Chemix King of Pumps: Guerrilla’s Stim-Free Endo-Pump Powered Pre

Followers of The Guerilla Chemist know that when he formulates a supplement, he’s going to go big and novel. When he first launched the Chemix brand, we saw that in a major way with the stim-driven Chemix Pre Workout.

Chemix King of Pumps

Prepare to meet the King of Pumps from Chemix, run by The Guerrilla Chemist. In this article, we detail Endo-Pump, an ingredient developed by TGC himself!

The King of Pumps

But after that came King of Pumps, the Chemix stimulant-free pre-workout counterpart. Here, we’re treated to an ultra-premium non-stimulant pump product that has 7 ingredients — four of which are trademarked, and one that Guerrilla created himself!

We’re talking about Endo-Pump, an ingredient that Chemix put together that utilizes three different botanicals to hit at least three pathways. The ingredient has a crazy-looking name, but don’t be alarmed – we’ve got it all covered below.

But first, sign up for our Chemix alerts, because we’re hearing a new flavor may be on the way and we’ll hit you up when it comes:

Chemix King of Pumps – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

This area is reserved for Team PricePlow's upcoming Ingredients video.

Subscribe to our channel and sign up for notifications so you catch it when it goes live!

Subscribe to PricePlow on YouTube!

King of Pumps Ingredients

  • L-Citrulline – 6g

    Chemix King of Pumps Ingredients

    The Chemix King of Pumps Ingredients. Don’t worry, we’ve got you covered on that really long one.

    King of Pumps unsurprisingly starts with the base of most pre-workout supplements — L-citrulline, and at a dose that’s twice what we’ve seen in some clinically successful studies looking at nitric oxide and performance.[1] L-citrulline is an amino acid found in watermelon[2-5] that is the precursor to another amino acid, L-arginine, which is subsequently a precursor to a precious little gas molecule known as nitric oxide (NO).[6]

    An enzyme known as eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) converts arginine into nitric oxide,[6] which then causes blood vessels to vasodilate, leading to an expansion that yields greater overall blood flow[7,8] — meaning pumps. This effect also increases CGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate),[6,9] a unique second messenger molecule that positively regulates numerous organ systems, including the cardiovascular system.[10]

    Better blood flow also brings more nutrients, and going beyond incredible pumps, the citrulline-driven vasodilation effect has been shown to provide other downstream benefits:[1,11-15]

    Chemix King of Pumps Review

    A bit of what we’re going to get into in this article

    • Greater ATP production
    • Increased work output
    • Better recovery
    • Improved oxygen uptake
    • High-intensity exercise performance gains
    • Improved growth hormone release

    Citrulline bests arginine

    Guerrilla is quick to point out that using citrulline outperforms supplementing arginine in generating nitric oxide despite the fact that citrulline must get converted to arginine first.[7] Citrulline bypasses the “arginine paradox”[16] — arginine in the digestive tract has a far greater binding affinity to the arginase enzyme than it does to eNOS, and the arginase enzyme breaks supplemental arginine down far too quickly for us to get as much nitric oxide production. This is known as the “first-pass effect”.[17-20] Besides, high-dose arginine leads to terrible GI upset,[21,22] which you don’t want in the gym.

    Instead, with citrulline, it stays intact longer, and then gets converted into arginine in the kidneys,[20] skipping arginase and allowing for more arginine to get converted into nitric oxide by eNOS. Citrulline is the way.

    What if stacking this with Chemix Pre-Workout?

    Chemix Pre Workout Stack

    This stack can get you up to 12 grams of citrulline if you fully dose both – right around the body’s reasonable threshold for the ingredient!

    Things can get even crazier. If you were to stack 6 grams of citrulline here with anywhere from 4-6 grams of citrulline of the ultra-intense Chemix Pre-Workout (which we’d get in 1.333 to 2 scoops), there’s even more data to cite! A study saw that citrulline conversion to arginine actually hits its “law of diminishing returns” somewhere between 10 and 15 grams![2,23] The researchers found that in terms of arginine production, 10 grams of citrulline significantly outperforms 5 grams, although the results begin to wane after 10 grams or so.[23]

    Point being – if you stacked this with another pre workout, you could get even more insane pumps – but that quite frankly might not be necessary or even wanted with the insane formula Guerrilla Chemist put together here.

    Generally, users will use 1.5 scoops of each, but some days, you double scoop everything.

