Stout JR, et al; “Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold”; J Strength & Cond Research; 2006 20(4): 928−931; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17194255
    13. Branch, J David. “Effect of Creatine Supplementation on Body Composition and Performance: A Meta-Analysis.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 13, no. 2, 2003, pp. 198–226, 10.1123/ijsnem.13.2.198; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12945830/
    14. Anomasiri, Wilai, et al. “Low Dose Creatine Supplementation Enhances Sprint Phase of 400 Meters Swimming Performance.” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet, vol. 87 Suppl 2, 1 Sept. 2004, pp. S228-232; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16083193/
    15. Branch, J David. “Effect of Creatine Supplementation on Body Composition and Performance: A Meta-Analysis.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 13, no. 2, 2003, pp. 198–226, 10.1123/ijsnem.13.2.198; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12945830/
    16. Chilibeck, Philip, et al. “Effect of Creatine Supplementation during Resistance Training on Lean Tissue Mass and Muscular Strength in Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis.” Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. Volume 8, Nov. 2017, pp. 213–226, 10.2147/oajsm.s123529; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5679696/
    17. Devries, Michael A, and Stuart M. Philips; “Creatine Supplementation during Resistance Training in Older Adults—a Meta-Analysis.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 46, no. 6, June 2014, pp. 1194–1203, 10.1249/mss.0000000000000220; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24576864/
    18. Chilibeck, P. D., et al. “Creatine Monohydrate and Resistance Training Increase Bone Mineral Content and Density in Older Men.” The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, vol. 9, no. 5, 2005, pp. 352–353; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16222402/
    19. Candow, Darren G., et al. “Creatine Supplementation and Aging Musculoskeletal Health.” Endocrine, vol. 45, no. 3, 5 Nov. 2013, pp. 354–361, 10.1007/s12020-013-0070-4; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24190049/
    20. Bogdanis, G C, et al. “Recovery of Power Output and Muscle Metabolites Following 30 S of Maximal Sprint Cycling in Man.” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 482, no. 2, 15 Jan. 1995, pp. 467–480, 10.1113/jphysiol.1995.sp020533; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7714837
    21. Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto, et al. “The Recovery of Repeated-Sprint Exercise Is Associated with PCr Resynthesis, While Muscle PH and EMG Amplitude Remain Depressed.” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 12, 17 Dec. 2012, p. e51977, 10.1371/journal.pone.0051977; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23284836
    22. Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan, et al. “Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Athletic Performance in Soccer Players: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 4, 31 Mar. 2019, p. 757, 10.3390/nu11040757; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520963/
    23. Lopez, Rebecca M et al. “Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? A systematic review with meta-analyses.” Journal of athletic training vol. 44,2 (2009): 215-23. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-44.2.215; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2657025/
    24. Sakellaris, George, et al. “Prevention of Traumatic Headache, Dizziness and Fatigue with Creatine Administration. A Pilot Study.” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 97, no. 1, 3 Dec. 2007, pp. 31–34, 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00529.x; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2583396/
    25. Anomasiri, Wilai, et al. “Low Dose Creatine Supplementation Enhances Sprint Phase of 400 Meters Swimming Performance.” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet, vol. 87 Suppl 2, 1 Sept. 2004, pp. S228-232; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16083193/
    26. Schneider-Gold, C., et al. “Creatine Monohydrate in DM2/PROMM: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study.” Neurology, vol. 60, no. 3, 11 Feb. 2003, pp. 500–502, 10.1212/01.wnl.0000044405.29988.e1; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12578937/
