Axe & Sledge Ignition Switch Kick Starts Your Training Sessions

Axe & Sledge

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Axe & Sledge is known for creating top tier supplements for the hardest workers in the gym. They offer three incredible pre workouts that suit nearly anyone’s needs, the question is which one you want to lead you into the gym.

Axe & Sledge’s three pre workouts:

  1. Seventh Gear — a high stimulant powerhouse (387.5mg caffeine) which kicks your training into overdrive.
  2. Hydraulic — a stimulant free pump and performance enhancer.
  3. Ignition Switch (today’s topic) — a more comprehensive stimulant based pre workout that provides enough energy to get you through a grueling workout and beyond.

All three products have their own unique features and benefits, but the one that fits what most gym goers and fitness enthusiasts are after is Ignition Switch! The other two are phenomenal supplements, but not everyone needs nearly 400mg of caffeine before training, which is included in Seventh Gear, and a large percentage of people still want some caffeine pre workout, thus Hydraulic doesn’t always fit the bill.

Ignition Switch – A Pre Workout That Revs Up Your Workouts

Fortunately, with Ignition Switch, you get the best of both worlds — enough caffeine to get you fired up, along with several other ingredients designed to maximize pump, performance, focus, strength, and power! Ignition Switch will kickstart your workouts with a series of patented ingredients designed to increase energy levels, while avoiding the dreaded crash.

Ignition Switch IG

Get ready for a energy packed pre workout with Ignition Switch from Axe & Sledge!

Ignition switch features a blend of TeaCrine, Dynamine, and caffeine, which we would consider as the triple threat for long-lasting energy and focus. Axe & Sledge even includes dosages for both a one scoop or two scoop serving size, so you can easily customize how much stim you want to take (there’s 162.5mg caffeine per scoop).

Even though Ignition Switch has a few ingredients included to help you get a pump, if you’re looking for even more, throw in a scoop of Hydraulic. It won’t add any more stimulants to the mix, but it will enhance blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery, and overall performance!

The beauty of Ignition Switch is its versatility — it can be used as a stand alone product or stacked with various other products from the Axe & Sledge lineup. Axe & Sledge is known for using clinically studied dosages, fully transparent labels, and ingredients that are scientifically proven to deliver results. We’ve covered several products from Axe & Sledge on the blog and we’re always blown away by their formulas, flavors, and graphic designs.

The full breakdown of Ignition Switch is down below, but as always, make sure to sign up for Axe & Sledge news and deal alerts so you stay up to date with the hardest working supplement brand in the industry.

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Ignition Switch Ingredient Breakdown

Ignition Switch is jam packed with multiple ingredients, so we’re going to jump straight into what it has to offer. Although they list dosages for both a one scoop (5g) and two scoop (10g) serving, we’re going to use the full two scoops for this ingredient analysis.

If this is your first time trying Ignition Switch, we always recommend starting with one scoop to assess your tolerance level and if that’s all you need to crush a workout, then you get more bang for your buck! It’s pretty rare to see caffeine, TeaCrine, and Dynamine included in one product, thus you may get a stronger boost in energy than expected. All three of these compounds have potent stimulatory effects, so don’t just judge Ignition Switch by its caffeine content!

Here’s what two scoops (10g) of Ignition Switch contains:

  • L-Citrulline – 5000mg

    Ignition Switch Ingredients

    Some Stim or Extreme Stim — the choice is yours!

    The first ingredient in Ignition Switch will deliver skin splitting pumps — especially at a 5g dose! L-citrulline is one of the most popular inclusions for both stimulant and stimulant free pre workouts. When it comes to building muscle and lifting weights, one thing that almost everyone tries to achieve is an epic pump. In the scientific literature, this is referred to as hyperemia, which just means a temporary increase in blood flow to a specific area.

