Ghost Amino V2 Improves the EAA Innovation for Ghostly Gains!

In an industry that often grows stagnant, it takes brave, trailblazing leadership to change things up, to make a statement. Every once in awhile, someone realizes new possibilities, and injects some major life into the scene, bringing other industries along with it.

Ghost Lifestyle Logo

Get ready for another rock star release…

Since bursting onto the scene in early 2016, Ghost Lifestyle has redefined what it means to be a supplement company. Marketing themselves as a “lifestyle” brand, Ghost has evolved from a unique brand with awesome labels into an expansive, world-wide operation that lets you closely follow what’s happening behind the scenes on YouTube and Instagram!

As they’ve grown though, they haven’t lost sight of the one thing that has differentiated them from the beginning – innovation. Ghost pioneered the still-growing trend of collaborating with social media influencers, giving them the power to enhance their own formulations/flavors of products. Ghost has also changed the flavoring game, partnering with major brands from Sour Warheads (included here today) to Sonic Cherry Limeade to Sour Patch Kids and Swedish Fish to Welch’s Grape Juice!

Ghost Amino

Ghost Amino has been upgraded, and despite some monster EAA doses, it’s still good enough to get the stamping of the official Sour Warheads flavor!

Ghost Amino: The EAA that Came Before the BCAAs

But before all of that, they also innovated on formulations — refusing to release a BCAA before they had a full-spectrum essential amino acid supplement, one of the first on the market with efficacious EAA dosing!

That was Ghost Amino. And after a few years, it was due for an upgrade.

But simply being one of the firsts to put out an EAA-heavy amino acid supplement is no longer enough. In typical Ghost fashion, they’re back with some upgrades: GhostⓇ Amino V2! You’re going to have to keep reading to find out more, but here’s a hint: yeah, we’re fans of this one!

Below, we dive into what makes Amino V2 so special, especially compared to its competition, as well as its predecessor, GhostⓇ Amino. Before we get into that, though, be sure to subscribe to PricePlow for our GhostLifestyle.com coupon code (PRICEPLOW) and news, reviews, and interviews!

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Ghost packs quite a punch with V2

Ghost Amino Blue Raspberry

Ghost Amino v2 launched in Blue Raspberry, Warheads Sour Green Apple, and Mango flavors… but check the listings above and below as things may get updated!

While Ghost hits us with new products and flavors at breakneck pace, V2 is definitely one of the bigger stories in 2019. Amino V2 combines three factors – essential amino acids (EAAs), a hydration matrix, and an absorption-boosting ingredient.

Each comes in heavy doses, with either a 1-scoop serving size for the light stuff or a full 2-scoop serving if you really want to get it on. As we typically see with Ghost, there’s a fully disclosed label, so you know exactly how much of each active ingredient you’re really getting. But, that’s not all they’ve managed to do with this one!

High-quality, vegan-friendly, gluten-free

Odds are you or someone you know follows some sort of diet regimen, as the popularity of vegan or gluten-free diets (through choice or necessity) continues to grow these days. Finding foods and supplements that satisfy the criteria given these dietary restrictions can sometimes be quite difficult – especially when it comes to those amino acids which can definitely come from “animal products” to put it nicely.

Ghost is here to help ease that burden! In Amino V2, they’re using vegan-sourced amino acids, leaving the animal by-product derived aminos on the cutting room floor.[1] They’re also certified gluten-free and soy-free, making them usable for virtually anyone interested in an EAA product, especially those with soy allergies (who wants soy anyway?).

The label – everything you’ll need!

Despite the weight of each serving varying by a couple tenths of a gram across flavors, each 1-scoop or 2-scoop serving packs the same amount of active ingredient. We’re going to break down exactly what is in each 2-scoop serving, matrix by matrix!

  • GhostⓇ EAA – 5.5g

    Ghost Amino V2 Ingredients

    Wow! These dosages are leaps and bounds ahead of the competition. No pixie-dusted methionine here!!

    If you couldn’t tell, we here at PricePlow love EAA formulas. While BCAA supplements have been popular for quite some time, we’ve only started seeing more EAA powders in recent years, thanks to innovators like Ghost. What makes them better than BCAA-only supplement, you ask?