    27. McMorris, T., et al. “Effect of Creatine Supplementation and Sleep Deprivation, with Mild Exercise, on Cognitive and Psychomotor Performance, Mood State, and Plasma Concentrations of Catecholamines and Cortisol.” Psychopharmacology, vol. 185, no. 1, 17 Jan. 2006, pp. 93–103, 10.1007/s00213-005-0269-z; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16416332/
    28. McMorris, T., et al. “Effect of Creatine Supplementation and Sleep Deprivation, with Mild Exercise, on Cognitive and Psychomotor Performance, Mood State, and Plasma Concentrations of Catecholamines and Cortisol.” Psychopharmacology, vol. 185, no. 1, 17 Jan. 2006, pp. 93–103, 10.1007/s00213-005-0269-z; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16416332/
    29. Fuld, J P. “Creatine Supplementation during Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.” Thorax, vol. 60, no. 7, 1 July 2005, pp. 531–537, 10.1136/thx.2004.030452; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15994258/
    30. Braegger, Christian P., et al. “Effects of Creatine Supplementation in Cystic Fibrosis: Results of a Pilot Study.” Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society, vol. 2, no. 4, 1 Dec. 2003, pp. 177–182; 10.1016/S1569-1993(03)00089-4; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15463870/
    31. Rae, Caroline et al. “Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.” Proceedings. Biological sciences vol. 270,1529 (2003): 2147-50. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2492; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1691485/
    32. Benton, David, and Rachel Donohoe. “The Influence of Creatine Supplementation on the Cognitive Functioning of Vegetarians and Omnivores.” The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 105, no. 7, 2011, pp. 1100–5, 10.1017/S0007114510004733; https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/influence-of-creatine-supplementation-on-the-cognitive-functioning-of-vegetarians-and-omnivores/E2D37729902DDFA6CFC85767AD0421FC
    33. Schilling, Brian K., et al. “Creatine Supplementation and Health Variables: A Retrospective Study.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 33, no. 2, 2001, pp. 183–188; https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2001/02000/Creatine_supplementation_and_health_variables__a.2.aspx
    34. Hoffman, Jay, et al. “Effect of Creatine and ß-Alanine Supplementation on Performance and Endocrine Responses in Strength/Power Athletes.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 16, no. 4, Aug. 2006, pp. 430–446, 10.1123/ijsnem.16.4.430; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17136944/
    35. Cook, Christian J, et al. “Skill Execution and Sleep Deprivation: Effects of Acute Caffeine or Creatine Supplementation – a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 8, no. 1, 16 Feb. 2011, 10.1186/1550-2783-8-2; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3049131/
    36. Volek, Jeff S., et al. “The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Muscular Performance and Body Composition Responses to Short-Term Resistance Training Overreaching.” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 91, no. 5-6, 1 May 2004, pp. 628–637, 10.1007/s00421-003-1031-z; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14685870/
    37. Sheikholeslami Vatani, D., et al. “The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Performance and Hormonal Response in Amateur Swimmers.” Science & Sports, vol. 26, no. 5, Nov. 2011, pp. 272–277, 10.1016/j.scispo.2011.07.003; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0765159711001171
    38. Chilibeck, P. D., et al. “Creatine Monohydrate and Resistance Training Increase Bone Mineral Content and Density in Older Men.” The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, vol. 9, no. 5, 2005, pp. 352–353; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16222402/
    39. Hobson, R M, et al; “Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Exercise Performance: a Meta-Analysis.”; Amino Acids; Springer Vienna; July 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374095/
    40. Harris, R. C., et al. “The Absorption of Orally Supplied β-Alanine and Its Effect on Muscle Carnosine Synthesis in Human Vastus Lateralis.” Amino Acids, vol. 30, no. 3, 24 Mar. 2006, pp. 279–289, 10.1007/s00726-006-0299-9; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16554972/
    41. Dunnett, M., and R. C. Harris. “Influence of Oral ß-Alanine and L-Histidine Supplementation on the Carnosine Content of Thegluteus Medius.” Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 31, no. S30, July 1999, pp. 499–504, 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1999.tb05273.x; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10659307/
