DVST8 GLOBAL: A Premium 3D PUMP Pre Workout Worldwide

Since 2014, Inspired Nutraceuticals has been formulating some of the most innovative products on the market. They’ve gained fans from all around the world, but quickly learned that some countries had strict ingredient regulations. As a response, they launched DVST Worldwidewide in late 2019, with massive fanfare. But knowing Chris Waldrum and his team, that was only a tease. The next revision is out, and it’s now called DVST8 Global, and there are some serious new innovations inside.

Inspired Nutra to the Global rescue!!

DVST8 Global

A worldwide formula we cannot wait to get our hands on. Inspired Nutra sends it hard but keeps it compliant and WADA-safe with DVST8 Global.

When it comes to workout-crushing pre workouts available for everyone, there are simply too many gaps in the industry. Consider this gap now filled by one of the best and most savvy CEOs in the industry, Chris Waldrum of Inspired Nutra.

DVST8 Global: Everything you need, nothing you don’t!

Today we talk about the latest in the phenomenal line of DVST8 pre workouts, Inspired’s globally-compliant DVST8 Global formula that has no WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) banned substances or “gray market” ingredients. It doesn’t compromise on dosing though, and brings plenty of patented ingredients, including the new 3D PUMP Breakthrough.

On the stimulant front, a full two-scoop serving has 325 milligrams of caffeine, citrus aurantium (likely standardized for ~40 milligrams of synephrine), Dynamine, and a solid mix of tyrosine and cholines to bring the feel-good focus.

Before we provide you with a full explanation of every ingredient included in DVST8 Global, take a second to sign up for PricePlow deal alerts and Inspired news, so you never have to pay full retail price again or miss out on the launch of more products to come!

Inspired Nutraceuticals DVST8 Global – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

This area is reserved for Team PricePlow's upcoming Ingredients video.

Subscribe to our channel and sign up for notifications so you catch it when it goes live!

Subscribe to PricePlow on YouTube!

DVST8 Global Ingredients

  • The TRUTH Matrix

    The TRUTH Matrix brings the pumps and endurance with a never-before-seen blend that has no beta alanine:

    • 3D PUMP Breakthrough (L-Citrulline, Glycerol, Amla Fruit Extract) – 6000 mg

      DVST8 Global Ingredients

      DVST8 Global Ingredients – strong yet WADA-safe!

      A new arrival in 2021, 3DPUMP Breakthrough is a new patented pump blend made of L-Citrulline, Glycerol, and Amla Fruit Extract that’s begun to turn some heads.

      The 6 gram dose you see in a full two scoop serving (aligning with a very doable 325 milligrams of caffeine) yields 3 grams of vegan fermented L-citrulline, 1.2 grams of glycerol, and 200 milligrams of Amla fruit extract. The citrulline is actually used as the carrier for the glycerol, meaning they didn’t have to add in agents like silica.

      First, let’s cover the pilot study covered in the patent,[1] and then quickly dig into the individual component ingredients:

      The 3D PUMP Patent Pilot Study

      The patent’s inventors (which includes Bruce Kneller, seen on the PricePlow Podcast episode #009) detail a placebo-controlled pilot study run on 3D PUMP against its component ingredients. It employed weight-trained men (average age in the late 20s), with four different treatments for four different workouts:[1]

      1. Placebo (water)
      2. 1500 milligrams of 65% yield glycerol
      3. 150 milligrams of Amla fruit extract
      4. 1350 milligrams of 65% yield glycerol and 150 milligrams Amla fruit extract

      For each treatment day, they performed leg workouts using seated leg extensions and loaded goblet squats, with 3 sets of 10-12 reps and 60 second inter-set rest, with two minute rests between sets.

      After the training session, the researchers ran DEXA scans and measured the subjects’ thigh circumferences.

      The results

      Everyone had gains in leg size and lean body mass, but the glycerol + Amla group significantly outperformed the others. They had a 2.21 centimeter gain in thigh circumference with an average increase of 693.1 grams total body mass, compared to 1.12 centimeters and 30.4 gram increases, respectively, in the placebo group.[1]

      We like to note that in the single-ingredient arms, the Amla-only group had greater increases than the glycerol-only group, so we’ll key in on that ingredient below – it may be the secret weapon here.

      DVST8 3D PUMP

      Get your 3D PUMP breakthrough on globally now!

      What is Amla Fruit Extract?

      Amla is also scientifically known as Phyllanthus emblica, but more traditionally named Indian Gooseberry. This antioxidant-packed fruit is traditionally used for cardiovascular benefits, since it boosts endothelial health and function and can reduce platelet aggregation.[2] Published researchers have even called Amla “the ayurvedic wonder” because of all of the benefits it can provide.[3]

      While there doesn’t seem to be much athlete-specific research on the ingredient in humans, we generally get excited about pre workout pumps when we notice “endothelial health” and “blood flow improvements” for extracts such as this. Given what we’ve seen in the patent’s pilot study, this could be one worth looking into, especially when combined with another blood flow enhancer like citrulline.