    You need all 9 for muscle protein synthesis!

    Well, research has shown some light on the true effectiveness of BCAAs, revealing that they aren’t as anabolic as we once thought. Research indicates that while they are best used to increase time to exhaustion and improve endurance,[2,3] they cannot alone stimulate muscle growth.[4]

    That’s only considering the three BCAAs, however. Things change when you’re talking about all nine of the essential aminos. Research shows that consuming all 9 EAAs stimulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS),[5] which suggesting a synergistic relationship among the EAAs. In layman’s terms, taking BCAAs only will help you from losing muscle, whereas EAAs can help you build muscle.

    A complete protein is better than an incomplete protein.

    Everyone needs all nine EAAs, since our bodies can’t produce them alone. Whether you’re getting them from a steak or a supplement (or both), their functions are integral in building muscle. Luckily, Ghost is giving them to us here, and in massive quantities! The three BCAAs may be the star players on the team, but the other 6 aminos, while promoting muscle protein synthesis, are invaluable in other supporting roles!

    So let’s start with the non-BCAA EAAs:

    • L-Threonine – 1700mg

      Threonine is a precursor to two other amino acids, glycine and serine, and has a major role in digestion health.[6] It helps upkeep the functions of the intestinal wall through aiding the maintenance of a lining of protective mucus.[7] Where threonine really shines, however, is in the synthesis of collagen and oxidation of fatty acids.[8]

    • L-Phenylalanine – 1700mg

      Essential Amino Acids

      Amongst these primary amino acids, the essential amino acids are in red. Leucine, Valine, and Isoleucine are the three Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

      Phenylalanine epitomizes the broad roles amino acids hold within the body. Surprisingly, this one shares some characteristics with popular nootropics. Phenylalanine has been shown to boost production of dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.[9,10] You may know these as the “feel-good” neurotransmitters – these are the chemicals emitted within the body that promote happiness, relaxation, and calmness. Needless to say, high levels of these guys are rarely a bad thing!

    • L-Lysine – 1500mg

      Essential in cellular proliferation, lysine is capable of providing help in a number of areas. Supporting MPS, it also helps maintain a healthy immune system and acts as an anti-inflammatory.[11] Lysine also complements carnitine, which helps break down fatty acids within the body.[11]

      Note that outside of leucine, this is the other 100% purely ketogenic amino acid – it cannot get converted to glucose. The others are either glucogenic or both ketogenic and glucogenic. So it’s nice to see this one dosed well for those who like generating some ketones here and there.

    • L-Methionine – 375mg (!!!)

      MASSIVE Dose Alert!!

      Like threonine, methionine finds its niche within the digestive system. Despite focusing its attention there, however, it also breaks down into cysteine, an amino acid integral in maintaining immune health.[12] It also provides auxiliary aid in the biosynthesis of glutathione, which helps fight oxidative stress.[12]

      Ghost Welch's Grape Juice Collaboration

      Ghost’s Daniel Lourenço doesn’t mess around with no rinky-dink methionine doses! (You can also read about the Welch’s / Ghost announcement)

      While vital in the broad scheme of things, especially to those who enjoy fasting, methionine tends to get a bad rap. In fact, if you’re at all familiar with EAA supplements, you’ve probably already heard of methionine. It holds a high concentration of sulfur, which brings about a pretty unpleasurable taste. Thus, methionine tends to be added in lesser weights than the other aminos, in order to ensure the overall taste of the supplement doesn’t suffer.

      At 375mg here, its MASSIVELY dosed compared to the competition, but still light compared to the other EAAs, which is a good thing. Seriously, you oftentimes see this ingredient at 25mg or 50mg, maybe75mg. This is literally 15x the methionine dose of other EAA supplements! Some formulators simply skip the ingredient altogether! Not Dan Lourenço, Ryan, and Team Ghost, though.

      Truth be told, Ghost’s flavoring system is probably so strong, we’re confident they put this methionine dose in to make a real difference… as well as a statement!