    When you resistance train, the body reacts by shuttling more blood to the working muscles and away from other places that don’t need it at the time, such as the organs and inactive muscles. L-citrulline enhances this effect through indirectly inducing vasodilation of the blood vessels. Once L-citrulline is ingested a specific enzyme acts upon it and converts it into L-arginine.[1]

    Then, an enzyme known as nitric oxide synthase will transform the L-arginine into nitric oxide and L-citrulline.[1] The nitric oxide tells the blood vessels to expand, while the L-citrulline enters the cycle and repeats the process. With the expansion of the blood vessels, comes more nutrients and oxygen delivery to the contracting muscles.[1] Furthermore, this effect increases the body’s ability to shuttle away metabolic wastes, such as lactic acid, that tends to build-up as you approach exhaustion.

    Although it may seem like a better idea to supplement with pure L-arginine, the issue lies in the fact that it has low bioavailability — due to getting broken down in the digestive system.[1] Therefore, it’s much better to use L-citrulline to boost endogenous L-arginine levels.

  • Beta Alanine (as CarnoSyn) – 1,600mg

    The next ingredient is one that you can actually feel working, since one of its side effects is a tingling sensation known as paresthesia. In order to make sure that the form of beta alanine they’re using is top quality, Axe & Sledge decided to go with the trademarked version — CarnoSyn.

    While the majority of pre workouts contain 3.2g of beta alanine per serving, 1.6g is still an adequate amount. Studies show that in order to get the full benefits of beta alanine you must reach a saturation level,[2] thus with a 1.6g dose it may just take a little longer to get there.

    CarnoSyn Logo

    One of the most pure forms of beta alanine on the market.

    Nonetheless, you’ll still get several performance boosting benefits along the way. Beta alanine is a non essential amino acid and is one of the major constituents of a dipeptide molecule known as carnosine.[2]

    Just like the goal with taking L-citrulline is to boost endogenous nitric oxide levels, the goal with taking beta alanine is to increase intramuscular carnosine levels.[2] Carnosine needs two molecules to be formed — L-histidine (an essential amino acid) and beta alanine.[2]

    Carnosine is crucial for optimal muscular endurance because it serves as a lactic acid buffer — meaning it’s capable of reducing levels of lactic acid, resulting in a sustained pH level.[2] As lactic acid builds up, it causes there to be a drop in pH, creating a more acidic environment. This has a negative effect on the main energy systems that produce the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) required for exercise.

    In summary, the more carnosine available, the less lactic acid, and the better your body can sustain energy levels and perform. Several studies have shown that beta alanine boosts performance in both aerobic and anaerobic activities.[2] Needless to say, if you really want to maximize your muscular endurance, beta alanine is a great supplement to implement into your routine. You’ll get used to the tingles, we promise!

  • Beet Juice Powder – 750mg

    While other brands add in synthetic forms of nitrates, Axe & Sledge decided to use a natural substance — beet juice powder! It turns out that beetroot juice contains high levels of inorganic nitrate (NO3-).[3,4] Therefore, studies show that beetroot juice consumption is effective at boosting endogenous levels of nitric oxide.[3,4]

    Seth Feroce Deadlift

    Push past your limits.

    Just like with L-citrulline, this leads to greater vasodilation of the blood vessels, more blood flow, and nutrient/oxygen delivery. However, using the combination of beet juice powder and L-citrulline is likely superior than either one on its own because they work through different mechanisms of action, resulting in a synergistic effect.

    While L-citrulline increases nitric oxide through boosting levels of L-arginine, beet juice powder supplies the body with naturally occurring nitrates, which get converted to nitrites via nitrate reductase enzymes, finally the nitrites turn into nitric oxide within the stomach.[3]

    Studies show that acute supplementation of beet juice powder has an ergogenic effect with both aerobic and anaerobic activities.[3,4] Thus, expect to get better pumps and performance with the combination of L-citrulline and beet juice powder!

  • Agmatine Sulfate (as AgmaMax) – 500mg

    The next trademarked ingredient in Ignition Switch is AgmaMax, a high quality form of agmatine sulfate from VitaJoy USA. Agmatine is a metabolite of L-arginine, which not only enhances your pump but also your focus!

    Hydraulic UB

    Need more pump? Add one scoop of Hydraulic!

