InnovaPharm MVPre 2.0: Award-Winning Pre Workout Comes to the US!

Hailing from New York, InnovaPharm is a recurring ‘subject’ on our blog. We’ve been talking about this brand since 2016, when they burst onto the scene promising to innovate a sometimes stagnant industry. While their look has evolved over the years, the potency of their formulas has remained as strong as ever. Back in 2019, we were absolutely blown away by both Recover EAA and of course NovaPump, a product that had a chance to be the year’s best pump product. We made that claim prematurely, as InnovaPharm somehow made it better – in November 2019, they hit us with NovaPump Neuro, a pump formula as strong as its predecessor that introduces some powerful nootropics to the mix, as well!

InnovaPharm MVPre 2.0

InnovaPharm’s MVPre 2.0 has landed! This full-spectrum pre workout lands on euphoric energy, pumps, endurance, and focus!!

But those were stimulant-free supplements. What’s in store for those of us looking for energy?!

InnovaPharm MVPre 2.0 has arrived in the U.S.

For 2020, InnovaPharm is showing no signs of slowing down. The supplement powerhouse is bringing MVPre 2.0, an award-winning pre-workout overseas, to the United States! Too successful to be left outside the country, InnovaPharm simply had to find a way to bring it home:

“After being awarded the 2019 UK Pre-Workout of the Year by both The Supplement Review and Insight Supps, we knew it was time to bring MVPre 2.0 home to the good ol’ US of A.

— Team InnovaPharm”

In this post, we’re going to tell you all you need to know about MVPre 2.0, diving into the research that supports the label and its effectiveness. Get ready, there’s a new stimulant in this one (in the form of biophytum DC extract)! But before we get to that, make sure you’re subscribed to PricePlow’s InnovaPharm news and alerts – you won’t want to miss out on awesome industry deals, news, reviews, and interviews!

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InnovaPharm creates a second-generation MVPre

MVPre 2.0 vs MVPre

The new and improved MVPre 2.0 hails in comparison to the older version. The US better be ready for fully loaded, award-winning, revamped pre-workout!

We’re sure something jumps to your attention almost immediately – why was a U.S.-based supplement company selling a formula overseas before it was sold at home? MVPre was initially formulated by Precision Research, impressing many as a potent pre-workout formula. This label has since moved into the InnovaPharm family, and with a bit of re-shuffling, the brand has found ways to make it better.

Boasting a complex of science-backed ingredients, MVPre 2.0 delivers just about all a pre-workout can – pumps, focus, and intense energy. It’s an extremely unbiased formula, refusing to prioritize any one area over another. That being said, it does use a couple of heavier stimulants, something those of you who are a bit cautious about your stimulant intake should be aware of.

Now, that doesn’t mean this is just another one of those formulas that’s only packed with insane stims! InnovaPharm designed MVPre 2.0 to be versatile, bringing pumps akin to NovaPump, nootropics like NovaPump Neuro, and an energy-kick unique to itself!

MVPre 2.0 Ingredients

While MVPre 2.0 lists doses for both ½-scoop and full-scoop servings, we’re going to look at what one full scoop brings to the table. The amounts of each ingredient in this case are much more efficacious as far as clinical research goes, though there surely is a time and a place for half-scooping, such as when you’re assessing the stimulants or want to keep it lighter..

In each one-scoop serving (17.8g), here’s what MVPre 2.0 delivers:

  • Pump & Performance Matrix

    • Citrulline Malate (2:1) – 8g (Yielding 5.33g L-Citrulline)

      Innovapharm MVPre 2.0 Ingredient Panel

      MVPre is fully disclosed and stocked with high-quality ingredients to help you crush your workout!

      MVPre 2.0 first takes aim at performance, listing citrulline malate at the top of its label. An ingredient accustomed to pre-workout formulas, citrulline malate is one of the top nitric oxide (NO) boosters available. It elevates nitric oxide production within the body by raising blood arginine levels,[1] ultimately leading to blood vessel vasodilation and enhanced blood flow. Research has even suggested citrulline malate may be one of the most capable blood arginine-boosters out there, outperforming various other ingredients, including arginine itself![1]

      Improved blood flow during exercise brings about a mass of benefits. First and foremost, blood circulating at a higher rate yields higher levels of oxygenated blood. This helps pump working muscles full of oxygen so they can continue working efficiently. Having more oxygen readily available can help defend against fatigue – a research study from 2010 found that subjects given citrulline increased training repetitions by 53%, compared to placebo.[2] This same study also found that the citrulline-tested subjects reported less muscle soreness as well, likely due to muscles being fed adequately by oxygen and citrulline, which at its core is an amino acid.