    • L-Histidine – 125mg

      Histidine breaks down to histamine, a chemical influential in protecting from allergic reactions.[13] It also is crucial in protecting hemoglobin levels, which helps carry oxygenated blood throughout the body.[14] By way of multiple biological processes, histidine also helps facilitate carnosine production. Carnosine is an amino acid with powerful antioxidant properties, specifically within the brain.[15]

    • L-Tryptophan – 100mg

      Rounding out the complementary EAAs, we have tryptophan. This amino acid is a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter responsible for regulating sleep, mood, and mental cognition.[16] In fact, tryptophan is so effective in serotonin production that its actually being studied as a therapeutic aid for psychiatric disorders!

      Tryptophan 5-HTP Serotonin Pathway

      The Tryptophan 5-HTP Serotonin Pathway. Don’t have enough tryptophan around because of weak diet? Supplementing 5-HTP and B-6 may help

      Hopefully by now you have a better understanding of just how widespread the functions of the essential aminos truly are. While there really isn’t an “clinically-accepted” ratio of them, we’re pretty confident that each one of these amino acids are dosed efficiently on this label. That being said, they wouldn’t be nearly as useful if the main 3 BCAAs were missing!

  • GhostⓇ BCAA – 4.5g

    While their “bro-science” based reputation may not be as accurate as we once thought, the BCAAs are still popular for a reason – they’re hugely necessary pieces of the puzzle, especially the first one here, leucine:

    • L-Leucine – 3000mg

      Ghost BCAA Swedish Fish

      Ghost also has Ghost BCAA, which is less expensive and fantastic for great flavors like Swedish Fish (reviewed here), but when it comes to aminos, we’d still love a full spectrum amino acid supplement!

      Leucine is the engine that powers an full-spectrum EAA formula – without it, it would extremely ineffective. Leucine acts directly in MPS, stimulating the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.[17] The mTOR pathway is also home to the mTORC1 sub-path, which is hugely important when it comes to building muscle tissue.[18]

      In short, leucine is the key that unlocks the door to triggering MPS. Without it, you would really struggle to activate the mTOR pathway. At 3000mg, Ghost isn’t messing around – this dose of leucine won’t just unlock that door, it’ll knock it down!

    • L-Isoleucine – 750mg

      The main consort to leucine, isoleucine also activates MPS, but not nearly to the degree leucine does. But, while leucine is mainly concerned with mTOR, isoleucine decides to make its presence known in other areas. It is influential in recovery, as research shows that is increases glucose uptake post-exercise.[19] This helps rebuild muscle after training, priming it for growth!

    • L-Valine – 750mg

      Valine lets the other two BCAAs take the spotlight – it does a lot of behind-the-scenes work that helps the other two reach maximum effectiveness. Research has shown that it can help facilitate glycogen synthesis,[20] deeming it indispensable in terms of endurance and recovery.

      While research tends to favor a 2:1:1 ratio of the BCAAs in supplementation,[21] there really isn’t a definitive consensus on what’s best. In Amino V2, Ghost is delivering a 4:1:1 ratio, nearly doubling the amount of leucine. Considering that the only thing research seems to agree on is that leucine is the most important BCAA in regards to muscle-building, a little extra leucine sounds good to us!

      Branched-Chain Amino Acids

      Leucine, Valine, and Isoleucine are the three BCAAs, and they’re an extremely important part of your diet

  • GhostⓇ Hydration – 3.5g

    Because Ghost refuses to conform to the norm, they didn’t just stop at a quality EAA matrix. No, they tossed in a few key ingredients that provide some of the best hydration benefits you can get!

    • Taurine – 2000mg

      While technically being an amino acid, taurine offers much more in terms of hydration and endurance than anything else. It’s a conditionally-essential amino acid, meaning your body actually is able to produce it on its own, albeit in relatively small amounts.

      Taurine Benefits

      Taurine’s Benefits (endurance-wise) can be seen after a single use!

      Taurine is highly concentrated within various parts of the body, specifically the brain, retina, and muscle tissue.[22] Its widely dispersed throughout the body, so you can imagine its uses vary drastically, as well.