    Regardless, we’re off to a great start, so now let’s look at some mega-dosed hydration agents:

  • Betaine Anhydrous – 5g

    Over the years, we’ve become quite familiar with the osmotic hydration ingredient in betaine (also known as trimethylglycine), but Guerrilla was one of the first to truly push the dosage — once again going twice the clinical dose in a single scoops. It’s also dosed this high in two scoops of his stimulant-based Pre-Workout, quadrupling down on the ingredient.

    Betaine Benefits

    The placebo effect was definitely strong with this group. But… the real gains obliterated placebo in due time![24]

    Why? Because it’s an osmolyte methyl donor[25,26] that does nearly everything, including supporting athletic performance enhancement,[27-32] muscle-building,[24,33] fat-loss,[34,35] cardiovascular health,[26,27,36-38] and even protecting cells from heat shock.[27,39]

    That’s all incredible, but Guerrilla will be the first to tell you that the main reason betaine was included in King of Pumps was to induce intracellular hyperhydration! Here, we get back to betaine’s effects as an osmolyte, where it helps boost water flow into cells.[25] This induces cellular swelling, providing a unique pump effect that differs from nitric oxide.

    In addition, this osmotic effect is responsible for many of the endurance and performance enhancements cited above, as well as the hydration benefits — alongside plenty of water and electrolytes, this (and the next ingredient) are absolute musts if training in extreme heat.

    Again, note the huge dose – several studies cited above used 2.5 grams per day,[24,29-34] but King of Pumps doubles that, bringing even more research into the fold.[27,28]

    To top it off, it turns out that betaine supplementation can promote a bit of nitric oxide production itself![38] But we’re really here for the cell hydration pumps — and we top it off with even more from glycerol below:

  • GlycerSize (65% Glycerol Powder) – 3g

    Glycerol Hydration Sweat Urine

    Athletes using glycerol not only urinate less, but they are able to tolerate exercise in heat better![40]

    Continuing with the hyperhydration trend, The Guerilla Chemist adds yet another osmotic agent to King of Pumps — and it’s one he claims to be even more powerful than betaine. We’re talking about glycerol, which is also known as glycerin.[41] Glycerol is a sugar alcohol that copiously hydrogen bonds with water — upon doing this, it can drive the combination into blood, cells, and muscle tissue, increasing total water volume and osmotic pressure.[42] This creates an intense cellular hydration effect, leading to pumps synergizing with betaine’s.

    Through hydration gains, most of the athletic research on glycerol consumption is with respect to endurance. Researchers have found that trained athletes are able to last 21% longer than placebo in tests where they cycle to exhaustion.[43] Additionally, they were able to do it with reduced cardiovascular stress — their heart rates were lower while lasting longer![43]

    This was replicated in further studies that compared glycerol + water + carbohydrates against water + carbohydrates, where the glycerol-enhanced group lasted 23% longer.[43]

    Power gains beyond the endurance

    King of Pumps isn’t really an endurance supplement, although all of these ingredients can lead to it. What about strength and power? A study published in 2012 showed that glycerol was able to boost both aerobic and anaerobic power output after 20 days of consumption.[44]

    And going further, the added water from glycerol brings a benefit of better blood flow,[45] as evidenced in tests on forearm tests where the water retention effects also reduced strain on the cardiovascular system.

    The key with King of Pumps, due to 5 grams of betaine and 3 grams of 65% glycerol, is to drink plenty of water. More than normal! But don’t worry – researchers have repeatedly found that glycerol consumption leads to less bathroom use,[40,46] which is a good thing when in an intense training session.

    Just like with betaine, there are thermoregulation benefits to be had as well[40,45] – King of Pumps is definitely a wise supplement to use if spending a lot of time in extreme heat – even if you’re not working out!

    You can learn more about glycerol in our main article titled Glycerol: The Ultimate Guide for Hydration, Heat Protection, and Pumps.

  • Endo-Pump – 800mg

    The king of King of Pumps, and Guerrilla Chemist’s own ingredient, Endo-Pump is actually a blend of three different botanicals that have three different mechanisms:

    1. Punica granatum (pomegranate extract)
    2. (-) Epicatechin
    3. 5-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-8-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-7-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-3-[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxychromen-4-one

    Let’s go through them one by one:

    1. Pomegranate Extract

      Pomegranate Fruit

      Research shows that beyond its nitric oxide boosting effects, natural pomegranate juice greatly enhances performance and recovery, while also reducing markers of muscle damage (soreness).

