NovaPump NEURO: InnovaPharm Tops the Best Pumps with Nootropics!

In the first month of this year, we wrote an article about InnovaPharm’s new stim-free pre workout supplement titled NovaPump: 2019’s Best Pump Supplement Already Out in January?! It turned out to be true — at least for a while — given that nothing has personally surpassed NovaPump’s incredible nitric oxide and pump-boosting capabilities for us in this year.

NovaPump Neuro

InnovaPharm found a way to make one of the most powerful pump supplements even better – with nootropics!

But we can no longer give NovaPump the throne, because InnovaPharm somehow bested themselves, creating a new version with the same innovative pump boosting ingredients… yet with added nootropics!

Introducing NovaPump Neuro

Just because you’re going stim-free doesn’t mean you want to go focus-free! While NovaPump brought its users to their knees with ferocious pumps, thanks especially to two new NO-boosting ingredients detailed below… there are still more ways to increase focus, strength, and even fat burning potential without adding caffeine or other stims!

They put it all together for a full encompassing formula in NovaPump Neuro, which takes the previous label into the stratosphere!

Same NovaPump Formula, with four more ingredients

InnovaPharm kept the two hot new pump-inducing ingredients in Super Spinach® and PegaPump™, but went further – with efficaciously dosed Alpha-GPC, Acetyl-L-Carnitine, L-Tyrosine, and Huperzine A!

With this onslaught of a combination, you can now bring the house with both pumps and tunnel vision focus. And best of all – the dose of Alpha GPC used has been shown to increase strength too!

We get into the details below, and recap Super Spinach and PegaPump in case you didn’t see them in our original NovaPump article… but first, check our NovaPump Neuro prices and sign up for InnovaPharm news alerts to get contacted for their giveaways and reviews, and then we’ll get to the science!

InnovaPharm NovaPump Neuro - Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

NovaPump Neuro Ingredients

Since this is the same as NovaPump, let’s go backwards and start with the added nootropics, then repeat the pump ingredients from the original.

NovaPump Neuro also has the “40/20 servings split” on the label, but in this case, you get 20 servings with 20 full scoops, yet can start with a half scoop if you want to drag it out to 40 workouts. The doses below are based upon full scoop servings:

  • MIND-MUSCLE NEURO ENHANCEMENT

    Starting from the bottom four ingredients on the label:

    • Acetyl L-Carnitine (1000mg)

      NovaPump Neuro Ingredients

      NovaPump Neuro is the same as NovaPump, but with over 2.6g of added nootropic ingredients that are synergistic with each other!

      We see L-Carnitine on many labels for many reasons, but when we see Acetyl L-Carnitine, we first think that the formulator is leaning towards focus. Also known as ALCAR, this is the form of the ingredient that can cross the blood-brain barrier,[1] which makes it the form most commonly used in nootropic-driven formulas like NovaPump Neuro.

      Backing the bus up a bit, L-Carnitine is the compound that’s responsible for shuttling fatty acids to your cells’ mitochondria.[2] These are the “powerhouses” of your cells that create your body’s energy currency, known as ATP (realize that your cells don’t deal with “calories”, they use ATP and need it to survive).

      L-Carnitine supplementation is massively important for those who don’t eat meat, since that’s where it’s primarily ingested. But given the BBB-crossing potency of Acetyl L-Carnitine, even meat eaters seem to benefit from the added brain gains when taking supplements that include it in solid doses such as this one.

      No ALCAR means your Alpha GPC is less useful
      ALCAR Choline Acetylcholine Synthesis

      If you’re low on acetyl groups, your choline (from Alpha-GPC) may not get to the acetylcholine that you want. ALCAR helps with that bottleneck.

      ALCAR can then act as an acetyl donor, which goes on to help produce more acetylcholine, which is discussed below with the Alpha-GPC ingredient. Without ALCAR around, choline doesn’t get acetylated into acetylcholine by the choline acetyl transferase — we need ALCAR to get more of the “learning neurotransmitter” we’re so excited about with Alpha-GPC!