    42. Saunders, Bryan, et al. “β-Alanine Supplementation to Improve Exercise Capacity and Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 51, no. 8, 18 Oct. 2016, pp. 658–669; https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/51/8/658.long
    43. Dolan, Eimear, et al. “A Systematic Risk Assessment and Meta-Analysis on the Use of Oral β-Alanine Supplementation.” Advances in Nutrition, vol. 10, no. 3, 13 Apr. 2019, pp. 452–463, 10.1093/advances/nmy115; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520041/
    44. Vijaya Juturu V., Komorowski, JR. 2002. US7576132B2 – “Arginine Silicate Inositol Complex and use Thereof.” The United States Patent and Trademark Office. https://patents.google.com/patent/US7576132
    45. Elms, Shawn, et al. “Insights into the Arginine Paradox: Evidence against the Importance of Subcellular Location of Arginase and ENOS.” American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 305, no. 5, 1 Sept. 2013, p. H651, 10.1152/ajpheart.00755.2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC3761326/
    46. Grimble, George K. “Adverse Gastrointestinal Effects of Arginine and Related Amino Acids.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 137, no. 6, 1 June 2007, pp. 1693S1701S, 10.1093/jn/137.6.1693s; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17513449/
    47. Kaore, Shilpa N., et al. “Citrulline: Pharmacological Perspectives and Its Role as an Emerging Biomarker in Future.” Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 27, no. 1, 31 July 2012, pp. 35–50, 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2012.01059.x; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23316808/
    48. Stamler, Jonathan S., and Gerhard Meissner. “Physiology of Nitric Oxide in Skeletal Muscle.” Physiological Reviews, vol. 81, no. 1, 1 Jan. 2001, pp. 209–237, 10.1152/physrev.2001.81.1.209; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/physrev.2001.81.1.209
    49. Castillo, L, et al. “Splanchnic Metabolism of Dietary Arginine in Relation to Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Normal Adult Man.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 1, 1 Jan. 1993, pp. 193–197; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC45626/
    50. Wu, Guoyao. “Intestinal Mucosal Amino Acid Catabolism.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 128, no. 8, 1 Aug. 1998, pp. 1249–1252, 10.1093/jn/128.8.1249; https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/128/8/1249/4722724
    51. O’sullivan, D., et al. “Hepatic Zonation of the Catabolism of Arginine and Ornithine in the Perfused Rat Liver.” Biochemical Journal, vol. 330, no. Pt 2, 1 Mar. 1998, p. 627, 10.1042/bj3300627; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC1219183/
    52. van de Poll, Marcel CG, et al. “Interorgan Amino Acid Exchange in Humans: Consequences for Arginine and Citrulline Metabolism.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 85, no. 1, 1 Jan. 2007, pp. 167–172, 10.1093/ajcn/85.1.167; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17209193/
    53. Rogers, Jeffrey M et al. “Acute effects of Nitrosigine and citrulline malate on vasodilation in young adults.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 17,1 12. 24 Feb. 2020, doi:10.1186/s12970-020-00343-y; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041093/
    54. Kalman, Douglas, et al. “A Clinical Evaluation to Determine the Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of an Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate Dietary Supplement in Healthy Adult Males.” Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications, Oct. 2015, p. 103, doi:10.2147/cpaa.s84206; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4603712/
    55. Komorowski, J., et al. Apr. 2016. “A Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of the Duration of Effect of Inositol- Stabilized Arginine Silicate and Arginine Hydrochloride in Healthy Adult Males.” The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology vol. 30. https://www.fasebj.org/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.30.1_supplement.690.17
    56. Evans, M. et al. July 2020. “Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate Improves Post Exercise Cognitive Function in Recreationally Active, Healthy Males: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study.” Journal of Exercise and Nutrition vol. 3,3; https://www.journalofexerciseandnutrition.com/index.php/JEN/article/view/69 (full-text PDF, 2018 ISSN Poster Presentation, 2018 ISSN Conference Summary)