      Pomegranate extracts have repeatedly been shown to boost nitric oxide levels,[47-53] reliably improving blood flow[51] and lowering blood pressure.[54] It differs from many botanicals in a few big ways, though.

      First, pomegranate is able to increase plasma nitrate and nitrite levels,[48] targeting another pathway that can support nitric oxide production. Second, it’s able to protect nitric oxide against oxidative damage,[55] and since it’s not in S7, this will synergize very well with that effect. Third, it contains anabolic constituents such as oleanolic acid, gallic acids, ursolic acid, and ellagic acid.[50] Ellagic acid leads to greater production of mTOR-boosting urolithin B,[56] while ursolic acid has anabolic properties of its own.[57]

      We don’t know what King of Pumps is pulling out of this pomegranate, but we do know that the fruit in general has been shown to be ergogenic and performance-enhancing.[51,52]

    2. (-) Epicatechin

      Epicatechin is a popular muscle-building ingredient found in chocolate that’s been shown to boost strength and muscle growth,[58,59] improve endurance / reduce fatigue,[60] and of course, increase nitric oxide production.[61]

      When news articles come out discussing the health benefits of dark chocolate, epicatechin is often the ingredient doing the heavy lifting.

    3. The third one…

      We’ll spare ourselves from naming the third ingredient (it took 88 seconds to type out above), but the key takeaway is that Guerilla Chemist says this is a PDE inhibitor (specifically a PDE5 inhibitor), which is similar to how ED drugs work.

      Chemix Endo-Pump

      Are you ready for the triple-pronged attack in Endo-Pump?!

      The background is that cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate intracellular levels of messenger molecules like cyclic guanosine monophosphate (CGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).[62,63] We covered CGMP above in the citrulline section – it’s a secondary messenger that citrulline helps raise.[6,9,10]

      Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is a PDE that’s specific to CGMP, and it’s expressed in nearly all tissues, but mostly smooth muscle (as well as pancreatic and cardiovascular cells).[62] PDE inhibitors are thus a group of compounds that help keep PDE low, further elevating CGMP — far beyond what citrulline would ever do — and hence their use in ED drugs.[64]

      Our take? This chemical is icariin, which is a known PDE5 inhibitor found in horny goat weed.[62,65-67] To top it off, icariin can also promote eNOS,[68] resulting in vasorelaxation[69] and synergizing with citrulline. While icariin is often used in male performance supplements, it’s not used as often in pump supplements, and we’re not exactly sure why, because it seems very effective at this job.

      Guerilla Chemist knows this, and that’s why he developed Endo-Pump with three different mechanisms in mind.

  • VasoDrive-AP – 254mg

    The Guerrilla Chemist PricePlow Podcast #036

    The Guerrilla Chemist joins Mike and Ben on the PricePlow Podcast for a second time to talk the latest Chemix supplements! Listen to episodes #020 and #036 with TGC — we’re due for another one soon!

    VasoDrive-AP is a unique ingredient that includes two lactotripeptidesisoleucyl-prolyl-proline (IPP) and valyl-prolyl-proline (VPP) – each with three (tri) amino acids (peptides) in a row, both of which are taken from casein protein (lacto).

    Together, these two compounds have been shown to inhibit the enzyme angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE),[70,71] which causes vasoconstriction.[72] By inhibiting the ACE enzyme, you’re then able to reverse vasoconstriction and further dilate blood vessels[73] — exactly what we want.

    This effect increases blood vessel diameter and thus lowers the blood pressure. There are over thirty studies on these lacto-tri-peptides, which are extremely well covered in the meta-analysis titled “Casein-Derived Lactotripeptides Reduce Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in a Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials.”[70]

    Guerilla Chemist included this to hit a completely different pathway in King of Pumps, rather than just piling on the nitric oxide synthase pathway like many companies do, and 254 milligrams is the clinical dose.

  • Gymnena Sylvestre (std. to 75% gymnemic acids) – 250mg

    Now it’s time to talk carbs! While The Guerrilla Chemist has great knowledge of low-carb diets and has tinkered with plenty of them over the years, he knows that carbohydrates are what get massive amounts of glycogen into muscle cells. If you’re chasing pumps, you should probably be considering some kind of carbohydrate strategy.

    Chemix GDA Supplement

    Glucose disposal interesting to you? Then look into Chemix GDA next!

    Gymnema Sylvestre is an ingredient that’s common in glucose disposal supplements, but less common in pump pre-workouts. Standardized for gymnemic acids, it’s here to help shuttle carbs into the muscle cells.