      Note that 3DPUMP’s creators decided to use 165 milligrams amla inside, even though the pilot study used 150mg.

      This brings us to the other two ingredients, which you’re likely more familiar with:

      The Citrulline Pathway

      The Citrulline Pathway – This is how you get more arginine and then more nitric oxide

      When taking two scoops of DVST8 Global, you’ll get 3 grams of L-citrulline from the 3D PUMP, which in and of itself is a clinical dose shown to improve nitric oxide levels. Often found in watermelon, this amino acid is a precursor for L-Arginine, which itself is a precursor for nitric oxide (via the nitric oxide synthase enzyme).[4]

      With increased nitric oxide, we have a vasodilation effect that causes the blood vessels to widen and relax, and this leads to improved blood flow. This in turn yields several benefits, but for most athletes taking it pre workout, we’re talking mainly about pumps and greater nutrient delivery!

      Why citrulline over arginine then?

      Reading the above may lead beginners to wonder, “Why not just take L-arginine then?” This was used in pre workouts decades ago, but researchers learned that it’s less effective than L-citrulline itself[5] because L-arginine is metabolized too quickly during digestion (known as the first pass effect) and doesn’t get to where it needs to get in order to help us generate more nitric oxide.[6,7]

      Endurance and recovery boosts atop nitric oxide pumps

      Knowing that, the entire process can yield more overall energy due to greater ATP production, yielding more work output as well as better recovery later on too.[8-10] We like to see at least 3 grams of L-citrulline or 6 grams of citrulline malate.[11]

      We now also learned from a 2020 meta analysis that confirmed endurance-based findings, stating that citrulline helps with metabolic waste removal, which then lowers perceived exertion and reduced soreness.[12]

      It’s in nearly every pre workout at this point, but you won’t see it on its own line in DVST8 Global — it’s instead inside of 3D PUMP!

      Glycerol: “Hyperhydrate” your body

      No doubt, the simple glycerol molecule has “mission critical” status with the body. But when we supplement far more, incredible benefits related to hydration occur!

      Finally, we have every athlete’s favorite sugar alcohol, glycerol, which can help the body stay hydrated by increasing water retention and increasing total water volume in the body.[13]

      When enough is taken, this effect is known as “hyperhydration”,[14] and it can promote better endurance and thermoregulation at high doses (and with enough water).[15-17] We of course take it for the cell volumization pumps we feel — again, when taken with enough water.

      There are numerous studies based upon glycerol, including some interesting ones where researchers notice significantly less urine output. They’re covered in our article titled Glycerol: The Ultimate Guide for Hydration, Heat Protection, and Pumps,[18] but once again, we want to emphasize that you should take 3D PUMP with enough water to enjoy the most of its benefits!

      2023 Update: Check out the new 3DPump research that’s been published since DVST8 Global came out!

    • Betaine Nitrate (NO3-T) – 2000 mg

      Our first time seeing 3D PUMP next to nitrates, DVST8 is guaranteed to be a fun ride in the pump and volume department. In DVST8’s previous global-friendly supplement “DVST8 WorldWideWide”, they used arginine nitrate, but have since switched to betaine nitrate and upped the dose even more. Their website explains why:

      We switched from NO3-T Arginine Nitrate to NO3-T Betaine Nitrate because betaine nitrates yield more nitrates per material than arginine nitrate.

      — Inspired Nutraceuticals

      Sounds great, and as a hint, we’re going to get some more betaine below to come near a clinical dose, so let’s focus on the nitrate here.

      How nitrates work to generate more nitric oxide

      Nitrate (NO3) is naturally found in numerous plants and vegetables, taking a very unique pathway. It’s first metabolized into nitrite, then from the intestines, enters the bloodstream and heads back to the salivary glands, where a group of enzymes convert it into nitric oxide![19-21]

      What’s cool about this nitrate-nitrite pathway is that it’s completely independent and runs in parallel with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathway discussed in our citrulline/arginine section above. But the end result is just as good (if not better) — nitrate research shows similar blood flow, exercise performance, and endurance improvements compared to what we see with that from the NOS pathway.[22]

      Benefits of nitrates
      Chris Waldrum Inspired Nutraceuticals

      In Episode #046, Chris Waldrum of Inspired Nutraceuticals tells us about his past year and what’s coming in 2021!