      Malic acid provides taste and digestion benefits – just know the citrulline dose
      Citrulline

      The citrulline pathway we’re going for starts at the top right and goes down to the bottom right!

      What makes citrulline malate unique is that it brings more to the table than pure citrulline does. Since this compound is citrulline bonded to malic acid (in this case, at a 2:1 ratio), it actually has superior digestion and absorption than pure citrulline. Research has also found another benefit unique to citrulline malate – the compound enhances amino acid utilization,[3] which perhaps sheds a bit more light on its ability to leave one feeling less sore.

      Sitting at a heavy 8g here, this dose of citrulline malate is well above the clinical dose (which starts at 3g L-citrulline and we have a 5.33g yield). Thus, you can be sure you’re getting the endurance-enhancing effects the ingredient has shown in research. MVPre 2.0 preaches balance, and an effective dose of such a high-quality ingredient only sets the stage for what else is on this label!

    • Beta-Alanine – 3.2g

      Yet another fixture in the pre-workout world, beta-alanine is an ingredient that immediately sets its sights on endurance and refuses to let up! A derivative of the amino acid alanine, beta-alanine is one of the most researched ingredients we have, which thankfully means we have various sources that support its efficacy!

      Beta Alanine Boosts Exercise Performance

      Beta Alanine Boosts Exercise Performance when taken 3.2g per day (but that was split amongst four separate doses)

      Perhaps the most convincing piece of research around beta-alanine has to do with how it works in conjunction with bouts of exercise lasting around one minute. A meta-analysis from 2012 found exercises lasting between 60 seconds and 240 seconds, beta-alanine can significantly reduce fatigue.[4] In addition, this meta-analysis also cited an overall increase in work capacity induced by beta-alanine, supporting the endurance-boosting benefits many of us have come to know and love.

      That’s not all beta-alanine can do for you, however! A study from 2009 found some interesting results after administering the ingredient to trained cyclists for eight weeks, as part of a double-blind placebo study. After eight weeks of receiving 2 to 4g of beta-alanine daily, the researchers found that the cyclists improved peak power output by 11.4%,[5] a notably larger increase than the 5% boost found in the placebo group. Whether you’re more concerned about aerobic or anaerobic power, it seems as if beta-alanine can help out both!

      Full clinical dose: Bring some ‘tingles’!

      3.2g is exactly what we like to see when dealing with beta-alanine, as its the clinical dose typically used in the majority of research. Sure, it may bring a bit of a “tingling sensation” from time to time, but the help it can bring in terms of your training makes it a must-have in your pre-workout arsenal!

    • GlycerPump™️ Glycerol Powder (65%) – 2g

      With endurance covered, MVPre 2.0 now starts to expand a bit, venturing into some other areas that impact your training. While the NO elevation brought on by citrulline malate brings a bit in the pumps department, glycerol does so in an entirely unique way!

      NovaPump Neuro PricePlow

      Need even more pumps and focus, or want a full pump with half a scoop? Then check out InnovaPharm’s NovaPump Neuro!

      Glycerol is a sugar alcohol that, when ingested by the body, absorbs water. This yields two results – a boost in osmotic pressure, which increases the total volume of water that the body can hold,[6] and helps muscles carry more water. This leads to some serious water-based pumps and hyperhydration to help fight fatigue. Glycerol not only helps get muscles pumped up, but more water flowing also helps transport nutrients as well, which can further elevate training levels.

      Research from 2012 documented the effects glycerol can have on exercise. In this study, glycerol significantly raised aerobic capacity and anaerobic peak power,[7] improving not only endurance levels but also power output. There’s not much else you can ask out of a pre-workout ingredient!

      InnovaPharm emphasizes top-notch ingredients, and that philosophy rings true here with the use of GlycerPump™️ from Pinnacle Ingredients. Methodically designed to eliminate the notorious “clumping” issues found in some glycerol supplements, this 65% glycerol, 35% silica formulation is one of the best of its kind. At 2g a scoop, MVPre 2.0 delivers just enough to get those water pumps flowing!