    Studies show that agmatine is an arginase inhibitor, meaning that it prevents the breakdown of arginine.[5] This is very advantageous for getting a massive pump, since the 5g of L-citrulline is attempting to raise L-arginine levels. You could say that agmatine is playing defense and protecting L-citrulline’s positive effects.

    Other studies have found that agmatine stimulates nitric oxide synthase, resulting in elevated nitric oxide production and by now, you know what that means — more vasodilation![6] With all of the vasodilating ingredients included in Ignition Switch there’s no way you won’t be able to get a massive pump. In addition, agmatine seems to express neurological boosting benefits, since it acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator.[7]

    Although we typically like to see agmatine dosed at 1g or more, with everything else that’s going on in this formula, we wouldn’t worry too much about it. Overall, you’re getting at least two major benefits from agmatine — better pumps and focus, which results in better mind-to-muscle connections and gains!

    Now that the pump ingredients are covered, bring on the stimulants!

  • Caffeine Anhydrous – 325mg

    The first stimulatory ingredient in Ignition Switch is none other than hard-hitting caffeine anhydrous and 325mg in two scoops is a pretty hefty dose for most people. Caffeine anhydrous is a synthetic form of caffeine, which allows it to digest rapidly and increase energy levels within minutes after ingestion.

    Seventh Gear Pineapple

    Need more stim? Try out Seventh Gear!

    Besides creatine, there’s no other ingredient in the sports supplement industry that has more research to back up its performance enhancing effects then caffeine.[8] By serving as an adenosine antagonist, caffeine is able to block adenosine from binding to its receptors.[8] Adenosine is a nucleoside that’s responsible for decreasing neural activity, resulting in fatigue.[8]

    In addition, caffeine inhibits an enzyme known as phosphodiesterase, which is responsible for breaking down a key secondary messenger in the body called cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate).[8] cAMP is involved in several physiological processes — especially ATP production. Lastly, caffeine is capable of boosting thermogenesis, meaning it increases your caloric expenditure and boosts fat loss.[8] Even though Ignition Switch is not a fat burner, it’s just another benefit and can help you reach your body composition goals much faster!

    In summary, caffeine’s role as an ergogenic aid have been well established and it’s one of the few supplements that significantly enhances both mental and physical performance, energy, and focus.[8] As we mentioned previously, 325mg is a pretty big dose, therefore start with one scoop (5g) of Ignition Switch to assess your tolerance.

  • Choline Bitartrate – 150mg

    In order to boost your focus and mind-to-muscle connection, Axe & Sledge includes 150mg of choline bitartrate. As the name suggests, choline bitartrate is composed of choline bound to two tartaric acids, in an effort to increase absorption and bioavailability. Once the choline bitartrate enters the circulation the two compounds will separate, allowing the choline to serve as a direct precursor to a key neurotransmitter involved in muscle contractions — acetylcholine.[9]

    Home Made Blueberry Muffin

    Never miss a meal with Home Made.

    Choline is naturally found in several foods, such as fish, eggs, and sunflower seeds. However, several people turn to choline supplementation in order to fulfill their daily needs. Beyond serving as a precursor to acetylcholine, choline is also involved in maintaining structural integrity of cellular membranes.[10] Furthermore, choline can be utilized to create betaine — an natural osmolyte that’s responsible for reducing homocysteine levels.[11,12] Thus, choline is crucial for overall health, but in regards to physical performance, it’s primarily known for boosting mental focus.

    It’s likely that as you perform intense exercise, acetylcholine levels start to become depleted — contributing to feelings of fatigue. Thus, supplying the body with an exogenous source of choline can be extremely beneficial for replenishing acetylcholine levels. In addition, acetylcholine is the most highly concentrated neurotransmitter within the neuromuscular gap junction (where the nervous system communicates with the muscular system) and is required for carrying out muscle contractions.[9] Acetylcholine is also heavily involved in learning, memory, attention, and alertness.[13] Not only are you getting health benefits with choline bitartrate, you’re also getting several performance benefits!