      With that mechanism at hand, research has shown carnitine to have a wide variety of neuroprotective, neurotrophic, and antidepressive effects.[3] It has further research improving brain synaptic response,[1] enhancing learning ability,[1] and helping to defend against the decline in brain functioning![4]

    • L-Tyrosine (1000mg)

      A welcomed and expected including to any product with the word “Neuro” in the name, L-Tyrosine is a unique, conditionally-essential amino acid with several functions, many of which are neurological.

      L-Tyrosine

      Long story short from our analysis — For the best effects from tyrosine, choose the regular L-Tyrosine version!

      The body uses tyrosine to create several critical neurotransmitters, including dopamine (the “feel-good” one that we all love), adrenaline, and noradrenaline.[5] Supplementing tyrosine ensures that you’re not “bottlenecking” the creation of these, which go on to heighten cognition, especially during active moments (such as workouts).

      In 2015, a study found that subjects given tyrosine were more capable of completing mental tasks, and more efficiently to boot.[6]

      Further, Tyrosine is a precursor to thyroid hormone,[7] hugely important to have on the ready for a healthy metabolism, especially when you amp up the training.

      The dosage is just right – 500mg is what we consider the “minimum”, but too much (such as in the multiple grams worth) has actually made us feel anxious. The 0.5-1.5g range is perfect.

      Research discussed in our L-Tyrosine vs. N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine article back up InnovaPharm’s choice to use L-Tyrosine in NovaPump Neuro — it elevates plasma L-Tyrosine stronger and longer. Whereas we love the acetyl group attached to carnitine in ALCAR, the same doesn’t apply here with L-Tyrosine!

    • Alpha-GPC 50% (600mg)

      Acetylcholine

      Improved acetylcholine utilization provides for an ‘anti-blurring’ effect so that new and old memories do not get confused

      Alpha-glycerophosphocholine, better known as Alpha-GPC, is a phospholipid that’s rich in choline.[8]

      This strength-boosting nootropic promotes the generation of acetylcholine in the body,[9] which we alluded to as the “learning neurotransmitter” up above in the ALCAR section. It’s critical because it helps your cells maintain their membranes, but here we’re most interested in getting focused with high amounts of acetylcholine,[10] synergized of course with ALCAR. Acetylcholine is a key neurotransmitter in regulating brain function and even muscle control,[10] which is why we love to discuss it with regards to the “mind muscle connection”.

      There are several forms of choline on the market, but Alpha-GPC is superior to cheaper forms, mainly because the lipid makes it easier for cells to absorb… and thus making it boost acetylcholine more effectively.[11]

      Boosts acetylcholine production — in the frontal cortex

      In terms of that acetylcholine increase, it seems to happen most specifically in the frontal cortex,[12] which houses the motor function and attention management controls[13] — exactly what we want for that “mind muscle connection”. Other reported benefits include memory-formation improvement[14] and long-term cognitive health.[15]

      Choline to Acetylcholine

      Acetylcholine is synthesised from the compounds choline and acetyl-CoA. Image courtesy of the University of Bristol

      Long story short is that this can get you into the zone, but again, it may need help from some acetyl groups provided by ALCAR – which many brands often forget. Not InnovaPharm.

      Increases strength and power… and even growth hormone?!

      But for athletes, it gets even better. This isn’t just a study aid.

      A small 2008 study that was randomized and double-blinded showed that seven young men who were experienced in weight training had a 14% increase in bench press force and even a boost in peak growth hormone![16]

      In that study, they had taken 600mg Alpha-GPC 90 minutes before performing Smith Machine squats and bench press and had their resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) measured before performing three sets.

      With regards to bench, the effects weren’t statistically significant, but the results “trended” in that direction, but it’s always been leg day increases that seem to hit the most significance.

      More power increase data!
      Mid Thigh Pull Results

      Alpha GPC isn’t just good for enhancing brain function, it can also deliver some big strength gains (when dosed at 600mg).

      Another study was performed in 2016, and college-aged males were given 600mg Alpha-GPC or placebo for six days.[17] They performed mid-thigh pullsbefore and after the period, and the Alpha-GPC group hgad increased force on the mid-thigh pull. Once again, leg day gains! Upper body strength also increased vs. placebo, but not enough to claim statistical significance.

      All in all, this is exactly what you want in a stimulant-free pre workout supplement, and NovaPump Neuro is using the clinical dose and labeling it properly (with the 50% designation).

