Primeval Labs Apesh*t Cutz: Fat Burning Pre Workout with No Nonsense

Primeval Labs came in hot in 2021 with their Ape Sh*t Untamed RTD, which we still believe is the best-tasting pre workout RTD we’ve had yet (Gummy Bear flavor especially). This didn’t come out of nowhere, though — Primeval Labs’ Ape Shit series has long been a massive success. We first covered Ape Sh*t in 2017, prefacing the article with a definition of the phrase at hand: “Ape Shit (n.) — express wild excitement or anger”.

While that OG Ape Shit pre workout has done fantastically well — outlasting numerous other industry pre workouts — there was always another one that thrived and overtook its title: Apeshit Cutz – Primeval’s fat burning pre workout supplement.

Apeshit Cutz: Aggressive Fat Loss

Primeval Labs Apeshit Cutz Pre Workout

Ready to go ape on the weights… but burn some extra fat while doing it? The intense yet affordable Ape Shit Cutz pre workout from Primeval Labs can get you to your goals faster!

We may have failed to cover this hybrid pre workout when it first launched in 2019, but it’s better late than never – especially for those who are into relatively high caffeine (300mg) and yohimbe — but without any overbearing alpha yohimbine.

Below, we cover the Cutz, and discuss the energy/focus/endurance/thermogenic blend. Get ready, because this one has the sweat effect inside with some ingredients that will sneak some extra water out of you.

Best of all (aside from the incredible flavors like Orangutan)? The price. We’ve seen these 2-in-1 fat burning pre workouts for literally over twice the price. That’s fine for some folks, but Primeval Labs keeps it real for the demographic, while still keeping it aggressive.

Sign up for Primeval alerts and let’s get to it — they’re set to go ape this year:

Primeval Labs Ape Sh*t Cutz – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

This area is reserved for Team PricePlow's upcoming Ingredients video.

Subscribe to our channel and sign up for notifications so you catch it when it goes live!

Subscribe to PricePlow on YouTube!

Apeshit Cutz Ingredients

The following comes in a full two scoop (6.7g) serving — there are 25 full servings per tub:

  • Beta Alanine – 3200mg

    Primeval Labs Apeshit Cutz Ingredients

    Effective and aggressive – just what we want from the Ape Sh*t series! Are you ready to sweat?!

    Goal: Endurance.

    Almost everyone taking pre workouts should know about beta alanine these days – it’s an endurance-boosting ingredient that ultimately helps us flush more lactic acid from the muscles, leading to better endurance. If approached with Ape Shit aggression, that extra endurance should lead to greater volume, which should lead to a few more calories burnt in the gym.

    After ingestion, beta alanine combines with L-histidine to create carnosine,[1,2] which then goes on to buffer lactic acid (especially in the muscle tissue), staving off fatigue.[2]

    Indirect fat loss from increased volume

    We always make this point when discussing muscle gains with beta alanine, and the same goes for weight loss: any gains (or losses) seem to be related to an increase in training volume. Two studies have shown reduced weight loss with beta alanine, but it’s worth noting that they were at higher doses (4 grams per day and 6 grams per day).[3,4]

    3.2 grams per day is the general clinical dose that will get you more endurance (as shown in the meta analyses below), and we posit that all other things equal, if you train longer, you’ll generally lose more weight

    Two major meta analyses

    We could cite beta alanine research all day long, but it’s easier to look at the two meta-analyses that have already tallied up the data for us:

    Beta Alanine Meta Analysis

    The 2016 meta analysis showed who beta alanine may work best for[5] – and it’s generally for endurance and mid-distance activities.

    • A meta analysis published in 2012 looked at 360 athletes in 15 different studies, and showed that the best endurance results were in exercises 1-4 minutes long.[5]
    • A newer meta analysis published in 2016 had more data to work with – 1461 athletes in 40 different studies (and 70 different exercises) expanded that range of significance to endurance boosts when training 30 seconds to 10 minutes.[6] They consistently found improved exercise capacity but not necessarily speed or performance.

    Many know the “beta alanine tingles”, which is formally known as paresthesia. The 3.2 gram dosage in Apeshit Cutz will likely bring them on, but it’s important to note a 2019 safety study that showed no adverse effects.[7]

    All in all, it’s great to see in a weight loss oriented pre workout, but isn’t going to work for fat loss unless you do too.

  • Choline Bitartrate – 1000mg

    Goal: Focus, Fat Metabolism, and Carnitine Retention.