  • Methylliberine (as 40% Dynamine) – 100mg

    To further increase your energy and focus, Axe & Sledge includes 100mg of Dynamine — a trademarked form of methylliberine from Compound Solutions. Dynamine is touted as being a potent neuro-activating stimulant that works synergistically with caffeine to boost mental energy, focus, mood, and motivation.[14,15]

    Dynamine Supplement

    Dynamine goes beyond pre workout supplements. Prepare for energy drinks and mood boosters infused with the ingredient as well!

    Methylliberine is classified as an alkaloid that’s naturally present in tea leaves, which is also where caffeine can be found, thus it makes sense that these two molecules would work well when combined. Dynamine carries out its energy enhancing effects through two primary mechanisms: adenosine inhibition and dopamine receptor activation.[14,15]

    Just like with caffeine, Dynamine inhibits adenosine from binding to its receptor, resulting in a boost in energy. However, it also increases the secretion of catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, by stimulating dopamine receptors.[14,15] In addition, it’s likely that combining caffeine and Dynamine together in order to increase energy levels is better than extremely high doses of caffeine on its own, since Dynamine does not impact the cardiovascular system.[14,15]

    It’s an incredible compound and has grown tremendously in popularity over the past few years. You can find Dynamine in a wide range of products, but it’s most commonly paired with caffeine. Furthermore, Dynamine achieved GRAS-status — meaning that it’s generally recognized as safe,[16,17] which is always great to know!

    To learn more about Dynamine check out these two in-depth blog posts: Dynamine: Dynamine: A Neuroactivating “Stimulant” by Compound Solutions and Dynamine Achieves GRAS Status With Several New Safety Studies!

  • Theacrine (as TeaCrine 40% yielding 20mg) – 50mg

    TeaCrine, the trademarked form of theacrine, also comes from the same creators of Dynamine. Similarly to caffeine and Dynamine, TeaCrine was designed to boost mental energy, cognitive function, and overall performance.[18,19] Research shows that due to TeaCrine’s chemical structure, it’s able to further block adenosine receptors.[18,19] This is one of the reasons why it’s often referred to as “caffeine’s cousin”.

    TeaCrine

    Get long lasting energy and enhanced performance with TeaCrine!

    What’s so advantageous about using the combination of TeaCrine, Dynamine, and caffeine anhydrous is that they all have varying speeds of digestion and half lives, which allows them to boost energy and keep it elevated for hours. And just like we mentioned in the previous section, TeaCrine and Dynamine don’t impact the cardiovascular system,[14,18] thus there’s less likelihood of experiencing negative effects associated with high caffeine intake, including rapid heart rate and increased blood pressure.

    One study from 2019 reported that the combination of caffeine and TeaCrine improved both endurance and cognitive performance better than either alone — suggesting that there’s a synergistic effect between the two compounds.[19] TeaCrine is also self-affirmed GRAS, Informed-Sport, and Informed-Choice certified![18]

  • N-Methyltyramine HCL – 25mg

    Here’s an ingredient you don’t see very often in pre workouts — N-Methyltyramine HCL, also known as NMT. NMT is a protoalkaloid that’s derived from various species of plants. NMT is known for its ability to stimulate beta-2 receptors, resulting in activation of your sympathetic nervous system (SNS), also referred to as your “fight-or-flight” response.[20]

    Ignition Switch Rocks

    Ignition Switch has enough energy to carry you through your workout and beyond!

    Revving up your SNS is great for intense lifting sessions because it triggers the release of several catecholamine neurotransmitters that increase overall exercise performance, including adrenaline and noradrenaline.[20] Because NMT can increase lipolysis,[20] it’s also common to see it added in fat burners.

    Research also suggests that NMT boosts cAMP levels, further enhancing energy levels via increased secretion of epinephrine and glucagon.[21] With the addition of NMT, expect to get even greater levels of energy, focus, and feelings of euphoria — you may never want to stop training after taking Ignition Switch!