    • Huperzine A (200mcg)

      With ALCAR and Alpha-GPC combining to increase acetylcholine levels, we now have to keep them around. This is where Huperzine A comes in – to play “defense”.

      It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase,[18-20] which breaks down our acetylcholine — so we want to limit our limiter and keep our focus and enhanced muscle contraction around later. Huperzine A has great oral bioavailability and can cross the blood brain barrier as well.

      It’s even been shown to be neuroprotective against glutamate and peroxide induced damage – it literally helps prevent neuron cell death![21] And even crazier, Huperzine has research it can even help regenerate brain cells!![22]

      To say this is a promising ingredient is an understatement, but the main point here in terms of your workout is that it’s going to make the Alpha-GPC + ALCAR combination work longer and stronger.

  • NOVAPUMP 24 HOUR PUMP POTION

    Now for the part that is the same as the original NovaPump:

    • Citrulline Malate 2:1 (8g)

      InnovaPharm NovaPump

      The ingredients in this section are the same as in the original NovaPump formula.

      An easily-recognized nitric oxide pump ingredient in any formula nowadays, citrulline malate is a combination of citrulline and malic acid, in a 2:1 ratio as the label shows. This means you’ll get about 5.333g of L-citrulline inside, well beyond a clinical dose.

      Citrulline is a precursor to arginine, which is the amino acid that increases nitric oxide production in your body.[1] While a beginner would ask “why not just take more arginine?”, research shows that arginine has poor bioavailability (it’s broken down by arginase in the gastrointestinal tract) but citrulline is more bioavailable. You actually end up with more plasma arginine by taking citrulline instead of arginine itself![23]

      So why do we want that nitric oxide? Because it brings more blood flow throughout the body by relaxing the vasculature. This is how we feel many of the “pumps” in well-formulated nitric oxide boosting supplements like NovaPump and NovaPump Neuro. This ultimately gets you improved nutrient uptake, better recovery, improved exercise-based oxygen utilization, less fatigue, and even relieves soreness from training![24-27]

      The research cited either uses 3g of citrulline or 6g of citrulline malate (yielding a bit over 3g actual L-citrulline), and with 5.333g of citrulline, we’re well above that.

      A great start, but this is standard stuff. Soon we get into the new ingredients.

    • GlycerSize™ (4g) (Glycerol Powder 65%)

      GlycerSize

      GlycerPump has been renamed to GlycerSize! Same ingredient though!

      Glycerol is the backbone of triacylglycerols, and is primarily used as a hydration-enhancer. Previous forms of glycerol, such as Glycerol Monostearate, had lower yields and too much clumping. So when Pinnacle Ingredients brought GlycerSize™ to the market, we were interested due to their claims of still being a high 65% glycerol yield, but with less clumping

      Cell saturation: drink your water!

      Glycerol can help saturate muscle cells with water, assuming you take it with plenty of fluids. With more fluid in the cell, you get more “volumization” of the muscles![28] We often refer to this glycerol-induced swelling as the “water pump,” in contrast to the nitric oxide pump. The key is to take it with plenty of water!

      Once again, the 4g dose is massively above the competition — InnovaPharm clearly pulled no punches here! This isn’t a new ingredient, but InnovaPharm introduced it at a newer, higher dose in NovaPump (and now NovaPump Neuro). But now it’s time for their new ingredient:

    • Super Spinach® (1g) (Red Spinach – Amaranthus Tricolor Leaf Extract)

      Red Spinach Benefits

      More blood flow after red spinach![29]

      Making our favorite muscle-bound cartoon character proud, Super Spinach is an extract of red spinach leaf that’s full of blood flow enhancers! It’s meant to compete with those beet root extracts, which sometimes are great but far too often are non-standardized and relatively weak.

      Crazy pumps for crazy long times

      Put simply — a recent study showed that red spinach extract boosted nitric oxide levels 50 times more than beet juice and 4 times more than beet root extract![29] Since beetroot is one of the premier nitric oxide boosting ingredients, this is no small finding. And that’s not all, since red spinach extract can keep nitric oxide levels boosted as long as 24 hours![30] So we have an incredible boost for a phenomenal amount of time.