    Our brains use the essential nutrient choline to create acetylcholine, which we dub “the learning neurotransmitter”. It helps with several processes including learning, cognition, and motor control.[8]

    Apeshit Cutz

    Which flavor do you choose? No matter what, intensity comes your way

    Choline is an essential nutrient used to create acetylcholine in the brain. Sometimes referred to as the “learning neurotransmitter”, acetylcholine is used to modulate a number of processes, including motor control, cognitive sharpness, and yes, learning.[8] Increasing levels of this neurotransmitter in the brain can increase focus and alertness,[9] heighting mental energy both inside and outside of the gym.

    Choline is also important for fat metabolism,[10-13] which led to a team of researchers using a high dose of choline bitartrate (2 grams per day) to see if it assisted weight loss.[14] It did, and although we don’t have that dosage in Apeshit Cutz, we are on our way to that point. The researchers postulated that choline deficiency leads to fatigue.[14] Once you are deficient in an essential nutrient, several metabolic processes slow down.

    We often point out that choline also increases carnitine retention,[15-17] which is important since carnitine is used to transport fatty acids to the mitochondria. Although we do have pro-carnitine ingredient in GBB below, we don’t have actual carnitine in Apeshit Cutz, so as always, we suggest eating more steak and eggs to keep the protein, carnitine, and choline levels high – as well as the numerous other nutrients in nutrient-dense red meat.

    Choline bitartrate doesn’t have the highest bioavailability,[18] but it does have some of the highest yield, with 41% choline by weight (this is compared to ~20% to other forms of choline, which are often dosed less). The 1000 milligram dose here is well above average with what we see in those lower yields. With that said, we still suggest choline-rich eggs and carnitine-rich red meat in the diet to keep the nutrients coming.

  • Caffeine (from Green Tea (Camellia sinensis)) (leaf) – 300mg

    Caffeine requires no introduction here, but it’s worth noting that this is a natural form of caffeine sourced from green tea leaves. Anecdotally, we’ve noticed that these natural forms of caffeine leave us a bit less jittery and last a touch longer. If you want to two-scoop it, you’ll get a full 300 milligrams, and this (combined with the yohimbe) will likely drive your dosing.

    Primeval Labs Electrolyte

    A great stack without added carbs: Primeval Labs Electrolyte is a great tasting electrolyte matrix formula.

    Caffeine wakes us up, provides mental and physical energy while also increasing fat oxidation and cognition. It’s awesome and a very necessary component in any supplement named “Ape Sh*t”.

    It works by inhibiting adenosine, a relaxation and sleep inducing neurotransmitter.[19] Less adenosine, more wakefulness and alertness – at least, to a degree – you can’t avoid sleep. Research has shown that caffeine can decrease appetite while boosting thermogenesis,[19,20] further making it useful in a Cutz supplement.

    The diet effects go a bit further: caffeine stimulates cyclic AMP (cAMP / cyclic adenosine monophosphate) because it inhibits the phosphodiesterase enzyme, which works in fat and muscle tissues. That leaves us with the thermogenic effect and increased energy expenditure when taking caffeine.[20,21]

    Long story short, we love caffeine… otherwise we wouldn’t be here. The question is your dose – one scoop at 150 milligrams and 10 milligrams of yohimbe (~0.75 milligrams of yohimbine) or two scoops at 300 milligrams caffeine and 20 milligrams of yohimbe yielding ~1.5 milligrams yohimbine. We usually choose two.

  • Garcinia Cambogia Extract (fruit) – 200mg

    Goal: Appetite Suppression and Blood Sugar Protection.

    Ape Sh*t Cutz Pre Workout

    Opening this tub is fun every time

    A unique addition to a pre workout supplement, garcinia cambogia extract comes from the fruit’s rind, and is generally standardized for its primary bioactive component, hydroxy citric acid (HCA). This is often marketed in weight loss supplements, so we’re not surprised to see it in Apeshit Cutz, and it may be the first time we’ve seen it in pre workout form (as opposed to its usual inclusion in fat burner capsules which are also taken before workouts).

    The HCA inside has anti-inflammatory benefits that assist with blood sugar and lipid lowering properties.[22] In addition, it may also extend the lifespan of our acetylcholine generated by our choline intake discussed above, since it has anticholinesterase and hepatoprotective activities.[22]

    A look at a review of all of the research on HCA suggests that it functions by inhibiting enzymes that are involved in triglyceride, cholesterol, and fatty acid synthesis[22] — we hate to use the word “fat blocker”, but it may have some minor effects in blocking the formation of new fats. This doesn’t mean you can eat non-stop soybean oil, of course.