    57. Kalman, Douglas et al. “Randomized Prospective Double-Blind Studies to Evaluate the Cognitive Effects of Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate in Healthy Physically Active Adults.” Nutrients vol. 8,11 736. 18 Nov. 2016, doi:10.3390/nu8110736; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133120/ (2018 ISSN Summary, 2018 ISSN Poster Presentation)
    58. Gills, Joshua L., et al. “Acute Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate Improves Cognitive Outcomes in Healthy Adults.” Nutrients, vol. 13, no. 12, 1 Dec. 2021, 10.3390/nu13124272; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8703995/
    59. Schuller-Levis, Georgia B, and Eunkyue Park. “Taurine: New Implications for an Old Amino Acid.” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 226, no. 2, Sept. 2003, pp. 195–202, 10.1016/s0378-1097(03)00611-6; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14553911/
    60. da Silva, Luciano A et al. “Effects of taurine supplementation following eccentric exercise in young adults.” Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme vol. 39,1 (2014): 101-4. doi:10.1139/apnm-2012-0229 https://cdnsciencepub.com/doi/10.1139/apnm-2012-0229
    61. De Carvalho, Flávia G., et al. “Taurine: A Potential Ergogenic Aid for Preventing Muscle Damage and Protein Catabolism and Decreasing Oxidative Stress Produced by Endurance Exercise.” Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 8, 20 Sept. 2017, 10.3389/fphys.2017.00710; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5611412/
    62. Waldron, Mark, et al. “The Effects of an Oral Taurine Dose and Supplementation Period on Endurance Exercise Performance in Humans: A Meta-Analysis.” Sports Medicine, vol. 48, no. 5, 15 Mar. 2018, pp. 1247–1253, 10.1007/s40279-018-0896-2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29546641/
    63. Nandhini, A. T. Anitha, et al. “Taurine Modifies Insulin Signaling Enzymes in the Fructose-Fed Insulin Resistant Rats.” Diabetes & Metabolism, vol. 31, no. 4 Pt 1, 1 Sept. 2005, pp. 337–344; 10.1016/s1262-3636(07)70202-1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16369195/
    64. Ochoa-de la Paz, Lenin, et al. “Taurine and GABA Neurotransmitter Receptors, a Relationship with Therapeutic Potential?” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 19, no. 4, 20 Mar. 2019, pp. 289–291, 10.1080/14737175.2019.1593827. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14737175.2019.1593827
    65. Bureau, Michel H., and Richard W. Olsen. “Taurine Acts on a Subclass of GABAa Receptors in Mammalian Brain in Vitro.” European Journal of Pharmacology: Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 207, no. 1, May 1991, pp. 9–16, 10.1016/s0922-4106(05)80031-8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1655497/
    66. Kontro, P., and S. S. Oja. “Interactions of Taurine with GABAB Binding Sites in Mouse Brain.” Neuropharmacology, vol. 29, no. 3, 1990, pp. 243–247, 10.1016/0028-3908(90)90008-f. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2158001/
    67. L’Amoreaux, William J, et al. “Pharmacological Characterization of GABAA Receptors in Taurine-Fed Mice.” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 17, no. Suppl 1, 24 Aug. 2010, p. S14, 10.1186/1423-0127-17-S1-S14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2994404/
    68. Molchanova, Svetlana M., et al. “Effect of Taurine on the Concentrations of Glutamate, GABA, Glutamine and Alanine in the Rat Striatum and Hippocampus.” Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society, vol. 50, 2007, pp. 95–97. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18605241/
    69. Shell, W. et al. Apr. 2010. “A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of An Amino Acid Preparation on Timing and Quality of Sleep.” American Journal of Therapeutics vol. 17,2; 133-9; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19417589/
    70. Yoto, A. et al. Sep. 2012. “Oral Intake of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Affects Mood and Activities of Central Nervous System During Stressed Condition Induced by Mental Tasks.” Amino Acids vol. 43,3; 1331-7; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22203366/
    71. Goldberg, JS. 2010. “Selected Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Esters may Provide Analgesia for Some Central Pain Conditions.” Perspectives in Medicinal Chemistry vol. 4; 23-31; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2918363/