      What this means is that you should get even more blood flow alongside that citrulline, and with that comes the nutrient delivery, and theorized increased stamina / reduced fatigue. This also makes post workout nutrition more important than ever – even if you’re two meals out from your training, it’ll be important to keep your body full of high-quality, nutrient-dense proteins.

      We’re not sure what the perfect dose of Super Spinach is, but 1g worked incredibly well with the original NovaPump, and we expect the same with NovaPump Neuro. We hope to cover more in terms of Super Spinach, and eventually dive deeper into its research. There are many other “superfood nutrients” in spinach that we assume other benefits alongside the vasodilation properties will come for the ride.

      How Nitric Oxide Works

      How Nitric Oxide Works (Image Courtesy SuperSpinach)

    • Agmatine Sulfate (1g)

      After the above ingredients, a healthy dose of agmatine makes good sense, especially in a focus-boosting stim-free pump product. Agmatine has been shown to inhibit arginase, which is the enzyme that breaks down arginine in the body.[31] Just like Huperzine A played defense for our Alpha-GPC choline boost, agmatine plays defense for citrulline and Super Spinach.

      Agmatine Pathway

      The Agmatine Pathway is complex, but that’s because it’s really more of a neurotransmitter / neuromodulator than just a “nitric oxide booster”

      As mentioned above, arginine is converted to nitric oxide via nitric oxide synthase. If we slow the breakdown of arginine, our bodies should be able to convert more of that citrulline-driven arginine to NO.

      To top it off, and perfect for this supplement, agmatine seems to have a neurological-boosting profile,[32] which isn’t a surprise sense given that it’s naturally found in the cerebrospinal fluid in the brain and spinal cord.[33]

      1g is a solid dose here, where we start getting good pumps. When taken alone, we personally like 1.5g, but with everything else here, 1g is more than enough.

      Last but not least, another new ingredient that was introduced with the OG NovaPump:

    • PegaPump™ (250mcg) (Peganum Harmala L. Extract)

      Peganaum Harmala

      Peganaum Harmala brings some very potent NO-boosting alkaloids[34]

      PegaPump comes from Peganum harmala, a plant also known as Syrian rue. When developing PegaPump, InnovaPharm focused on specific alkaloids such as Harmine, Harmaline, and Harmalol that promote vasorelaxation.[34] With vasorelaxation, the blood vessels become less constricted, meaning they further bring more blood flow.

      PegaPump™ is the “closing argument” of this insanely potent blood flow boosting supplement. You have three epic NO boosters in citrulline, Super Spinach, and PegaPump™, and some backside protection from agmatine to boot. The massive dose of GlycerSize somehow just becomes icing on the cake here!

      Other benefits of Syrian Rue

      Outside of research on the constituents themselves, Syrian rue is internationally used to promote cardiovascular health. It has been added as a treatment for heart disease and hypertension (high blood pressure). The mechanisms above have been shown to reduce systemic blood pressure and “total peripheral resistance” (eg the resistance that the blood must overcome in order to flow), improve peak flow rates out of the aorta, and even act as an immune-booster.[35-38]

      While InnovaPharm seems to be extracting constituents to make PegaPump™ a blood flow / pump inducer, there seem to be some other general benefits that could be worth looking into with other Syrian Rue extracts!

      We’d love to see some human trials on PegaPump™ (or its three main constituents), and given the monster dosing of the other ingredients above, it’s going to be tough to know what’s really getting the work done. But all we can say is that NovaPump has not really let anyone down in terms of the pump department, and PegaPump™ seems to be a major part of that.

Now that is a label. We were floored by NovaPump, but this is on another plane of existence. Job well done, InnovaPharm

Current Flavors

Below is a list of the flavors/variations known to the PricePlow system:

InnovaPharm NovaPump Neuro

Get your Mermaid Kisses on. InnovaPharm always has some unique sounding flavor names!

    These flavors are a bit of a change-up from the original NovaPump, and if you want to stack it with a strong-flavored pre workout, then grab the unflavored!

    Conclusion: Is it possible to win 2019 twice?

    With NovaPump, our conclusion stated “2019 just started and it’s already game over”. We were simultaneously right and wrong, because InnovaPharm took it upon themselves to make a phenomenal product even better!