      Many of the benefits of citrulline apply to nitrates as well, given that the increase in NO is what drives many of them. However, various forms nitrates have their own series of benefits, especially when dosed well enough (and we definitely consider a 2 gram dose of betaine nitrate a solid dose):

      • Improved blood flow[23]
      • Less oxygen used during training[23-26]
      • Increased strength (via improved force and power production)[27,28]
      • Nitric oxide level increases[27,29]
      • Improved athletic endurance[25,26]
      • Less recovery time and increased cellular energy[28-30]

      Much of this is all encompassed in the meta analysis cited above, as well.[22]

      Again, we have more benefits coming from this ingredient through the betaine side — betaine nitrate is about 65% betaine, so we’ll have about 1300 milligrams of betaine and a very solid 700 milligrams of total nitrate.

    • PeakO2 – 1000 mg

      Chris Waldrum and his team opted to go beta alanine free for DVST8 Global, instead adding a gram of PeakO2 mushroom extract. Less tingles, more mushroom-based benefits, which the scientific community learns more about every year, too.

      PeakO2 Ingredients

      PeakO2 has six different mushroom species, but the primary one is Cordyceps Militaris

      PeakO2 is an adaptogenic blend made from cordyceps militaris, reishi, king trumpet, shiitake, lion’s mane, and turkey tail mushroom. As adaptogens, these ingredients have been shown to help you adapt to physical and mental stress in order to boost performance, endurance, and power.

      PeakO2 has been specifically tested in a couple of research studies, where it improved overall work capacity by enhancing oxygen utilization and decreasing lactate build-up.[31,32]

      In 2015, a research study done by the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill found that 1.3g of PeakO2 taken 3x/day for three weeks greatly improved participants’ time to exhaustion, power output, and VO2 Max compared to the placebo group.[31] However, that’s a larger dose than what we have here, but we’re not done yet.

      A follow-up study published in 2018 tested lower-dose PeakO2 (2 grams per day) over 28 days against a higher-dose group (12 grams per day for 7 days). What the researchers found is that it simply took a bit longer to achieve benefits, but they still came in the following form within four weeks:[32]

      • significantly increased time to fatigue,
      • significant increases in VO2peak, and
      • significantly lower blood lactate levels.[32]
      PeakO2 Benefits

      PeakO2 has several benefits for hard-training athletes, especially those who need a bump of endurance

      In order to achieve these benefits at the same rate, you’d likely need to add more mushrooms, but we’ve repeatedly discussed how beneficial mushroom extracts are, for everything from overall health to immunity to athleticism. This is a great shake-up, especially for those who don’t like beta alanine.

    • Betaine Anhydrous – 1000 mg

      Back to betaine, also known as trimethylglycine, which is an osmolyte ingredient to help with water transfer and retention amongst cells. Recall that we have betaine nitrate here, and this is an additional amount to get us near the 2.5 gram total clinical dose (although we may fall just short). Betaine will partner well with the glycerol in 3D PUMP to bring cell volumization to new levels.

      Multiple lines of research have shown differing doses of betaine leading to various athletic benefits, including endurance and power improvements.[33] We generally (and anecdotally) feel increased pumps with it as well, so long as water intake is kept high.


      From the MEN’s study: The arms don’t lie! Here’s one place where placebo doesn’t rule: arm size! Betaine built bigger arms… in trained subjects![34]

      Going beyond water cell volumization, betaine has a few functions that are similar to creatine, increasing muscle protein synthesis![35] But the biggest landmark studies were performed by Jason Cholewa and his teams in the late 2010s, where he showed muscle-boosting effects from men taking 2.5 grams per day.[34]

      In addition, the same team demonstrated both performance increases and fat loss effects from 2.5 grams of betaine in women.[36]

      We see betaine more often than creatine in pre workout supplements these days, and that makes sense because the osmolyte effects make more sense when taken at this time. However, we still believe that creatine should be taken, especially if meat consumption isn’t extremely high, and that’s why there’s also Inspired Nutraceuticals CR3 to stack in.

  • Global Wreck-Ignition

    Here come the stimulants and focus ingredients. Even if you’re running low on sleep and need a cognitive kick in the head, Inspired has you ready with a globally-compliant Wreck-Ignition blend:

    • L-Tyrosine – 1000 mg

      L-Tyrosine is no stranger to pre workout supplements, and this is our preferred form when supplementing tyrosine. It’s used as a building block / precursor for several of our “feel-good” neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine and dopamine. So when you supplement the ingredient, you get more of these, increasing your alertness and focus.[37] In addition, it can lower anxiety and stress.

      Inspired Nutra CR3

      Leave it to Chris Waldrum and his team at Inspired Nutraceuticals to make creatine pills interesting again, thanks to two added synergistic ingredients!