    72. Zhang, Cheng Gao, and Sung-Jin Kim. “Taurine Induces Anti-Anxiety by Activating Strychnine-Sensitive Glycine Receptor in Vivo.” Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 51, no. 4, 2007, pp. 379–386, 10.1159/000107687. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17728537/
    73. Wu, Gao-Feng, et al. “Antidepressant Effect of Taurine in Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Depressive Rats.” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, 10 July 2017, p. 4989, 10.1038/s41598-017-05051-3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5504064/
    74. Sung, Min Jung, and Kyung Ja Chang. “Correlations between Dietary Taurine Intake and Life Stress in Korean College Students.” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 643, 2009, pp. 423–428, 10.1007/978-0-387-75681-3_44. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19239174/
    75. Sanders LM, Zeisel SH; “Choline: Dietary Requirements and Role in Brain Development;” Nutrition today; 2007;42(4):181-186; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518394/
    76. Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al.; “Neuroscience;” 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001. Acetylcholine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11143/
    77. Hasselmo ME; “The role of acetylcholine in learning and memory;”Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006;16(6):710–715; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2659740/
    78. Jones BE; “From waking to sleeping: neuronal and chemical substrates”. Trends Pharmacol. Sci.; 2005; 26 (11): 578–86; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16183137
    79. Strazzullo P., Leclercq C.; “Sodium.” Advanced Nutrition; March 2014; 5(2) 188-190; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951800/
    80. Valentine, V. 2007. “The Importance of Salt in the Athlete’s Diet.” Current Sports Medicine Reports vol. 6,4 (2007): 237-40. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17617999/
    81. Jacob J et al. “A randomized single dose parallel study on enhancement of nitric oxide in serum and saliva with the use of natural sports supplement in healthy adults.” Journal of Dietary Supplements, vol. 15, no. 2 (March 4, 2018): 161-172; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28641022
    82. Gopi, S., Jacob, J., Varma, K. et al; “Natural sports supplement formulation for physical endurance: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study;” Sport Sci Health; 2017; 13, 183–194; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11332-017-0352-y#Abs1
    83. Lin, Hang-Ching, et al. “Method for Regulating Nutrient Absorption with Ginsenosides”; United States Patent and Trademark Office; Patent US20090181904A1; July 16, 2009; https://patents.google.com/patent/US20090181904A1/
    84. Lin, Hang-Ching, et al. “Method for Enhancing Nutrient Absorption with Astragalosides”; United States Patent and Trademark Office; Patent US20120196816A1; August 2, 2012; https://patents.google.com/patent/US20120196816A1/
    85. Lin, Hang-Ching, et al. “Method for Enhancing Nutrient Absorption with Astragalosides”; United States Patent and Trademark Office; Patent US20120196817A1; August 2, 2012; https://patents.google.com/patent/US20120196817A1/
    86. Lin, Hang-Ching, et al. “Method for Enhancing Nutrient Absorption with Astragalosides”; United States Patent and Trademark Office; Patent US8197860B2; June 12, 2012; https://patents.google.com/patent/US8197860B2/en
    87. Lin, Hang-Ching, et al. “Compound for enhancing nutrients uptake”; Taiwan Intellectual Property Office; Patent TWI271195B; 28-Dec 2004; https://patents.google.com/patent/TWI271195B/en
    88. Lee, Shih-Yu, et al. “Astragaloside II Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Repair by Enhancing L-Arginine Uptake and Activating the MTOR Pathway.” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, 26 Sept. 2017, p. 12302, 10.1038/s41598-017-12435-y. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5614914/
    89. Zhao, Qin, and Xi Can Tang. “Effects of Huperzine a on Acetylcholinesterase Isoforms in Vitro: Comparison with Tacrine, Donepezil, Rivastigmine and Physostigmine.” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 455, no. 2-3, 29 Nov. 2002, pp. 101–107, 10.1016/s0014-2999(02)02589-x. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12445575/
    90. Ma, Tuo, et al. “Huperzine a Promotes Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Vitro and in Vivo.” Brain Research, vol. 1506, 19 Apr. 2013, pp. 35–43, 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.02.026. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23454433