    Gymnema increases insulin release,[74] and insulin draws carbohydrates into cells. Carbohydrates also bring a lot of water with them. So by drawing them in, you’re boosting not only glycogen storage, but water as well.

    Most studies on gymnema revolve around its ability to control blood sugar levels[74-76] — it’s not “studied” as a pump ingredient. It has, however, been shown to do exactly what Guerrilla Chemist touts — better insulin secretion.[74] In addition, we’ve seen a unique ability to regenerate pancreatic islet cells, so gymnema may have some additional health benefits to keep you more insulin sensitive in general.

    This is the carb pump – it’s not related to blood flow, nitric oxide, or even water retention, but is all about blasting your muscles with glycogen. You will, however, want some carbs to come along for the ride, so this will work best if you’re not extremely fasted.

    Last: If you’re interested in this category of supplement ingredients and want to explore further, Chemix GDA is a must-see.

  • S7 – 100mg

    Chemix King of Pumps

    Below, you can see how Guerrilla explains the King of Pumps

    S7 is a trademarked ingredient that’s short for SPECTRA 7, which is a blend of natural botanicals (green coffee bean, green tea, turmeric, tart cherry, blueberry, broccoli, and kale) that have antioxidant properties. Together, they’ve been shown to increase the bioavailability of nitric oxide.[77] Realize that nitric oxide is a free radical — it wants to bind to something. If it does that, it becomes inactive.

    What happens is that the antioxidants in S7 bind to free radicals that would otherwise bind with nitric oxide, thereby improving the amount and duration of nitric oxide generated from your workout and L-citrulline.

    This is a more defensive strategy, but an important one to have in a supplement named King of Pumps – you can’t just boost nitric oxide without protecting against its capture!

Flavors Available

    Listen to Guerrilla Talk about King of Pumps himself

    Subscribe to PricePlow on YouTube!

    King of Pumps, King of Pathways

    Chemix King of Pumps Level Up

    Ready to level up? This supplement will get you there

    This is a truly advanced stimulant-free pre workout pump supplement, as expected from The Guerilla Chemist. It hits numerous pathways, and hits them very hard. While some formulators put together incredible ingredient profiles, Chemix goes beyond that with King of Pumps — by inventing their own ingredient!

    It goes without saying that this is an advanced supplement. Part of this includes that the user shouldn’t just take it and expect the supplement to do all of the work. There are two factors to reiterate:

    1. It will work far better if taken with copious amounts of water (for betaine and glycerol).
    2. It will work best if taken with carbohydrates in the system (thanks to gymnema).

    These aren’t 100% necessary, but if you don’t do these two things, you’re losing the efficacy of nearly half of the ingredient profile – and that’d be a waste on an ultra premium product.

    So get ready to drink up, because there’s a new king town.

    Chemix King of Pumps – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

    Get Price Alerts

    No spam, no scams.

    Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    About the Author: Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto

    Mike Roberto is a research scientist and water sports athlete who founded PricePlow. He is an n=1 diet experimenter with extensive experience in supplementation and dietary modification, whose personal expertise stems from several experiments done on himself while sharing lab tests.

    Mike's goal is to bridge the gap between nutritional research scientists and non-academics who seek to better their health in a system that has catastrophically failed the public. Mike is currently experimenting with a low Vitamin A diet.

    No Comments | Posted in | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .


    1. Sureda, Antoni, et al. “L-Citrulline-Malate Influence over Branched Chain Amino Acid Utilization during Exercise.” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 110, no. 2, 25 May 2010, pp. 341–351, 10.1007/s00421-010-1509-4;
    2. Allerton, Timothy D., et al. “L-Citrulline Supplementation: Impact on Cardiometabolic Health.” Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 7, 1 July 2018, p. 921, 10.3390/nu10070921;
    3. Davis, Angela R., et al. “L-Citrulline Levels in Watermelon Cultigens Tested in Two Environments.” HortScience, vol. 46, no. 12, 1 Dec. 2011, pp. 1572–1575, 10.21273/HORTSCI.46.12.1572;
    4. Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia, et al. “Bioactive Compounds from Flesh and By-Product of Fresh-Cut Watermelon Cultivars.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 91, no. 5, 7 Mar. 2011, pp. 805–812, 10.1002/jsfa.4250;
    5. Rimando, Agnes M., and Penelope M. Perkins-Veazie. “Determination of Citrulline in Watermelon Rind.” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1078, no. 1-2, June 2005, pp. 196–200, 10.1016/j.chroma.2005.05.009;
    6. Stamler, Jonathan S., and Gerhard Meissner. “Physiology of Nitric Oxide in Skeletal Muscle.” Physiological Reviews, vol. 81, no. 1, 1 Jan. 2001, pp. 209–237, 10.1152/physrev.2001.81.1.209;
    7. Schwedhelm, Edzard et al.; “Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism.”; British journal of clinical pharmacology vol. 65,1 (2008): 51-9.;
    8. Archer, S L, et al. “Nitric Oxide and CGMP Cause Vasorelaxation by Activation of a Charybdotoxin-Sensitive K Channel by CGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 91, no. 16, 1994, pp. 7583–7, 10.1073/pnas.91.16.7583;
    9. Zhao, Yingzi, et al. “Vascular Nitric Oxide: Beyond ENOS.” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 129, no. 2, Oct. 2015, pp. 83–94, 10.1016/j.jphs.2015.09.002;
    10. Friebe, Andreas, et al. “CGMP: A Unique 2nd Messenger Molecule – Recent Developments in CGMP Research and Development.” Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology, vol. 393, no. 2, 18 Dec. 2019, pp. 287–302, 10.1007/s00210-019-01779-z;
    11. Bailey, SJ et al.; “l-Citrulline supplementation improves O2 uptake kinetics and high-intensity exercise performance in humans.”; Journal of Applied Physiology; 119(4) pp. 385-395; 2015;
    12. Giannesini B., et. al.; European Journal of Pharmacology; “Citrulline malate supplementation increases muscle efficiency in rat skeletal muscle;” September 2011;
    13. Perez-Guisado J, Jakeman PM; Journal of Strength and Conditioning; “Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness;” May 2010;
    14. Hickner RC. et. al.; Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; “L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test;” 2006;
    15. Rhim, Hye Chang, et al. “Effect of Citrulline on Post-Exercise Rating of Perceived Exertion, Muscle Soreness, and Blood Lactate Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Sport and Health Science, Feb. 2020, 10.1016/j.jshs.2020.02.003.
    16. Elms, Shawn, et al. “Insights into the Arginine Paradox: Evidence against the Importance of Subcellular Location of Arginase and ENOS.” American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 305, no. 5, 1 Sept. 2013, p. H651, 10.1152/ajpheart.00755.2012;
    17. Castillo, L, et al. “Splanchnic Metabolism of Dietary Arginine in Relation to Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Normal Adult Man.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 1, 1 Jan. 1993, pp. 193–197;
    18. Wu, Guoyao. “Intestinal Mucosal Amino Acid Catabolism.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 128, no. 8, 1 Aug. 1998, pp. 1249–1252, 10.1093/jn/128.8.1249;
    19. O’sullivan, D., et al. “Hepatic Zonation of the Catabolism of Arginine and Ornithine in the Perfused Rat Liver.” Biochemical Journal, vol. 330, no. Pt 2, 1 Mar. 1998, p. 627, 10.1042/bj3300627;
    20. van de Poll, Marcel CG, et al. “Interorgan Amino Acid Exchange in Humans: Consequences for Arginine and Citrulline Metabolism.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 85, no. 1, 1 Jan. 2007, pp. 167–172, 10.1093/ajcn/85.1.167;
    21. Grimble, George K. “Adverse Gastrointestinal Effects of Arginine and Related Amino Acids.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 137, no. 6, 1 June 2007, pp. 1693S1701S, 10.1093/jn/137.6.1693s;
    22. Kaore, Shilpa N., et al. “Citrulline: Pharmacological Perspectives and Its Role as an Emerging Biomarker in Future.” Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 27, no. 1, 31 July 2012, pp. 35–50, 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2012.01059.x;