      In a pre workout situation, we love to hit our sympathetic nervous system with a few more of these neurotransmitters. Norepinephrine is used to activate the “fight” in our “fight or flight” mode, and that’s just what we want before heading into the gym.

      Did you say “sleep deprivation”?

      Just above, we mentioned that DVST8 Global may help even if you’re low on sleep. While we don’t encourage chronic sleep deprivation, a poor night’s sleep will get to us here or there. The reason we bring this up? Since our last DVST8 article, we’ve learned just how well L-Tyrosine helps sleep deprived individuals perform![38,39]

      The research comes out of the US military, who’s always testing things on their sleep-deprived trainees. It turns out that something as simple as L-Tyrosine definitely seems to work incredibly well, next to caffeine especially!

      Either way, we are here for the kick of focus, but it’s good to know that DVST8 has the backs of the weary-eyed folks low on sleep.

    • CoLEAN (Alpha-GPC, Choline DL-Bitartrate, Citicoline) – 1000 mg

      Bringing DVST8’s choline (which ultimately yields 400 milligrams of total choline) is a new blend named CoLEAN, consisting of Alpha-GPC, Choline DL-Bitartrate, and Citicoline.

      We’ve long discussed how we love choline blends, feeling improved cognition and “mind muscle connection” when using them, as opposed to single-ingredient based choline inclusions. We’re not sure why, but we’re happy to see Inspired adding a blend of our three favorite forms of choline as well.


      The best form of choline? We honestly believe it’s a mix at this point!

      As an essential nutrient critical for healthy organ function,[40] choline is incredibly important for the structural integrity of our cell membranes.[41] However, in pre workout supplements and nootropics, we get more excited about its use a substrate for other compounds — especially acetylcholine, which we call “the learning neurotransmitter”.

      Acetylcholine is found in neuromuscular junctions[42] and helps signal muscle contractions, which is why we believe we feel a better “mind-muscle connection” when training with it. It also helps with balance, coordination, memory, alertness, and learning in general.[43,44]

      CoLEAN is a new blend that’s based on three different types of choline, each of which are bound to different carriers to provide different bioavailability profiles, mechanisms, and uptake speeds:

      • Alpha-GPC (L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine) is the most popular high-end form of choline lately, largely because of the athletic research that’s been performed with it, as well as its ability to cross the blood brain barrier. It can help you synthesize acetylcholine once it gets converted to phosphorylcholine.[45]
      • The key part of choline DL-Bitartrate is that it’s the L-form, which is the bioactive form (L-Isomer, or “left handed”) that works best in our bodies.
      • With citicoline, we get a tyrosine-like increase in norepinephrine and dopamine while also boosting dopamine receptor density,[46] which may give us an incredibly strong positive feedback loop as we use it.

      In general, you’re never going to go wrong with a choline blend combined with tyrosine and caffeine. And Inspired has far more than that in store for us. Let’s hit up the caffeine first, though:

    • Caffeine Anhydrous – 325 mg

      DVST8 Flavor Stack

      The PREVIOUS tubs: DVST8 Worldwidewide was the first globally compliant formula from the brand, and clearly not the last!

      Inspired Nutraceuticals bumped their caffeine dose from 300 milligrams in WorldWideWide to 325 milligrams in DVST8 Global, but is now giving it to you in two scoop serving sizes. At this point, you should know if you can handle this dose, and if you can’t, then stick to one to 1.5 scoops.

      Caffeine has a tremendous amount of research backing its use — it crosses the blood brain barrier and inhibits both adenosine and phosphodiesterase,[47] waking you up and boosting performance!

      Once we’ve inhibited adenosine and woken you up, the brain displays more neural activity and fatigue drops.[47] In addition, fat oxidation increases a bit, giving you more free fatty acids to use as energy during training.[48-50] It’s not the strongest fat burning agent in the world, but it definitely can help.

      Caffeine has even been shown to boost strength and power, but that’s often at larger doses (5-6 milligrams of caffeine per kilogram of body weight).[51-53] A small person may be able to get that from 325 milligrams in DVST8 Global, but we’ll likely need to rely on the betaine nitrate and citrulline for the real boost.

    • SYNapsis (Citrus Aurantium Extract std. to 30% Alkaloids) – 132 mg

      Time to hit another pathway (or two) — with Citrus Aurantium standardized to 30% alkaloids. We’re assuming this is standardized for synephrine, although there may be some hordenine in the mix too. This will lead to roughly 40 milligrams of them, a fairly solid (but not overwhelming) dose.

      Inspired Nutra DVST8 Global

      Inspired Nutra DVST8 Global is a premium pre workout

      Synephrine targets the beta-3 adrenergic receptors in adipose tissue,[54] boosting our ability to oxidize fat through cAMP activation.[55] It can increase basal metabolic rate and suppress appetite, but can do this without a serious surge in blood pressure or heart rate.[54] Long story short? More energy for your workout.