      Note: GlycerPump has been renamed to GlycerSize.

    • S7™️ (Green Coffee Bean Extract, Green Tea Extract, Turmeric Extract, Tart Cherry, Blueberry, Broccoli, Kale) – 50mg

      FutureCeuticals S7 Nitric Oxide

      These seven constituents can help you boost nitric oxide levels – and at a low dose so it fits in a capsule form factor!

      S7™️ is a relatively new ingredient on the block, but it’s one that we’re seeing at an increasing rate these days! Using a complex of seven natural ingredients, this blend from FutureCeuticals helps increase nitric oxide levels. Research reveals S7™️ can cause an increase in natural nitric oxide production by 230%![8]

      While this natural pump inducer is full of promises, it’ll take us some time to see where it ultimately ends up landing in the crowded pump ingredient field. That being said, its inclusion here is actually quite effective – citrulline malate and glycerol carry most of the weight in terms of pumps, while S7™️ simply serves an ancillary role. Perhaps in the future we’ll see it take the spotlight on a label, but in this instance, we like it right where it’s at!

      If you’re interested in learning a bit more about what S7™️ has to offer, check out these informative PDFs sent to us from FutureCeuticals![9,10]

  • Cogni-Stim Matrix

    Now let’s get into the stuff that can help take your energy and focus up a level…or two:

    • Choline Bitartrate – 1000mg

      Choline is an essential nutrient, necessary for the cells to properly function. It’s primarily used to create phospholipids, which help support cellular structures.[11] Despite its importance, some people actually struggle to get enough choline – the body can form small amounts on its own, but it’s up to us to fill out the rest of our needs through quality food sources such as eggs, meat, and fish. Given the recent growth of vegan or vegetarian-based diets, you can easily see why choline deficiencies are somewhat common. However, when you see what else this incredible compound is capable of, you’ll wonder why some people don’t do anything to ensure its in their diets!

      The real magic happens when choline begins to reduce within the body. Choline is a precursor to acetylcholine, commonly referred to as the “learning neurotransmitter”. Acetylcholine fires within the nervous system to help regulate focus, mood, memory, and motor control. In other words, it affects multiple bodily systems, though its most typically tied to focus and cognition.

      Choline to Acetylcholine

      Acetylcholine is synthesised from the compounds choline and acetyl-CoA. Image courtesy of the University of Bristol

      Research has suggested that supplementing with choline in hopes of raising acetylcholine levels can be of benefit. A study from 2003 showed choline supplementation significantly increased acetylcholine activity, and thus mental cognition, in subjects with dementia.[12] Another study cited a strong positive correlation between choline intake and cognitive performance,[13] suggesting that more choline can lead to better cognition.

      In terms of training, this ultimately provides a boost in focus. It leaves you feeling more zoned in and ready to get after your training – and the “mind muscle connection” is usually pronounced!

      While choline bitartrate has been rivaled by newer acetylcholine-promoting ingredients in recent years, it remains the most widely-available – and the next ingredient donates us the acetyl group we’ll need for max benefits! MVPre 2.0 includes 1000mg of it, which yields around 410mg of “net” choline. For choline bitartrate specifically, this dose is typically what’s seen in publications, so we’re pretty happy with it. We love our nootropics here at PricePlow, and any of them that help boost acetylcholine are among our favorites!

    • N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine – 500mg

      Next, we have N-acetyl-L-tyrosine (NALT), which alone packs a powerful nootropic punch. NALT is an acetylated form of the amino acid L-tyrosine, a conditionally-essential amino acid used by the body for various functions.

      Tyrosine is used to help synthesize multiple neurotransmitters, especially dopamine, also known as the “feel-good” neurotransmitter, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. These neurotransmitters are responsible for elevating focus, intensity, and to some degree, euphoria. Consider all three of them together, the brain really starts to benefit – research from 2015 found tyrosine improves performance in mental tasks when tested in humans.[14] Tyrosine also works very well with caffeine, as the two have been shown to increase neurotransmitter production and cognition even more than either can alone![15,16] We haven’t covered tyrosine’s teammate yet, but – spoiler alert – its next up on the label!