    91. Cantó, Carles, et al. “NAD+ Metabolism and the Control of Energy Homeostasis: A Balancing Act between Mitochondria and the Nucleus.” Cell Metabolism, vol. 22, no. 1, July 2015, pp. 31–53, 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.05.023; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4487780/
    92. Chini, Claudia C.S., et al. “NAD and the Aging Process: Role in Life, Death and Everything in Between.” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 455, Nov. 2017, pp. 62–74, 10.1016/j.mce.2016.11.003; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5419884/
    93. Yang, Yue, and Anthony A. Sauve. “NAD+ Metabolism: Bioenergetics, Signaling and Manipulation for Therapy.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1864, no. 12, 1 Dec. 2016, pp. 1787–1800, 10.1016/j.bbapap.2016.06.014; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5521000/
    94. Rajman, Luis, et al. “Therapeutic Potential of NAD-Boosting Molecules: The in Vivo Evidence.” Cell Metabolism, vol. 27, no. 3, Mar. 2018, pp. 529–547, 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.02.011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342515/
    95. Katsyuba, Elena, et al. “NAD + Homeostasis in Health and Disease.” Nature Metabolism, vol. 2, no. 1, 1 Jan. 2020, pp. 9–31, 10.1038/s42255-019-0161-5; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32694684/
    96. Chini, Claudia C.S., et al. “Evolving Concepts in NAD+ Metabolism.” Cell Metabolism, vol. 33, no. 6, June 2021, pp. 1076–1087, 10.1016/j.cmet.2021.04.003; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172449/
    97. Weiner, H., and X. Wang. “Aldehyde Dehydrogenase and Acetaldehyde Metabolism.” Alcohol and Alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement, vol. 2, 1994, pp. 141–145; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8974328/
    98. Wanders, Desiree et al. “Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.” PloS one vol. 8,8 e71285. 13 Aug. 2013, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071285 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC3742781/
    99. Achari, Arunkumar E, and Sushil K Jain. “Adiponectin, a Therapeutic Target for Obesity, Diabetes, and Endothelial Dysfunction.” International journal of molecular sciences vol. 18,6 1321. 21 Jun. 2017, doi:10.3390/ijms18061321 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC5486142/
    100. “Adiponectin – an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics.” sciencedirect.com. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/adiponectin
    101. Zatterale F, Longo M, Naderi J, Raciti GA, Desiderio A, Miele C and Beguinot F (2020) Chronic Adipose Tissue Inflammation Linking Obesity to Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. Front. Physiol. 10:1607. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.01607 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2019.01607/full
    102. da Silva, Weslay Rodrigues et al. “Recognition and management of vitamin B12 deficiency: Report of four cases with oral manifestations.” Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry vol. 42,4 (2022): 410-415. doi:10.1111/scd.12685 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/scd.12685
    103. Langan, Robert C, and Andrew J Goodbred. “Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management.” American family physician vol. 96,6 (2017): 384-389. https://www.aafp.org/pubs/afp/issues/2017/0915/p384.html
    104. Wahbeh, Farah, and Mange Manyama. “The role of Vitamin B12 and genetic risk factors in the etiology of neural tube defects: A systematic review.” International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience vol. 81,5 (2021): 386-406. doi:10.1002/jdn.10113 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jdn.10113
    105. Rogne, Tormod et al. “Associations of Maternal Vitamin B12 Concentration in Pregnancy With the Risks of Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data.” American journal of epidemiology vol. 185,3 (2017): 212-223. doi:10.1093/aje/kww212 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5390862/
    106. ‌Bala, Renu et al. “Hyperhomocysteinemia and low vitamin B12 are associated with the risk of early pregnancy loss: A clinical study and meta-analyses.” Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) vol. 91 (2021): 57-66. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2021.05.002 https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0271-5317(21)00023-3

    Comments and Discussion (Powered by the PricePlow Forum)