  • Toothed Clubmoss (Huperzia serrata) (aerial parts) (standardized to 1% Huperzine A) – 50mcg

    The last ingredient to round out this comprehensive formula is 50mcg of toothed clubmoss, more commonly known as Huperzia serrata.

    Seth Feroce Gym

    Get locked in focus with Ignition Switch.

    Axe & Sledge specifies on the label that this extract is standardized to contain 1% of the main bioactive constituent — huperzine A. Huperzine A is an alkaloid that’s extracted from the Huperzia serrata plant, and it’s been used heavily in Traditional Chinese Medicine.[22-24] Huperzine A is found in several products in the sports supplement industry, from fat burners and pre workouts, to nootropics and sleep-aids.

    Not only does huperzine A express potent anti-inflammatory properties, it also inhibits an enzyme responsible for breaking down acetylcholine, called acetylcholinesterase.[22-24]

    Thus, this ingredient works synergistically with choline bitartrate to keep acetylcholine levels elevated throughout the entire workout and beyond! As we mentioned above, an increased amount of acetylcholine is very advantageous for boosting mental and physical performance.

Watch Seth Feroce Break Down Ignition Switch!

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Available Flavors

Axe & Sledge is known for having some pretty unique, yet delicious tasting, flavors. One of PricePlow’s favorites is Shark Bite, also known as orange mango, but they have several options to choose from — you really can’t go wrong with any of them.

Axe & Sledge Shark Bite Stack

Shark Bite (orange mango) is one of their most popular flavors!

Also, Axe & Sledge has a very similar range of flavors amongst their entire product line, which makes it easy to stack with other supplements. For example, the Shark Bite stack consists of Hydraulic, THE Grind, and Ignition Switch — an epic pre/intra workout combination! Lastly, Axe & Sledge consistently releases limited edition flavors that sell out extremely quickly, so be on the lookout for those!

Here’s an updated list of all available Ignition Switch flavor variations:

    Axe & Sledge Raises The Bar

    Every time we review an Axe & Sledge product, we’re always pleasantly surprised by what they come up with. Nearly every one of their supplements features patented ingredients and stacked formulas. Their labels may look deceptively simple, but once you try it, we’re confident that they will impress you. Axe & Sledge knows what it takes to formulate supplements for the hardest workers in the gym and we see that time and time again with every product.

    Axe Sledge Female Athlete Ignition Switch

    Ignition Switch will get you fired up for any workout!

    With Seth Feroce leading the crew and Patrick Williams crafting the formulas, Axe & Sledge is unstoppable. It’s crazy to think that Axe & Sledge is a relatively new brand, because they’re one of the powerhouses in the industry. In a short period of time they’ve been able to create several unbeatable products, but the ones that really stand out are the pre workouts. Whether you want crazy high stim and performance, stimulant free pumps and focus, or a combination of both, Axe & Sledge has you covered!

    Axe & Sledge is really just getting started and they have plenty of more products, flavors, and hilarious commercials on the way. PricePlow will make sure you stay up to date with everything they have coming, right here on the blog and on social media. Don’t forget to subscribe down below and stay tuned for more news, deals, giveaways, and reviews from Axe & Sledge!

    Axe & Sledge Ignition Switch - Deals and Price Drop Alerts

    Get Price Alerts

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    Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    About the Author: Heather Jacques

    Heather Jacques

    Heather Jacques, AT, ATC, has a Bachelors of Science in Exercise Science with an emphasis in Athletic Training. She is a researcher, athletic trainer, and fitness enthusiast who is PricePlow’s Digital Content Manager. Heather constantly stays up to date with the latest scientific literature in order to provide the best information for the readers.

    Heather’s goal is to educate, empower, and give people the tools to reach their fitness and health related goals. There are far too many myths out there and Heather is here to provide the truth.