      Why the N-Acetyl version though? Theory: the choline will work better with more acetyl groups!
      ALCAR Choline Acetylcholine Synthesis

      If you’re low on acetyl groups, your choline (from Alpha-GPC) may not get to the acetylcholine that you want. Instead of using ALCAR as shown in this picture, we theorize that our N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine is the one providing that acetyl group with MVPre 2.0!

      Now, admittedly, we would have preferred pure L-tyrosine here if we had the choice. It’s a bit stronger than its acetylated cousin in terms of nootropic abilities, and its use over NALT is something we typically praise (as we did when covering the launch of InnovaPharm Nova Pump Neuro). The use of NALT in this case makes the 500mg dose slightly low, as this dose is typically what we like to see when discussing pure tyrosine.

      However, there is a benefit in getting that extra acetyl group since it will be helpful for our production of acetylcholine from the choline bitartrate above! So NALT-haters may hate, but this isn’t a terrible idea.

      So NALT is still an entirely useful ingredient, despite there being some evidence that there’s a better alternative out there. Considering everything else we have going on in the label, 500mg of NALT in MVPre 2.0 will do just enough to kick up your cognition a tick!

    • Caffeine Anhydrous – 350mg

      Caffeine truly needs no introduction – this stimulant has grown into a fixture in sports supplementation because it works, plain and simple! It can help enhance energy levels soon after ingestion,[17] providing additional energy that can be put to use in your training session.[18]

      Caffeine anhydrous is one of the simplest forms of caffeine in the industry, which ultimately makes it one of the quickest-hitting. With 350mg of this fast-acting jolt of energy, you can bet it’s going to help get your wheels turning as you start your session.

      We do want to note that while caffeine doses around 350mg are becoming more commonplace in pre-workout formulas these days, this is still a pretty heavy dose of the stimulant, especially for beginners. Even more pertinently, there are other stimulants inside of MVPre 2.0! Make sure you’re aware of what your tolerances are before full-scooping this — but as mentioned above, they list a half-scoop serving for a reason!

    • Biophytum DC (root) Extract – 150mg

      MVPre 2.0

      Twice as intense?! With the new Biophytum DC, MVPre 2.0 just might be!!

      Biophytum is a plant native to the Oxalidaceae family that has extensive roots in Ayurvedic medicine.[19] Within that practice, the plant has been traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and for other remedies.[19] Research has seemingly supported these uses, suggesting that the plant may have something to offer when used to treat such ailments. What it’s doing in a pre-workout formula, however, is a very interesting question.

      Looking into what Biophytum could potentially be bringing to the table in MVPre 2.0, one particular study continues to show face. In 2014, two scientists from the University of Kerala analyzed two species of Biophytum using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS).[20] A few different stimulatory compounds popped up during their inspection, including a few with decongestant-like properties (these are often performance enhancers!) and others like gamma sitosterol that are used for cholesterol treatment.

      Further, there are some strength components within Biophytum DC — it contains epicatechin, a nitric oxide boosting ingredient that may even inhibit myostatin a bit (we have a longer discussion in our main epicatechin article). In addition, there’s also amentoflavone, which was popular in the mid-2010s for strength and power support.

      However, we’re simply not sure what InnovaPharm is specifically pulling out of their biophytum DC extract, and this will remain the “wild card” of the entire MVPre 2.0 formula!

      Ultimately, between this and the next ingredient, there is definitely a little “something extra” going on with MVPre 2.0 from our tests throughout the week. If you’re looking for a next-generation stimulant, this could quite possibly be it, although we’d love to see what’s extracted here, because there are several interesting possibilities!

    • N-Phenethyl Dimethylamine (Eria Jarensis) – 100mg

      Last in our run of stimulants here is N-Phenethyldimethylamine, which is a stimulatory compound found in eria jarensis flowers. Since its introduction in 2014, it has gained steam as the best phenethylamisucane (PEA)-based ingredient in the industry. This is a molecule with a structure and characteristics similar to other PEA stimulants, but some added ‘protection’ in the form of two alkyl groups that let it hang around for a little while longer, boosting dopamine for mood, motivation, and euphoria. While standard PEA ingredients have been somewhat divisive because they feel great but get oxidized in five minutes, using an “advanced form of PEA” like N-Phenethyldimethylamine presents a better alternative – it’s not as aggressive as some PEA stimulants, but lasts longer than regular PEA and still delivers incredible effects.