    Most important to supplement consumers, researchers have found that garcinia cambogia can suppress appetite, and that may be the most important factor in facilitating fat loss and increasing fatty acid oxidation (and preventing fat formation) — simply by eating less![22] With that effect, we also see increased insulin sensitivity, leading to better blood sugar control and satiety.

  • Dandelion Extract (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) (whole plant) – 50mg

    Goal: Healthy water loss.

    Dandelion is a well-known perennial weed that’s recognized by its bright yellow flower pedals, with traditional use all over the world (particularly Asia, Europe, and America).[22]

    It has several bioactive constituents (such as caffeic acid, taraxasterol, ixerine, chicoric acid, taraxinic acid, and chlorogenic acids) that have general antioxidant, immuno-stimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-hyperglycemic properties.[22,23]

    The entire plant has several vitamins, minerals, and much of it is a prebiotic fiber named inulin, so it’s been used to help with GI disorders,[22] but extracts used in weight loss supplements look for its diuretic constituents.

    A natural diuretic

    Primeval Labs Untamed Apeshit RTD Sunrise Splash

    Forget the days of boring RTD flavors like grape and fruit punch – Primeval Labs really knocked the ready-to-drink pre workout flavors out with Ape Sh*t Untamed RTD!

    Many dieters are looking to shed a bit of extra water weight, which can make a difference when getting to “final form”. Dandelion has been used for nearly 2,000 years in traditional Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for this exact purpose.[23]

    A 2009 pilot study found that dandelion root extract increased urinary frequency and volume after giving it to them.[23] That may not sound like the most convenient thing in a pre workout, but realize that it happened over a five hour period, so don’t expect it all to happen at the gym. It worked after a single dose, and provided another increase after a second dose.[23]

    What’s great about dandelion use, especially traditionally, is that it’s one of the few natural diuretics that also includes vitamins and minerals – most important of which being potassium.[23] This helps traditional users maintain electrolyte balance.

    On top of that, there’s evidence showing that it supports kidney and liver function. A study in the Renal Failure journal once again showed that dandelion extract promotes fluid excretion, and in some cases, that can be beneficial for the kidney’s health.[24] Additionally, there are two polysaccharides in dandelion that have hepatoprotective properties for the liver, protecting against acetaminophen-driven injuries![25]

    We point this out because diuretics may scare some, and caution should of course be used with them. However, there are health-based benefits, especially to those that are rich in antioxidants and minerals needed to maintain. This also isn’t the world’s largest dose, so consider it a nice introductory diuretic and see if you notice anything.

    Chances are, it’s the next two ingredients you’ll notice more — and when it comes to water loss through sweat, nothing beats GBB:

  • Gamma-Butyrobetaine HCl – 20mg

    Goal: Sweat and Carnitine Production

    An incredible pairing with dandelion, Apeshit Cutz brings another way to drop some water – in the form of sweat with Gamma-Butyrobetaine. Abbreviated to GBB, this unique compound is pro-carnitine, in that it helps our bodies produce more carnitine in our carnitine pools.[26-28]

    GBB Supplements

    GBB Supplements add to the “carnitine pool” by increasing the reagent — GBB — which goes on to make more carnitine if your body needs it!

    As touched upon in the choline section, carnitine functions as a fatty acid transporter to the mitochondria, and that enables these cell powerhouses to generate ATP, which is the true “energy currency” of our cells.[29] GBB can push the carnitine pool towards having more carnitine by way of an enzyme named gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase.[26,27]

    Research has shown that more carnitine in the system can yield better weight loss and lower BMI[30] and also improve our blood sugar responses.[31] This is even more true when carnitine is given to those who are most deficient — vegans, vegetarians, the elderly, and even those hard-charging athletes going ape shit and getting depleted in the gym.[32-38]

    Again, realize that this is a pro carnitine ingredient, but it’s not carnitine itself, so depending on your diet, you may want to take some (although we’re going to instead keep pushing steak and eggs for you apes).

    The sweat effect

    Enough about carnitine production – what’s the real story here? It’s that GBB has a wildly interesting effect: it makes you sweat more![28] This is doubly true when training. The exact mechanism isn’t known, although our theory is that it’s similar to the effect that some get from the “meat sweats”, simply without having a gut full of meat during your workout.