      When used alongside exercise, a 2016 double-blind, placebo-controlled research trial performed on 18 healthy subjects demonstrated that synephrine can significantly boost fat oxidation rate during exercise compared to placebo.[56] Previous research also showed that it boosts fat oxidation when training alongside caffeine,[57] which we of course have here as well.

      If we also have some hordenine inside, you’ll also get more targeting of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor,[58] allowing even more free fatty acids to be freed. It also functions as a MAO inhibitor,[59,60] which may keep your dopamine around a bit longer as well.

      We believe that this is the ingredient that puts DVST8 Global on the next level of intensity, even with a caffeine dose that’s not in the 400s. There’s a bit more to come, though:

    • Methylliberine (as Dynamine 40%) – 125 mg

      Methylliberine, trademarked as Dynamine, is a stimulatory “neuroactivation” ingredient that we’ve enjoyed seeing in recent DVST8 releases. At 40% strength, we have 50 milligrams of active methylliberine, enough to give a nice little feel-good, cognitive “tickle”. This is especially true when paired with caffeine, where it synergistically boosts mental energy, performance, and focus.

      Compound Solutions Dynamine GRAS

      Dynamine is now Generally Recognized as Safe and can be sold into more stores!

      Methylliberine is what’s known as a purine alkaloid found in tea leaves.[61,62] Research has shown that it enhances energy similarly to caffeine, yet doesn’t affect the cardiovascular system like caffeine.[61-64] It works by enhancing production of key neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine, but also inhibiting adenosine.[61-64]

      On its own, it doesn’t feel extraordinarily stimulatory, but we absolutely love it paired with caffeine, where it adds a feel-good “top” to the powerful stimulant.

    • Theobromine – 50 mg

      Last (and honestly, probably least), is a nice finishing hit of theobromine, another molecule related to caffeine that we see in fat burners and pre workouts as an energy add-on. It’s most often used to increase energy and lower appetite.[65,66]

      And just like caffeine, it helps the brain inhibit phosphodiesterase and adenosine, just with a longer half-life.[65] This leads to a longer-lasting energy profile, smoothing out the charged hit of caffeine and Dynamine, which are a bit shorter-lasting.

      As always, we love to point out how theobromine amps up the “feel” in one study when compared to caffeine.[67] This leaves us with an extremely experiential pre workout supplement.

Flavors Available

Inspired Nutraceuticals Greens

Inspired Nutraceuticals Greens started a huge trend, but is still the go-to greens powder if you want to feel good and focused

Inspired Nutraceuticals has always brought incredibly unique and exotic flavors (remember Inspired Greens, where they are nearly impossible to beat), and it seems they’ve done it again here with DVST8 Global:

    DVST8 Global is still Worldwide!

    We loved DVST8 Worldwidewide, but we have to be honest – this formula is far better. As one of the first supplements with the 3D PUMP Breakthrough, that alone makes it worth a look. But then when you get into the other ingredients added — along with those not added (eg beta alanine or alpha-yohimbine) — it’s a must-try pre workout supplement for the end of 2021.

    Inspired Logo

    Since 2014, Inspired has been coming out with some of the most innovative products on the market to ‘fuel what inspires you’.

    Chris Waldrum and his team at Inspired Nutraceuticals love taking on challenges and beating them to a pulp. If you’re going to try to top DVST8 Worldwidewide, you better not miss. Inspired shows time and time again they have what it takes to be a leader in the industry. You can catch our catch-up with Chris Waldrum on Episode #046 of the PricePlow Podcast — he’s far more than a CEO of a supplement company — he actually cares about his customers and listens to the voices from across the pond.

    We love some of the ingredients we can use in America, but the days of major brands targeting only Americans with every release have come to an end. Sure, we can have some incredible exclusives here and there, but a brand like Inspired isn’t going to limit themselves when they can go Global.

    Stay tuned to our Inspired Nutraceuticals news alerts – we still have FSU to cover next, and there’s much more coming after that.

    Inspired Nutraceuticals DVST8 Global – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

    Get Price Alerts

    No spam, no scams.

    Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    About the Author: Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is an n=1 diet experimenter with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several experiments done on himself while sharing lab tests.

    Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public.

    No Comments | Posted in | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .


    1. Ziegenfuss, T, et al; “Compositions and methods for increase in muscle volume”; United States Patent and Trademark Office; Patent #US10993978B1; May 4, 2021; https://patents.google.com/patent/US10993978B1/en
    2. Khanna, Savita, et al. “Supplementation of a Standardized Extract from Phyllanthus Emblica Improves Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Platelet Aggregation in Overweight/Class-1 Obese Adults.” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 18, no. 4, Apr. 2015, pp. 415–420, 10.1089/jmf.2014.0178; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC4390209/
    3. Mirunalini, S., and M. Krishnaveni. “Therapeutic Potential of Phyllanthus Emblica (Amla): The Ayurvedic Wonder.” Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 21, no. 1, Jan. 2010, 10.1515/jbcpp.2010.21.1.93; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20506691/
    4. Bailey, SJ et al.; “l-Citrulline supplementation improves O2 uptake kinetics and high-intensity exercise performance in humans.”; Journal of Applied Physiology; 119(4) pp. 385-395; 2015; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00192.2014
    5. Schwedhelm, Edzard et al.; “Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism.”; British journal of clinical pharmacology vol. 65,1 (2008): 51-9.; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2291275/
    6. Castillo, L, et al. “Splanchnic Metabolism of Dietary Arginine in Relation to Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Normal Adult Man.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 1, 1 Jan. 1993, pp. 193–197; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC45626/
    7. Wu, Guoyao. “Intestinal Mucosal Amino Acid Catabolism.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 128, no. 8, 1 Aug. 1998, pp. 1249–1252, 10.1093/jn/128.8.1249; https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/128/8/1249/4722724
    8. Giannesini B., et. al.; European Journal of Pharmacology; “Citrulline malate supplementation increases muscle efficiency in rat skeletal muscle;” September 2011; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21664351
    9. Perez-Guisado J, Jakeman PM; Journal of Strength and Conditioning; “Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness;” May 2010; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386132
    10. Hickner RC. et. al.; Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; “L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test;” 2006; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16679980
    11. Sureda, Antoni, et al. “L-Citrulline-Malate Influence over Branched Chain Amino Acid Utilization during Exercise.” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 110, no. 2, 25 May 2010, pp. 341–351, 10.1007/s00421-010-1509-4; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20499249/
    12. Rhim, Hye Chang, et al. “Effect of Citrulline on Post-Exercise Rating of Perceived Exertion, Muscle Soreness, and Blood Lactate Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Sport and Health Science, Feb. 2020, 10.1016/j.jshs.2020.02.003. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095254620300168
    13. Patlar, Suleyman, et al. “The Effect of Glycerol Supplements on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance of Athletes and Sedentary Subjects.” Journal of Human Kinetics, vol. 34, no. 1, 1 Oct. 2012, pp. 69–79, 10.2478/v10078-012-0065-x. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3590833/
    14. Nelson, Jeff L, and Robert A Robergs. “Exploring the Potential Ergogenic Effects of Glycerol Hyperhydration.” Sports Medicine, vol. 37, no. 11, 2007, pp. 981–1000, 10.2165/00007256-200737110-00005. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17953468
    15. Montner, P., et al. “Pre-Exercise Glycerol Hydration Improves Cycling Endurance Time.” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, 1 Jan. 1996, pp. 27–33, 10.1055/s-2007-972804. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8775573/
    16. Patlar, Suleyman, et al. “The Effect of Glycerol Supplements on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance of Athletes and Sedentary Subjects.” Journal of Human Kinetics, vol. 34, no. 1, 1 Oct. 2012, pp. 69–79, 10.2478/v10078-012-0065-x. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3590833/
    17. Anderson, M. J., et al. “Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Thermoregulation and Metabolism during Exercise in the Heat.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition, vol. 11, no. 3, 29 Sept. 2001, pp. 315–333. https://research.monash.edu/en/publications/effect-of-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration-on-thermoregulation-and
    18. Roberto, Mike; “Glycerol: The Ultimate Guide for Hydration, Heat Protection, and Pumps”; The PricePlow Blog; August 20, 2020; https://blog.priceplow.com/supplement-research/glycerol
    19. Lundberg, Jon O., and Mirco Govoni. “Inorganic Nitrate Is a Possible Source for Systemic Generation of Nitric Oxide.” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, 1 Aug. 2004, pp. 395–400, 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.04.027. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15223073/
    20. Qu, X. M., et al. “From Nitrate to Nitric Oxide: The Role of Salivary Glands and Oral Bacteria.” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 95, no. 13, 1 Dec. 2016, pp. 1452–1456, 10.1177/0022034516673019; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27872324/
    21. Eisenbrand, G., et al. “Nitrate and Nitrite in Saliva.” Oncology, vol. 37, no. 4, 1980, pp. 227–231, 10.1159/000225441; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7443155/
    22. Hoon, Matthew W., et al. “The Effect of Nitrate Supplementation on Exercise Performance in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 23, no. 5, Oct. 2013, pp. 522–532, 10.1123/ijsnem.23.5.522. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23580439/