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    References

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    2. Trexler, Eric T et al.; “International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine.”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 12 30. 15 Jul. 2015, doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0090-y; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4501114/
    3. Domínguez, Raúl et al.; “Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Athletes. A Systematic Review.”; Nutrients vol. 9,1 43. 6 Jan. 2017, doi:10.3390/nu9010043; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5295087/
    4. Domínguez, Raúl et al.; “Effects of beetroot juice supplementation on intermittent high-intensity exercise efforts.”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 15 2. 5 Jan. 2018, doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0204-9; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5756374/
    5. Legaz, M. E., & Vicente, C; “Endogenous Inactivators of Arginase, L-Arginine Decarboxylase, and Agmatine Amidinohydrolase in Evernia prunastri Thallus”; Plant Physiology; 71(2), 300-302; 1983; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16662821
    6. Morrissey JJ, Klahr S.; “Agmatine activation of nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells.”; Proc Assoc Am Physicians. 1997;109(1):51-57; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9010916/
    7. Li, Y, et al; “Antidepressant-like effect of agmatine and its possible mechanism”; European Journal of Pharmacology; 469(1-3):81-8; May 23, 2003; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12782188
    8. Goldstein, E.R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D. et al.; “International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance.”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr 7, 5 (2010); https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-7-5
    9. Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al.; “Neuroscience;” 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001. Acetylcholine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11143/
    10. Sanders LM, Zeisel SH; “Choline: Dietary Requirements and Role in Brain Development;” Nutrition today; 2007;42(4):181-186; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518394/
    11. Ueland, P. M.; “Choline and betaine in health and disease;” Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease; 2010; 34(1), 3–15; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10545-010-9088-4
    12. Lee JE et al; “Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?;” Am J Clin Nutr; 2010 May; 91(5):1303-10; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2854904/
    13. Hasselmo ME; “The role of acetylcholine in learning and memory;”Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006;16(6):710–715; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2659740/
    14. Roberto, Mike; “Dynamine: A Neuroactivating “Stimulant” by Compound Solutions”; The PricePlow Blog; Feb. 5, 2018; https://blog.priceplow.com/supplement-ingredients/dynamine
    15. VanDusseldorp, TA et al; “Effect of Dynamine With and Without TeaCrine Over Four Weeks of Continuous Use on Cardiovascular Function and Psychometric Parameters of Healthy Males and Females”; Nutrients; 2020; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339655396_Safety_of_Short-Term_Supplementation_with_Methylliberine_DynamineR_Alone_and_in_Combination_with_TeaCrineR_in_Young_Adults
    16. Roberto, Mike; “Dynamine Achieves GRAS Status With Several New Safety Studies!”; The PricePlow Blog; July 5, 2019; https://blog.priceplow.com/dynamine/gras
    17. Murbach, TS et al; “A Toxicological Evaluation of Methylliberine (Dynamine)”; Journal of Toxicology; 2019; https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2019/4981420/
    18. Compound Solutions; “TeaCrine Ingredient Information”; 2020; https://compoundsolutions.com/ingredients/teacrine/
    19. Bello, M.L., Walker, A.J., McFadden, B.A. et al. “The effects of TeaCrine and caffeine on endurance and cognitive performance during a simulated match in high-level soccer players”;J Int Soc Sports Nutr 16, 20 (2019). https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-019-0287-6
    20. Stohs, Sidney J, and Michael J Hartman; “A Review of the Receptor Binding and Pharmacological Effects of N-Methyltyramine.”; Phytotherapy Research : PTR; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Jan. 2015; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25274429
    21. Tsutsumi, Eri, et al; “Stimulatory Effect of N-Methyltyramine, a Congener of Beer, on Pancreatic Secretion in Conscious Rats.”; Alcoholism; Clinical and Experimental Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Feb. 2010; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19298333
    22. Zhao, Q, and X C Tang; “Effects of Huperzine A on Acetylcholinesterase Isoforms in Vitro: Comparison with Tacrine, Donepezil, Rivastigmine and Physostigmine.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 29 Nov. 2002; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12445575
    23. Xu, Z Q, et al; “Treatment with Huperzine A Improves Cognition in Vascular Dementia Patients.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Jan. 2012; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21833673
    24. Zhang, H Y, and X C Tang; “Neuroprotective Effects of Huperzine A: New Therapeutic Targets for Neurodegenerative Disease.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Dec. 2006; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17056129

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