    You know we love the inclusion of two new ingredients – it’s tiring dealing with the “same ol same ol” all the time. But to take that formula and add the oft-forgotten ALCAR / Alpha-GPC combo, and at clinical doses to boot, is nearly perfection in a stim-free can.

    InnovaPharm Logo

    No Hype. Just Results. See all InnovaPharm supplements on PricePlow!

    If you’re taking a break from stims, training at night, or looking for something downright absurd to stack with your coffee, fat burner, energy drink, or “crack ‘n stim” pre workout, this is the must try to close the year out. Just like OG NovaPump was the must-try supplement to start the year with!

    Good luck beating this one. InnovaPharm just turned a home run into a garnd slam.

    InnovaPharm NovaPump Neuro - Deals and Price Drop Alerts

    Get Price Alerts

    No spam, no scams.

    Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    About the Author: Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is an n=1 diet experimenter with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several experiments done on himself while sharing lab tests.

    Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public.

    No Comments | Posted in | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

    References

    1. Ando S, et al; Enhancement of learning capacity and cholinergic synaptic function by carnitine in aging rats; J Neurosci Res; 2001; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11592123
    2. Foster, Daniel W; “The Role of the Carnitine System in Human Metabolism.”; Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Nov. 2004; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15590999
    3. Traina, Giovanna; “The Neurobiology of Acetyl-L-Carnitine.”; Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition); U.S. National Library of Medicine; 1 June 2016; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100509
    4. Passeri, M, et al; “Acetyl-L-Carnitine in the Treatment of Mildly Demented Elderly Patients.”; International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 1990; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2201659
    5. Fernstrom, John D, and Madelyn H Fernstrom; “Tyrosine, Phenylalanine, and Catecholamine Synthesis and Function in the Brain.”; The Journal of Nutrition; U.S. National Library of Medicine; June 2007; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17513421
    6. Steenbergen, Laura, et al; “Tyrosine Promotes Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from Proactive vs. Reactive Control during Task Switching Performance.”; Neuropsychologia; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Mar. 2015; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598314
    7. Rousset B, Dupuy C, Miot F, et al; “Chapter 2 Thyroid Hormone Synthesis And Secretion”; [Updated 2015 Sep 2]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000-. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK285550/
    8. Tayebati, S K, et al; “Modulation of Monoaminergic Transporters by Choline-Containing Phospholipids in Rat Brain.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 1 Feb. 2013; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23244432
    9. Scapicchio, P L; “Revisiting Choline Alphoscerate Profile: a New, Perspective, Role in Dementia?”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; July 2013; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23387341
    10. Hollenbeck, C B; “An Introduction to the Nutrition and Metabolism of Choline.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; June 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22483274?dopt=Abstract
    11. Di, R, et al; “A Multicentre Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine versus Cytosine Diphosphocholine in Patients with Vascular Dementia.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1916007
    12. Villines, Zawn; “Frontal Lobe: Functions, Structure, and Damage.”; Medical News Today; MediLexicon International; https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318139.php
    13. Tayebati, S K, et al; “Effect of Choline-Containing Phospholipids on Brain Cholinergic Transporters in the Rat.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 15 Mar. 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21195433
    14. Nelson, T J, et al; “Insulin, PKC Signaling Pathways and Synaptic Remodeling during Memory Storage and Neuronal Repair.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 6 May 2008; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18402935
    15. De, M; “Cognitive Improvement in Mild to Moderate Alzheimer’s Dementia after Treatment with the Acetylcholine Precursor Choline Alfoscerate: a Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Jan. 2003; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12637119
    16. Tim Ziegenfuss, et al; “Acute Supplementation with Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine Augments Growth Hormone Response to, and Peak Force Production during Resistance Exercise.”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 17 Sept. 2008; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-5-S1-P15
    17. David Bellar, et al; “The Effect of 6 Days of Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine on Isometric Strength.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 17 Nov. 2015; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-015-0103-x