    23. Larsen, F; “Effects of dietary nitrate on oxygen cost during exercise”; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet; 2007; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17635415/
    24. Lansley, K; “Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: a placebo-controlled study”; School of Sport and Health Sciences, Univ. of Exeter; 2011; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.01070.2010
    25. Bailey, S; “Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans”; School of Sport and Health Sciences, Univ. of Exeter; 2009; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00722.2009
    26. Bescos, R; “Acute administration of inorganic nitrate reduces VO(2peak) in endurance athletes”; National Institute of Physical Education-Barcelona, University of Barcelona; 2011; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21407132/
    27. Fulford, J; “Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on human skeletal muscle metabolism and force production during maximum voluntary contractions”; NIHR Exeter Clinical Research Facility, University of Exeter Medical School; 2013; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23354414/
    28. Bailey, S; “Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans”; School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter; 2010; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00046.2010
    29. Lundberg, J; “The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics”; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute; 2008; https://www.nature.com/articles/nrd2466
    30. Larsen, F; “Dietary inorganic nitrate improves mitochondrial efficiency in humans”; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet; 2011; https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(11)00005-2
    31. Hirsch, K. R., Mock, M. G., Roelofs, E. J., Trexler, E. T., & Smith-Ryan, A. E.; “Chronic supplementation of a mushroom blend on oxygen kinetics, peak power, and time to exhaustion”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(Suppl 1), P45; 2015; Full source available at https://blog.priceplow.com/wp-content/uploads/hirsch-cordyceps_militaris_improves_tolerance_to_high_intensity_exercise_after_acute_and_chronic_supplementation.pdf (abstract at https://www.jissn.com/content/12/S1/P45)
    32. Wesley David Dudgeon, Dennison David Thomas, William Dauch, Timothy Paul Scheett, and Michael John Webster; “The Effects of High and Low-Dose Cordyceps Militaris-Containing Mushroom Blend Supplementation After Seven and Twenty-Eight Days”; American Journal of Sports Science; 2018; 6(1): 1-7; http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=155&doi=10.11648/j.ajss.20180601.11 (full-text PDF)
    33. Lee, Elaine C et al; “Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; vol. 7 27. 19; Jul. 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2915951/
    34. Cholewa JM, Wyszczelska-Rokiel M, Glowacki R et al; “Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr; 10:39; 2013; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3844502/
    35. del Favero S, et al; “Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance”; Amino Acids; 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21744011
    36. Jason Michael Cholewa, et al; “The Effects of Chronic Betaine Supplementation on Body Composition and Performance in Collegiate Females: a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 31 July 2018; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-018-0243-x
    37. Pietz J, Landwehr R, Kutscha A, Schmidt H, de Sonneville L, Trefz FK. Effect of high-dose tyrosine supplementation on brain function in adults with phenylketonuria. J Pediatr. 1995;127(6):936-943; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8523192
    38. Attipoe, Selasi, et al. “Tyrosine for Mitigating Stress and Enhancing Performance in Healthy Adult Humans, a Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature.” Military Medicine, vol. 180, no. 7, July 2015, pp. 754–765, 10.7205/milmed-d-14-00594; https://academic.oup.com/milmed/article/180/7/754/4160625
    39. Pomeroy, Diane E., et al. “A Systematic Review of the Effect of Dietary Supplements on Cognitive Performance in Healthy Young Adults and Military Personnel.” Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 2, 20 Feb. 2020, p. 545, 10.3390/nu12020545; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071459/
    40. Ueland, P. M.; “Choline and betaine in health and disease;” Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease; 2010; 34(1), 3–15; https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1007/s10545-010-9088-4
    41. Sanders LM, Zeisel SH; “Choline: Dietary Requirements and Role in Brain Development;” Nutrition today; 2007;42(4):181-186; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518394/
    42. Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al.; “Neuroscience;” 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001. Acetylcholine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11143/
    43. Hasselmo ME; “The role of acetylcholine in learning and memory;” Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006;16(6):710–715; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2659740/
    44. Jones BE; “From waking to sleeping: neuronal and chemical substrates”. Trends Pharmacol. Sci.; 2005; 26 (11): 578–86; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16183137
    45. Marcus L, et al; “Evaluation of the effects of two doses of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on physical and psychomotor performance;” J Int Soc Sports Nutr; 2017;14:39; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5629791/