    Further, there are additional effects that may help, such as increased nitric oxide production from GBB.[39]

    Long story short – this is a fun ingredient, and pairing it with dandelion is a unique way to attack a weight loss focused pre workout.

  • Yohimbe Bark Extract – 20mg (8% Yohimbine) – 10mg

    Goal: Fat Loss and Intense Energy

    Last but certainly not least is a yohimbe extract that doesn’t just contain the yohimbine, but the other active constituents inside as well. These extracts are invariably more aggressive than just taking the yohimbine alone, which suits the Ape Shit brand well.

    Apeshit Pre Workouts

    Can’t go wrong either way… but this yohimbe takes it to another level

    At 8% standardization, we have 1.6 milligrams yohimbine, a very reasonable dose that’s enough to get you going, but shouldn’t be too much to put you into hyperdrive where you’re unable to train.

    Yohimbe (and yohimbine) is popular because it can increase fat loss, decrease appetite, boost stimulation, and even improve male virility![40-42] It affects the metabolism by blocking the effects of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, which would otherwise work to inhibit release of norepinephrine.

    With the activities of these receptors inhibited, we can increase levels of norepinephrine and increase arousal, vigilance, alertness, lipolysis, and even erection quality. We enjoy all of those, but it’s the added lipolysis (fat burning) and decreased fat storage that excites us in weight loss supplements when inhibiting the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor.

    Studies on athletes have shown that high doses of yohimbine (20 milligrams per day of actual yohimbine, as opposed to the raw yohimbe here) split into 10 milligram doses twice daily for 21 days led to already lean athletes going from 9.3% body fat down to 7.1% – a 2.2% drop![40]

    We’ve also seen yohimbe decrease gastric emptying which then decreased appetite and caloric intake in obese dieters.[41]

    With yohimbe (and its alkaloid yohimbine) supported by modern in terms of fat loss,[40] appetite suppression,[41] and even male performance,[42] what’s the catch? Well, it’s intense – so much so that some may feel anxiety from alpha-2 inhibition.[43] However, the studies pointing out anxiety used insane doses (such as 34 milligrams for 190 pound men), and we’re not even close to that.

    Instead, with the reasonable 20 milligram dosage at an 8% standardization, we have a yohimbe extract that will get us amped up a bit more and exert its effects on the receptor, but not drive us over the cliff. Controlled ape shit.

Flavors available

We’ve said it many times, including with our recent Day2Day greens powder post, but Primeval Labs does not mess around with flavoring. No spices or other forms of weirdness here:

Ape Shit Cutz

Hope she’s only taking one at a time!

    Ape Shit Cutz: An affordable, intense fat burning pre workout

    Primeval Labs Day2Day

    Greens Powder the Primeval Labs way – simple and delicious!

    There’s a reason why Apeshit Cutz has done so well over time – it consistently works, is strong but not egregious, tastes incredible, and won’t bankrupt you. Are there fat burning pre workouts with more stuff? Absolutely. But they’ll also cost literally more than twice the price.

    The most interesting part of this pre workout is its use of GBB combined with dandelion, for a dual-pathway water loss component that most won’t ever experience unless they take certain fat burner pills. Pills aren’t always ideal for pre-workouts though, because you can’t easily get efficacious ingredients like beta alanine or choline in capsule form.

    Apeshit Cutz can be taken as a standard fat burner on rest days or when not training, although the beta alanine component may slightly go to waste. We’re always happy to keep carnosine at saturation, though.

    Primeval Labs knows how to hit it hard in all the right ways without compromising on quality or price. The Ape Shit series has been an industry trendsetter, and if you haven’t tried the RTD, make sure you grab at least a couple of them the next time you see them. The RTD’s great to have in the fridge in a pinch, but most fans know that Cutz is the one for keepers.

    Primeval Labs Ape Sh*t Cutz – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

    Get Price Alerts

    No spam, no scams.

    Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    About the Author: Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is an n=1 diet experimenter with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several experiments done on himself while sharing lab tests.

    Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public. Mike is currently experimenting with a low Vitamin A diet.

    No Comments | Posted in | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , .


    1. Hill, C. A., et al. “Influence of β-Alanine Supplementation on Skeletal Muscle Carnosine Concentrations and High Intensity Cycling Capacity.” Amino Acids, vol. 32, no. 2, 28 July 2006, pp. 225–233, doi:10.1007/s00726-006-0364-4.
    2. Trexler, E.T., Smith-Ryan, A.E., Stout, J.R. et al.; “International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine.”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr 12, 30 (2015);
    3. Kern, Ben D, and Tracey L Robinson. “Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Performance and Body Composition in Collegiate Wrestlers and Football Players.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 25, no. 7, 2011, pp. 1804–15, 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e741cf;
    4. Walter, Ashley A, et al. “Six Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training with and without β-Alanine Supplementation for Improving Cardiovascular Fitness in Women.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 24, no. 5, May 2010, pp. 1199–1207, 10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181d82f8b;
    5. Hobson, R M et al. “Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis.” Amino acids vol. 43,1 (2012): 25-37. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-1200-z;
    6. Saunders, Bryan, et al. “β-Alanine Supplementation to Improve Exercise Capacity and Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 51, no. 8, 18 Oct. 2016, pp. 658–669;
    7. Dolan, Eimear, et al. “A Systematic Risk Assessment and Meta-Analysis on the Use of Oral β-Alanine Supplementation.” Advances in Nutrition, vol. 10, no. 3, 13 Apr. 2019, pp. 452–463, 10.1093/advances/nmy115;
    8. Wallace, Taylor C., et al. “Choline.” Nutrition Today, vol. 53, no. 6, 2018, pp. 240–253, 10.1097/nt.0000000000000302.
    9. Hoffman, Jay R, et al. “The Effects of Acute CRAM Supplementation on Reaction Time and Subjective Measures of Focus and Alertness in Healthy College Students.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 7, no. S1, Sept. 2010, 10.1186/1550-2783-7-s1-p12.
    10. Zeisel, Steven H. “Choline: Critical Role during Fetal Development and Dietary Requirements in Adults.” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 26, 2006, pp. 229–250, 10.1146/annurev.nutr.26.061505.111156;
    11. Kuksis, A., and S. Mookerjea. “Choline.” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 36, no. 7, 27 Apr. 2009, pp. 201–207, 10.1111/j.1753-4887.1978.tb07359.x;
    12. Zeisel, S H, and J K Blusztajn. “Choline and Human Nutrition.” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 14, no. 1, July 1994, pp. 269–296, 10.1146/;
    13. da Costa, Kerry-Ann, et al. “Effects of Prolonged (1 Year) Choline Deficiency and Subsequent Re-Feeding of Choline on 1,2-Sn-Diradylglycerol, Fatty Acids and Protein Kinase c in Rat Liver.” Carcinogenesis, vol. 16, no. 2, 1995, pp. 327–334, 10.1093/carcin/16.2.327;
    14. Elsawy G, Abdelrahman O, Hamza A. Effect of Choline Supplementation on Rapid Weight Loss and Biochemical Variables Among Female Taekwondo and Judo Athletes. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2014;40:77-82. doi:10.2478/hukin-2014-0009.
    15. Dodson WL, Sachan DS. Choline supplementation reduces urinary carnitine excretion in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63(6):904-910.
    16. Hongu N, Sachan DS. Carnitine and choline supplementation with exercise alter carnitine profiles, biochemical markers of fat metabolism and serum leptin concentration in healthy women. J Nutr. 2003;133(1):84-89.
    17. Daily JW 3rd, Sachan DS. Choline supplementation alters carnitine homeostasis in humans and guinea pigs. J Nutr. 1995;125(7):1938-1944.
    18. Lippelt, D. P., et al. “No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.” PLOS ONE, vol. 11, no. 6, 24 June 2016, p. e0157714, 10.1371/journal.pone.0157714.
    19. Astrup, A, et al. “Caffeine: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Its Thermogenic, Metabolic, and Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Volunteers.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 5, 1 May 1990, pp. 759–767, 10.1093/ajcn/51.5.759.
    20. Correa, Mercè, et al. “Caffeine Modulates Food Intake Depending on the Context That Gives Access to Food: Comparison with Dopamine Depletion.” Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol. 9, 6 Sept. 2018, 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00411.
    21. Institute of Medicine. “Pharmacology of Caffeine.”, National Academies Press (US), 2014.
    22. Wirngo, F. et al. Aug. 2016. “The Physiological Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) in Type 2 Diabetes.” The Review of Diabetic Studies vol. 13,3.