    18. Zhao, Q, and X C Tang; “Effects of Huperzine A on Acetylcholinesterase Isoforms in Vitro: Comparison with Tacrine, Donepezil, Rivastigmine and Physostigmine.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 29 Nov. 2002; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12445575
    19. Xu, Z Q, et al; “Treatment with Huperzine A Improves Cognition in Vascular Dementia Patients.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Jan. 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833673
    20. Zhang, H Y, and X C Tang; “Neuroprotective Effects of Huperzine A: New Therapeutic Targets for Neurodegenerative Disease.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Dec. 2006; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17056129
    21. Ved, H; “Huperzine A, a potential therapeutic agent for dementia, reduces neuronal cell death caused by glutamate”; Division of Biochemistry, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; 1997; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9141073
    22. Ma, T; “Huperzine A promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo”; State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University; 2013; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23454433
    23. Schwedhelm, E., Maas, R., Freese, R., Jung, D., Lukacs, Z., Jambrecina, A., Spickler, W., Schulze, F., Böger, R. H; “Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism”; British journal of clinical pharmacology, 65(1), 51-9; 2007; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2291275/
    24. Giannesini B, et al; “Citrulline malate supplementation increases muscle efficiency in rat skeletal muscle”; Eur J Pharmacol; 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21664351
    25. Bendahan D, et al; “Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle”; 2002; Br J Sports Med. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12145119
    26. Suzuki T, Morita M, Kobayashi Y, Kamimura A; “Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2016; 13:6; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4759860/
    27. Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. M; “Citrulline Malate Enhances Athletic Anaerobic Performance and Relieves Muscle Soreness”; Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1215-1222; 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386132
    28. Patlar S, Yalçin H, Boyali E; “The Effect of Glycerol Supplements on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance of Athletes and Sedentary Subjects”; Journal of Human Kinetics; 34:69-79; 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3590833/
    29. Haun, C. T., Kephart, W. C., Holland, A. M., Mobley, C. B., Mccloskey, A. E., Shake, J. J. Martin, J. S; “Differential vascular reactivity responses acutely following ingestion of a nitrate rich red spinach extract”; European Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(11-12), 2267-2279; 2016; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27695978
    30. Moore, A., Haun, C., Kephart, W., Holland, A., Mobley, C., Pascoe, D., Martin, J; “Red Spinach Extract Increases Ventilatory Threshold during Graded Exercise Testing”; Sports, 5(4), 80; 2017; https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4663/5/4/80
    31. Legaz, M. E., & Vicente, C; “Endogenous Inactivators of Arginase, L-Arginine Decarboxylase, and Agmatine Amidinohydrolase in Evernia prunastri Thallus”; Plant Physiology; 71(2), 300-302; 1983; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16662821
    32. Li, Y, et al; “Antidepressant-like effect of agmatine and its possible mechanism”; European Journal of Pharmacology; 469(1-3):81-8; May 23, 2003; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12782188
    33. Regunathan S, et al; “Agmatine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of normal human volunteers”; Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy; 23(1):35-9; 2009; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19296353
    34. Chuen-Chao, S., Jyh-Fei, L., & Chieh-Fu, C; “Comparative Study on the Vasorelaxant Effects of Three Harmala Alkaloids In Vitro”; The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 85(3), 299-305; 2001; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11325023
    35. Berrougui, H., Martincordero, C., Khalil, A., Hmamouchi, M., Ettaib, A., Marhuenda, E., & Herrera, M; “Vasorelaxant effects of harmine and harmaline extracted from Peganum harmala L. seeds in isolated rat aorta”; Pharmacological Research, 54(2), 150-157; 2006; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16750635
    36. Hamsa, T., & Kuttan, G; “Harmine inhibits tumour specific neo-vessel formation by regulating VEGF, MMP, TIMP and pro-inflammatory mediators both in vivo and in vitro”; European Journal of Pharmacology, 649(1-3), 64-73; 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20858484
    37. Arshad, N., Zitterl-Eglseer, K., Hasnain, S., & Hess, M; “Effect ofPeganum harmalaor itsβ-carboline alkaloids on certain antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria and protozoa from poultry”; Phytotherapy Research, 22(11), 1533-1538; 2008; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18814210
    38. Herraiz, T., & Guillén, H; “Inhibition of the bioactivation of the neurotoxin MPTP by antioxidants, redox agents and monoamine oxidase inhibitors”; Food and Chemical Toxicology; 49(8), 1773-1781; 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21554916

    Comments and Discussion (Powered by the PricePlow Forum)