    46. Secades, JJ; “Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, 2016 update;” Rev Neurol; 2017; https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Julio_Secades/publication/317167480_Citicoline_pharmacological_and_clinical_review_2016_update/links/59280785a6fdcc444353790e/Citicoline-pharmacological-and-clinical-review-2016-update.pdf
    47. Goldstein, E.R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D. et al.; “International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr 7, 5 (2010); https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1550-2783-7-5
    48. Norager, C. B., et al. “Metabolic Effects of Caffeine Ingestion and Physical Work in 75-Year Old Citizens. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-over Study.” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 65, no. 2, Aug. 2006, pp. 223–228, 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2006.02579.x; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16886964/
    49. Astrup, A, et al. “Caffeine: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Its Thermogenic, Metabolic, and Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Volunteers.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 5, 1 May 1990, pp. 759–767, 10.1093/ajcn/51.5.759; https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/51/5/759/4695347
    50. Keijzers, Gerben B., et al. “Caffeine Can Decrease Insulin Sensitivity in Humans.” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 2, 1 Feb. 2002, pp. 364–369; https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/25/2/364.long
    51. McCormack, William P, et. al. Strength and Conditioning Journal; “Caffeine, Energy Drinks, and Strength-Power Performance;” August 2012; Volume 34, Issue 4, 11–16; https://journals.lww.com/nsca-scj/Fulltext/2012/08000/Caffeine,_Energy_Drinks,_and_Strength_Power.3.aspx,%20full-text%20at
    52. Barry, R. J., Clarke, A. R. Clinical Neurophysiology; “Caffeine and opening the eyes have additive effects on resting arousal measures;” , 122(10), 2010-2015; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21489866
    53. Astrup, A., Toubro, S. et. al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; “Caffeine: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers;” The, 1990; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2333832
    54. Stohs, Sidney J., et al. “A Review of the Human Clinical Studies Involving Citrus Aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and Its Primary Protoalkaloid P-Synephrine.” International Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 7, 2012, pp. 527–538, 10.7150/ijms.4446. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3444973/
    55. Schena, Giorgia, and Michael J. Caplan. “Everything You Always Wanted to Know about β3-AR * (* but Were Afraid to Ask).” Cells, vol. 8, no. 4, 16 Apr. 2019, p. 357, 10.3390/cells8040357. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6523418/
    56. Gutiérrez-Hellín, Jorge, and Juan Del Coso. “Acute P-Synephrine Ingestion Increases Fat Oxidation Rate during Exercise.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 82, no. 2, 7 May 2016, pp. 362–368, 10.1111/bcp.12952. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4972152/
    57. Ratamess, Nicholas A., et al. “The Effects of Supplementation with P-Synephrine Alone and in Combination with Caffeine on Resistance Exercise Performance.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 1, 17 Sept. 2015, 10.1186/s12970-015-0096-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4573476
    58. Nelson, B, et al; “Mass spectrometric determination of the predominant adrenergic protoalkaloids in bitter orange (Citrus aurantium)”;J Agric Food Chem; 55(24):9769-75; 2007; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966980
    59. Hapke HJ, Strathmann W; [Pharmacological effects of hordenine]; Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr; 102(6):228-232; 1995; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8582256
    60. Barwell, C, et al; “Deamination of hordenine by monoamine oxidase and its action on vasa deferentia of the rat”; The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology; 41(6):421-3; June 1989; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2570842
    61. Roberto, Mike; “Dynamine: A Neuroactivating “Stimulant” by Compound Solutions”; The PricePlow Blog; Feb. 5, 2018; https://blog.priceplow.com/supplement-ingredients/dynamine
    62. Roberto, Mike; “Dynamine Achieves GRAS Status With Several New Safety Studies!”; The PricePlow Blog; July 5, 2019; https://blog.priceplow.com/dynamine/gras
    63. Murbach, TS et al; “A Toxicological Evaluation of Methylliberine (Dynamine)”; Journal of Toxicology; 2019; https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2019/4981420/
    64. VanDusseldorp, TA et al; “Effect of Dynamine With and Without TeaCrine Over Four Weeks of Continuous Use on Cardiovascular Function and Psychometric Parameters of Healthy Males and Females”; Nutrients; 2020; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339655396_Safety_of_Short-Term_Supplementation_with_Methylliberine_DynamineR_Alone_and_in_Combination_with_TeaCrineR_in_Young_Adults
    65. Martínez-Pinilla E. et al. Feb. 2015. “The Relevance of Theobromine for the Beneficial Effects of Cocoa Consumption.” Frontiers of Pharmacology vol. 6:30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4335269/
    66. Khazan, M. et al. Mar. 2014. “Identification and Determination of Synthetic Pharmaceuticals as Adulterants in Eight Common Herbal Weight Loss Supplements.” Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal vol. 16,3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4005444/
    67. Baggott, Matthew J., et al. “Psychopharmacology of Theobromine in Healthy Volunteers.” Psychopharmacology, vol. 228, no. 1, 19 Feb. 2013, pp. 109–118, 10.1007/s00213-013-3021-0; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3672386/

    Comments and Discussion (Powered by the PricePlow Forum)