      N-phenethyldimethylamine 2D Structure with PEA Backbone Highlighted

      N-phenethyldimethylamine 2D Structure with PEA Backbone Highlighted

      Essentially, this stimulant interacts with the central nervous system to provide increased energy and euphoria. It accomplishes this via its ability to slightly inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that breaks down standard PEA rather quickly.[21] We attribute this capability to the two extra alkyl groups attached, which prevent MAO from easily breaking it down. This structure also allows it to more easily pass the blood brain barrier than other PEAs![21]

      N-Phenethyldimethylamine 2D Receptor with Protection Highlighted

      N-Phenethyldimethylamine is like a PEA molecule, but with an N,N’ Alkyl section that also prevents MAO from cleaving it… meaning a longer-lasting euphoric ‘buzz’ than regular PEA

      This heavy-hitter comes in at 100mg, which is a bit below the 150mg to 250mg we sometimes see in other supplements. However, those products likely want to feature this PEAi-based ingredient, while MVPre 2.0 simply wants it to synergistically work with its entire label. This will feel good, but not be over the top, and not leave a crash. Nonetheless, 100mg still hits hard, so make sure you know where your tolerance stands!

    • Huperzine A (Huperzia serrata (leaf) Extract) – 150mcg

      Acetylcholinesterase

      Acetylcholinesterase breaks down our acetylcholine. Huperzine A helps slow this process down.

      Let’s transition back to our discussion on acetylcholine – we’ve already touched on all it can do, but the one thing we didn’t talk about was how long it can do its job. An enzyme by the name of acetylcholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine within the body, effectively limiting the span of its effects. Normally that’s a good thing – we need systems to achieve equilibrium – but when we’re training, we want to keep our ‘learning neurotransmitters’ around as long as possible. If only there was a way to keep acetylcholinesterase from getting involved too soon…

      Thankfully, there is! Huperzine A is perhaps the industry’s most potent acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting ingredient,[22,23] using its excellent bioavailability to start playing defense soon after its ingested.

      Huperzine A is quite strong, needing only a relatively small dose in order to get the job done. MVPre 2.0 packs 150mcg of the acetylcholine defender, a slightly-above-average dose that’s just enough to help keep the cognitive boost induced by the other ingredients on this label around a little longer!

Flavors available

Below, we’ll keep an updated list of flavors on the MVPre 2.0 menu:

InnovaPharm Logo

No Hype. Just Results. See all InnovaPharm supplements on PricePlow!

    At the time of publishing this article, Mike and Ben have only tried Freedom Pop and Jungle Juice, but they are both incredibly well put together. Normally we’d go all-in on Freedom Pop, but Jungle Juice is a superb take on Fruit Punch too! You can’t go wrong! Note that there will be a dash of grit from the glycerol, but definitely less than the two NovaPump formulas.

    MVPre 2.0 – an entry-level “high-stim” pre?

    InnovaPharm MVPre 2.0 Label

    The InnovaPharm MVPre 2.0 Label

    Much of the formula of MVPre 2.0 likely looks familiar to most – ingredients such as citrulline malate, beta-alanine, and caffeine are in the vast majority of pre-workouts available. However, there are a few ingredients that fall under the realm of the more “aggressive” ingredients, like Biophytum and the advanced PEA. These may cause you some level of apprehension upon first glance, especially if you’ve no experience with next-generation stimulants.

    However, if you’re someone looking for a pre-workout that can provide you the occasional “kick” you need every once in awhile, perhaps MVPre 2.0 is a fantastic option. The aggressive stimulants here are still on the milder side, and the doses aren’t insane compared to some other “stim-junkie” products on the market (and those products almost never have the pumps that this one will have). If you’ve grown accustomed to high amounts of more conventional stimulants and are looking for something more, the quality and amounts presented here could suit you.

    But make no mistake – this formula will hit hard. There’s 350mg of caffeine in addition to the two bonus stimulants included here. It’s a high-energy formula, but InnovaPharm didn’t design it with the intent of it being a “haywire, stim’d-out-of-the-wazoo” type of product. Again, it’s important to know what your tolerances are. Long story short, if you’re looking to tap into some more aggressive stimulants, MVPre 2.0 may be something worth checking out.

    InnovaPharm MVPre 2.0 lives up to its “most valuable” moniker!