    23. Clare, B. et al. Aug. 2009. “The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a Single Day.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine vol. 15, 8; 929-34.
    24. Yousefi G. et al. Apr. 2018. “Inhibitory Effects of Taraxasterol and Aqueous Extract of Taraxacum Officinale on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization: In Vitro Study;” Renal Failure vol. 40,1; 298-305.
    25. Cai, L. et al. July 2017. “Purification, Preliminary Characterization and Hepatoprotective Effects of Polysaccharides from Dandelion Root.” Molecules vol. 22,9; 1409.
    26. Strijbis K, Vaz F, Distel B; “Enzymology of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway”; IUBMB Life; 2010 May; 62(5):357-62;
    27. Paul HS, Sekas G, Adibi SA (Feb 1992). “Carnitine biosynthesis in hepatic peroxisomes. Demonstration of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase activity”. European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 203 (3): 599–605. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1992.tb16589.x. PMID 1735445;
    28. Charles J. Rebouche, E. Peter Bosch, Catherine A. Chenard, Kay J. Schabold, Steven E. Nelson; “Utilization of Dietary Precursors for Carnitine Synthesis in Human Adults”; The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 119, Issue 12, 1 December 1989, Pages 1907–1913;
    29. Sahlin, K. “Boosting Fat Burning With Carnitine: An Old Friend Comes Out from the Shadow.” Journal of Physiology vol. 589,Pt 7 (2011): 1509-10.
    30. Pooyandjoo, M., et al. “The Effect of (L-)Carnitine on Weight Loss in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Obesity Reviews, vol. 17, no. 10, 22 June 2016, pp. 970–976, 10.1111/obr.12436.
    31. Ruggenenti, Piero, et al. “Ameliorating Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Subjects at Increased Cardiovascular Risk: Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Therapy.” Hypertension (Dallas, Tex.: 1979), vol. 54, no. 3, 1 Sept. 2009, pp. 567–574, 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.132522.
    32. Fielding, Roger, et al. “L-Carnitine Supplementation in Recovery after Exercise.” Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 3, 13 Mar. 2018, p. 349, 10.3390/nu10030349.
    33. Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M., et al. “Correlation of Carnitine Levels to Methionine and Lysine Intake.” Physiological Research, vol. 49, no. 3, 2000, pp. 399–402;
    34. Lombard, K A, et al. “Carnitine Status of Lactoovovegetarians and Strict Vegetarian Adults and Children.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 2, 1 Aug. 1989, pp. 301–306, 10.1093/ajcn/50.2.301;
    35. Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M., et al. “Correlation of Carnitine Levels to Methionine and Lysine Intake.” Physiological Research, vol. 49, no. 3, 2000, pp. 399–402;
    36. Rebouche, Charles J. “Carnitine Function and Requirements during the Life Cycle.” The FASEB Journal, vol. 6, no. 15, Dec. 1992, pp. 3379–3386, 10.1096/fasebj.6.15.1464372;
    37. Malaguarnera, Mariano, et al. “Serum Carnitine Levels in Centenarians.” Clinical Drug Investigation, vol. 17, no. 4, 1999, pp. 321–327, 10.2165/00044011-199917040-00008;
    38. Malaguarnera, Mariano, et al. “L-Carnitine Treatment Reduces Severity of Physical and Mental Fatigue and Increases Cognitive Functions in Centenarians: A Randomized and Controlled Clinical Trial.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 86, no. 6, 1 Dec. 2007, pp. 1738–1744, 10.1093/ajcn/86.5.1738;
    39. Sjakste, N., Kleschyov, A. L., Boucher, J., Baumane, L., Dzintare, M., Meirena, D., Kalvinsh, I. (2004). Endothelium- and nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxing activities of gamma-butyrobetaine esters: Possible link to the antiischemic activities of mildronate. European Journal of Pharmacology, 495(1), 67-73. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.05.006;
    40. Ostojic, SM. et al; “Yohimbine: the effects on body composition and exercise performance in soccer players”; Res Sports Med. 2006 Oct-Dec;14(4):289-99;
    41. Jonderko, K. et al; “Effect of anti-obesity drugs promoting energy expenditure, yohimbine and ephedrine, on gastric emptying in obese patients”; Aliment Pharmacol Ther. (1991);
    42. Ernst, E. et al; “Yohimbine for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials”; J Urol 1998 Feb;159(2):433-6;
    43. Sommer, M. et al; “Psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social stress and to the administration of the alpha-2-receptor antagonist, yohimbine, in highly trained endurance athletes in comparison to untrained healthy controls”; Pharmacopsychiatry 2011 Jun;44(4):129-34. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1277166. Epub 2011 Jun 27;

    Comments and Discussion (Powered by the PricePlow Forum)