      Not only is it a powerful antioxidant,[23] but taurine possess strong anti-inflammatory properties,[24] too. But in reality, it’s on this label for one reason – to keep you hydrated. Taurine is actually pretty effective in doing that,[25] which is also why it can proficiently enhance endurance in exercise.[26] Helping pump water to muscles, taurine can help you feel better equipped to stay moving, either while in the gym or, as Ghost might suggest, dancing on a Friday night!

    • Raw Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Water Powder – 1000mg

      What good is rehydration if your electrolytes are all out of whack, though? Coconut water answers that question, and does so resoundingly. Research has shown that it’s actually a more potent rehydration and electrolyte re-balancing agent than most other sports drinks out there.[27] Whether you’re recovering from a tough training session or a rough Saturday night (look, we’ve all been there!), coconut water can help get your body back in-tune.

      One other important note – including coconut water powder means that Amino V2 is not free of tree nuts. So, if you have an allergy to tree nuts, you may want to steer clear of this one.

    • Aquamin™ (trace minerals derived from Red Marine Algae) – 500mg

      Ghost Whey Coconut Ice Cream PricePlow

      Speaking of coconut… check out Ghost’s Coconut Ice Cream Whey! You gotta grab these limited-edition tubs while you can!!

      Aquamin™ is an all-natural, highly bioavailable ingredient from Marigot Ltd. It takes advantage of sea algae, which absorbs countless natural minerals from marine water over the course of its life.[28] Most of the research done on this specific ingredient pertains to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential,[28] However, given the high concentration of minerals contained in this ingredient, it absolutely primes your body to better receive nutrients and stay hydrated.

      This seaweed extract is rich in magnesium and calcium, among many other trace minerals. When you train, your body burns up these kinds of nutrients. Incorporating something like Aquamin™ helps you replenish what you’ve spent!

    When you consider the addition of a hydration matrix, Amino V2 becomes all the more versatile. This label can be used as an intra-workout of sorts, especially for those of you getting after tough training sessions. Ghost wants you to be able to use V2 at any point in the day though, not just after workouts. They even suggest drinking a scoop before a night out with friends (like we said, these guys are lifestyle-focused)! Being an effective, all-day EAA plus hydration supplement, this is truly one of the more flexible formulas out there.

  • GhostⓇ Absorption

    AstraGinⓇ (Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng Root Extracts) – 50mg

    AstraGinⓇ is a patented blend of astragalus and panax notoginseng from NuLiv Science. We’re seeing it more often these days, usually in place of other absorption-enhancing ingredients. While some other alternatives, like black pepper extract, add a bit of a “peppery-bite” to the taste of a supplement, AstraGinⓇ doesn’t affect taste at all! It also proves to be just as effective, having increased bioavailability of various popular supplement ingredients, including leucine![29,30]

  • The flavoring matrix

    Ghost Amino Welch's Grape Juice

    Live June 27th, 2019, the Ghost Collab with Welch’s is making for some insane grape flavors!

    Where Ghost really sets itself apart from the competition, however, is in the flavoring of their supplements. Their standard flavors are better than other brands, and their partnered flavors (with Warheads and Welch’s, to name a few!) are incredible. That being said, in order to reach such lofty flavoring heights, quite a bit goes into the flavoring system.

    While the exact contents may vary from flavor to flavor, here’s what you’ll likely find in any variation of Amino V2:

    • Citric acid
    • Malic acid
    • Tartaric acid
    • Calcium silicate
    • Natural and artificial flavors
    • Himalayan Pink Sea Salt
    • Sucralose
    • Acesulfame Potassium
    • Artificial colors

    While some people can be picky when it comes to artificial sweeteners like sucralose and acesulfame potassium, you simply aren’t going to get a superb-tasting full-spectrum amino without them.

Flavors available

In case this hasn’t been made clear yet – Ghost knows how to flavor their products! Honestly, as long as you pick a flavor that suits you, we have no doubt that you’ll love it. Here’s what’s currently available, at prices using our PricePlow coupons!