    In creating a name for themselves within the supplement industry, there are a few different ideologies a brand can make a core part of their business. Some companies put flavoring at the top of their list, looking to push the boundaries of taste further and further. Others may hold consistency paramount, striving to live up to and sometimes exceed expectations. Some brands, perhaps most excitingly, prioritize novelty, constantly searching for new ways to improve their product profile. InnovaPharm is one of these brands, as they truly hold innovation close to heart – in fact, they do this so strongly, it’s even hinted at in their name!

    InnovaPharm MVPre

    If you like Fruit Punch, then do not sleep on the Jungle Juice flavor — It’s incredible, and not your same old boring fruit punch!

    Likewise, their top-notch pre-workout MVPre 2.0 uses its name to convey its focus and abilities. Originally formulated overseas, InnovaPharm took the label and immediately set out to raise it to the highest of standards. That means ensuring high-quality ingredients at efficacious doses, along with a bit of ingenuity, that composes an incredibly potent formula.

    MVPre 2.0 delivers some of the industry’s most tried-and-true ingredients while still finding space for something a bit more unorthodox, like biophytum DC extract. This bifurcated label packs the pumps InnovaPharm is known for, while also kicking energy levels up a notch (or two!). InnovaPharm methodically designed this formula to put you right in that intra-workout “sweet spot” – pumped up, locked in, and ready to crush your training.

    A common theme has become evident when discussing InnovaPharm. Almost every time they bring a formula to market, we’re left incredibly impressed. The brand, who claims “No Hype – Just Results” doesn’t need to hype things up — we’re happy to do it for them after loving everything they’ve put out lately! Time and time again, InnovaPharm raises the bar for itself. Make sure you stay tuned to see what the brand has coming down the pipeline – if the past is any indication, you’re not going to want to miss it!

    InnovaPharm MVPre 2.0 - Deals and Price Drop Alerts

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    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    About the Author: Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is an n=1 diet experimenter with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several experiments done on himself while sharing lab tests.

    Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public.

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    References

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    2. Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín, and Philip M Jakeman; “Citrulline Malate Enhances Athletic Anaerobic Performance and Relieves Muscle Soreness.”; Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; May 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386132
    3. Carvalho-Peixoto, J, et al; “Glutamine and Carbohydrate Supplements Reduce Ammonemia Increase during Endurance Field Exercise.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Dec. 2007; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18059593
    4. Hobson, R M, et al; “Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Exercise Performance: a Meta-Analysis.”; Amino Acids; Springer Vienna; July 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374095/
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    9. https://blog.priceplow.com/wp-content/uploads/futureceuticals-s7-marketing-flyer.pdf
    10. https://blog.priceplow.com/wp-content/uploads/futureceuticals-s7-powerpoint.pdf
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    12. De Jesus Moreno Moreno, Maria; “Cognitive Improvement in Mild to Moderate Alzheimer’s Dementia after Treatment with the Acetylcholine Precursor Choline Alfoscerate: a Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.”; Clinical Therapeutics; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Jan. 2003; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12637119
    13. Coreyann, et al; “Relation of Dietary Choline to Cognitive Performance and White-Matter Hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.”; OUP Academic; Oxford University Press; 9 Nov. 2011; https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/94/6/1584/4598197
    14. Steenbergen, Laura, et al; “Tyrosine Promotes Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from Proactive vs. Reactive Control during Task Switching Performance.”; Neuropsychologia; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Mar. 2015; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598314
    15. Belza, A, et al; “The Effect of Caffeine, Green Tea and Tyrosine on Thermogenesis and Energy Intake.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Jan. 2009; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17882140
    16. Banderet, L E, and H R Lieberman; “Treatment with Tyrosine, a Neurotransmitter Precursor, Reduces Environmental Stress in Humans.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Apr. 1989; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2736402
    17. Childs, Emma, and Harriet de Wit; “Subjective, Behavioral, and Physiological Effects of Acute Caffeine in Light, Nondependent Caffeine Users.”; Psychopharmacology; U.S. National Library of Medicine; May 2006; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16541243
    18. Paton, Carl D, et al; “Caffeinated Chewing Gum Increases Repeated Sprint Performance and Augments Increases in Testosterone in Competitive Cyclists.”; European Journal of Applied Physiology; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Dec. 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20737165
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