    If you want a bit more assurance on how great this stuff is before you buy it yourself, check out any other flavor reviews below:

    Comparing Amino and Amino V2

    Believe it or not, Ghost seemed to change their approach completely with Amino V2. The new, updated version differs significantly from its predecessor.[31] As far as which one is better for you, well, that depends on what your goals are! Here’s are some key differences:

    Ghost Amino vs. Ghost Amino v2

    Compare Ghost Amino on the left vs. Ghost Amino v2 on the right!

    • Amino had non-vegan BCAAs (in a 2:1:1 ratio)
      • Amino V2 packs more leucine, and is vegan-friendly
    • Amino added the amino acid citrulline (a popular pump-enhancing ingredient)
    • Amino included Alpha-GPC, one of our favorite nootropics…. but at a small dose!
    • Amino had a bit more as far as hydration, but no Aquamin™!
    • Amino had no absorption-enhancers!

    While both formulas are fantastic, we like the improvedhow you plan on using your amino supplement affects which one is best suited for you.What would we recommend? If you plan on using your supplement strictly as an intra-workout, Amino may be your best bet. If you want a more versatile supplement to use anytime, anywhere, go with Amino V2. If you happen to be vegan or gluten-free, your decision is pretty easy – V2 it is!

    Amino V2 – stronger and more versatile

    Ghost GNC 2019 Vendor of the Year

    Don’t miss our article on Ghost Winning the 2019 GNC Vendor of the Year Award! There’s a reason why GNC loves working with these guys!

    Ghost was one of the first companies within the industry to see the potential in a properly-dosed, full-spectrum essential amino acids formula. BCAA powders had been on the market for years, and virtually every company had their own version of one. Ghost decided to buck the trend, and opened up a market for EAAs. In GhostⓇ Amino, they set an initial bar for what an amino acid supplement could be.

    But with Amino V2, Ghost has built an even higher standard. They’ve upgraded their original EAA with a heavier dose of aminos and a bit of hydration, all while making it completely vegan-friendly! This one not only packs more muscle-building EAAs alongside ingredients that help maintain endurance, but also maintains the typically incredible flavor that we’ve grown accustomed to with these guys. At the end of the day, Amino V2 is a welcomed upgrade – it’s more effective and more flexible than other EAAs, and it’s something you definitely want to get your hands on!

    Ghost Amino - Deals and Price Drop Alerts

    Get Price Alerts

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    Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    About the Author: Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is a biohacker with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several "n=1" experiments done on himself.

    Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public.

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    References

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    3. Gualano, A B, et al; “Branched-Chain Amino Acids Supplementation Enhances Exercise Capacity and Lipid Oxidation during Endurance Exercise after Muscle Glycogen Depletion.”; The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Mar. 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21297567
    4. Wolfe, Robert R; “Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Muscle Protein Synthesis in Humans: Myth or Reality?”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 22 Aug. 2017; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5568273/
    5. Jackman, Sarah R, et al; “Branched-Chain Amino Acid Ingestion Stimulates Muscle Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Following Resistance Exercise in Humans.”; Frontiers in Physiology; Frontiers Media S.A; 7 June 2017; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5461297/
    6. Azzam, M M M, et al; “Effect of Supplemental L-Threonine on Mucin 2 Gene Expression and Intestine Mucosal Immune and Digestive Enzymes Activities of Laying Hens in Environments with High Temperature and Humidity.”; Poultry Science; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Oct. 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21934007
    7. Mao, Xiangbing, et al; “Specific Roles of Threonine in Intestinal Mucosal Integrity and Barrier Function.”; Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition); U.S. National Library of Medicine; 1 June 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21622125
    8. Ruth, Megan R, and Catherine J Field; “The immune modifying effects of amino acids on gut-associated lymphoid tissue.”; Journal of animal science and biotechnology; vol. 4,1 27; 30 Jul. 2013; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3750756/
    9. Keisuke Ueda, et al; “The Effects of Phenylalanine on Exercise-Induced Fat Oxidation: a Preliminary, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 12 Sept. 2017; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-017-0191-x
    10. Beckmann, H, et al; “Dl-Phenylalanine in Depressed Patients: an Open Study.”; Journal of Neural Transmission; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 1977; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/335027
    11. Datta, D et al; “Lysine: Is it worth more?.”; Cytotechnology; vol. 36; 1-3; 2001; 3-32; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3449675/
    12. Martínez, Yordan, et al; “The Role of Methionine on Metabolism, Oxidative Stress, and Diseases.” Amino Acids, U.S. National Library of Medicine; Dec. 2017; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28929442
    13. Hemat, R. A. S.; “Principles of Orthomolecularism.”; Google Books; https://books.google.com/books?id=ED_xI-CEzFYC&dq
    14. Cho, E S, et al; “Long-Term Effects of Low Histidine Intake on Men.”; The Journal of Nutrition; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Feb. 1984; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6693997
    15. Gariballa, and Sinclair; “Carnosine: Physiological Properties and Therapeutic Potential.”; OUP Academic; Oxford University Press; 1 May 2000; https://academic.oup.com/ageing/article/29/3/207/36316
    16. Richard, Dawn M et al; “L-Tryptophan: Basic Metabolic Functions, Behavioral Research and Therapeutic Indications.”; International journal of tryptophan research : IJTR; vol. 2; 45-60; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2908021/
    17. Lynch, and Christopher J; “Role of Leucine in the Regulation of MTOR by Amino Acids: Revelations from Structure–Activity Studies.”; OUP Academic; Oxford University Press; 1 Apr. 2001; https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/131/3/861S/4687154
    18. Laplante, Mathieu, and David M. Sabatini; “MTOR Signaling at a Glance.”; Journal of Cell Science; The Company of Biologists Ltd; 15 Oct. 2009; http://jcs.biologists.org/content/122/20/3589
    19. Doi, Masako, et al; “Isoleucine, a Potent Plasma Glucose-Lowering Amino Acid, Stimulates Glucose Uptake in C2C12 Myotubes.”; Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 26 Dec. 2003; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14651987
    20. FONES WS, SOBER HA, WHITE J; “The conversion of D-valine to glycogen in the rat.”; Arch Biochem Biophys; 1951
    21. La Bounty, Paul et al; “The effects of oral BCAAs and leucine supplementation combined with an acute lower-body resistance exercise on mTOR and 4E-BP1 activation in humans: preliminary findings.”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; vol. 5; Suppl 1 P21; 17 Sep. 2008; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3313105/
    22. Ripps, Harris, and Wen Shen; “Review: taurine: a “very essential” amino acid.”; Molecular vision; vol. 18; 2673-86; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501277/
    23. Aruoma, O I et al; “The antioxidant action of taurine, hypotaurine and their metabolic precursors.”; The Biochemical journal; vol. 256,1; 1988; 251-5; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1135395/
    24. Marcinkiewicz, Janusz, and Ewa Kontny; “Taurine and inflammatory diseases.”; Amino acids; vol. 46,1; 2014; 7-20; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894431/
    25. Albrecht, Jan, and Arne Schousboe; “Taurine Interaction with Neurotransmitter Receptors in the CNS: an Update.”; Neurochemical Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Dec. 2005; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16362781
    26. Yatabe, Yoshihisa, et al; “Effects of Taurine Administration on Exercise.”; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2009; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19239155
    27. Saat, Mohamed, et al; “Rehydration after Exercise with Fresh Young Coconut Water, Carbohydrate-Electrolyte Beverage and Plain Water.”; Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Mar. 2002; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12056182
    28. O’Callaghan, Y., et al; “Antioxidant and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Marine-Derived, Multi-Mineral Aquamin Supplemented with Pine Bark Extract, Enzogenol, and Green Tea Extract, Sunphenon”; Journal of Medicinal Food; J Med Food 00 (0); 2013; 1-7
    29. http://aquamin.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/OCallaghan-et-al.2013-.pdf
    30. AstraGin® product dossier, sections 6.4 – 6.17.
    31. AstraGin® product dossier, section 6.9.
    32. “GHOST® AMINO.”; GHOST; https://www.priceplow.com/ghost/amino

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