    23. Moinard, C., et al. “Dose-Ranging Effects of Citrulline Administration on Plasma Amino Acids and Hormonal Patterns in Healthy Subjects: The Citrudose Pharmacokinetic Study.” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 99, no. 4, 22 Oct. 2007, pp. 855–862, 10.1017/s0007114507841110;
    24. Cholewa, Jason M et al. “Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 10,1 39. 22 Aug. 2013, doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-39;
    25. Boel De Paepe; “Osmolytes as Mediators of the Muscle Tissue’s Responses to Inflammation: Emerging Regulators of Myositis with Therapeutic Potential”; EMJ Rheumatol. 2017;4[2]:83-89;
    26. Olthof, M. R., & Verhoef, P. (2005). Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health. Current drug metabolism, 6(1), 15-22; Retrieved from
    27. Roti, M; “Homocysteine, Lipid and Glucose Responses to Betaine Supplementation During Running in the Heat”; Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2003 – Volume 35 – Issue 5 – p S271;,_LIPID_AND_GLUCOSE_RESPONSES_TO.1501.aspx
    28. Armstrong, Lawrence E, et al. “Influence of Betaine Consumption on Strenuous Running and Sprinting in a Hot Environment.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 22, no. 3, May 2008, pp. 851–860, 10.1519/jsc.0b013e31816a6efb;
    29. Hoffman, Jay R, et al. “Effect of Betaine Supplementation on Power Performance and Fatigue.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 6, no. 1, 27 Feb. 2009, 10.1186/1550-2783-6-7;
    30. Lee, Elaine C, et al. “Ergogenic Effects of Betaine Supplementation on Strength and Power Performance.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 7, no. 1, 2010, p. 27, 10.1186/1550-2783-7-27;
    31. Trepanowski, John F, et al. “The Effects of Chronic Betaine Supplementation on Exercise Performance, Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Saturation and Associated Biochemical Parameters in Resistance Trained Men.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 25, no. 12, Dec. 2011, pp. 3461–3471, 10.1519/jsc.0b013e318217d48d;
    32. Pryor, J Luke, et al. “Effect of Betaine Supplementation on Cycling Sprint Performance.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 9, no. 1, 3 Apr. 2012, 10.1186/1550-2783-9-12;
    33. Cholewa, Jason M., et al. “Effects of Betaine on Performance and Body Composition: A Review of Recent Findings and Potential Mechanisms.” Amino Acids, vol. 46, no. 8, 24 Apr. 2014, pp. 1785–1793, 10.1007/s00726-014-1748-5;
    34. Jason Michael Cholewa, et al; “The Effects of Chronic Betaine Supplementation on Body Composition and Performance in Collegiate Females: a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; BioMed Central; 31 July 2018;
    35. Gao, Xiang et al.; “Effect of Betaine on Reducing Body Fat—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.”; Nutrients 2019, 11, 2480;
    36. Morrison, L. M. “Results of Betaine Treatment of Atherosclerosis.” The American Journal of Digestive Diseases, vol. 19, no. 12, 1 Dec. 1952, pp. 381–384, 10.1007/BF02881126;
    37. Craig, Stuart AS. “Betaine in Human Nutrition.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 3, 1 Sept. 2004, pp. 539–549, 10.1093/ajcn/80.3.539;
    38. Iqbal, O., Fareed, D., Cunanan, J., Hoppensteadt, D., Messadek, J., Baltasar, F., & Fareed, J. (2006). Betaine induced release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor and nitric oxide: implications in the management of cardiovascular disease. The FASEB Journal, 20(4), A655;
    39. Caldas, Teresa, et al. “Thermoprotection by Glycine Betaine and Choline.” Microbiology, vol. 145, no. 9, 1 Sept. 1999, pp. 2543–2548, 10.1099/00221287-145-9-2543;
    40. Lyons, T. P., et al. “Effects of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration prior to Exercise in the Heat on Sweating and Core Temperature.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 22, no. 4, 1990, pp. 477–483;
    41. PubChem. “Glycerol.”,
    42. Nelson, Jeff L, and Robert A Robergs. “Exploring the Potential Ergogenic Effects of Glycerol Hyperhydration.” Sports Medicine, vol. 37, no. 11, 2007, pp. 981–1000, 10.2165/00007256-200737110-00005.
    43. Montner, P., et al. “Pre-Exercise Glycerol Hydration Improves Cycling Endurance Time.” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, 1 Jan. 1996, pp. 27–33, 10.1055/s-2007-972804.
    44. Patlar, Suleyman, et al. “The Effect of Glycerol Supplements on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance of Athletes and Sedentary Subjects.” Journal of Human Kinetics, vol. 34, no. 1, 1 Oct. 2012, pp. 69–79, 10.2478/v10078-012-0065-x.
    45. Anderson, M. J., et al. “Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Thermoregulation and Metabolism during Exercise in the Heat.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition, vol. 11, no. 3, 29 Sept. 2001, pp. 315–333.
    46. Koenigsberg, Peter S., et al. “Sustained Hyperhydration with Glycerol Ingestion.” Life Sciences, vol. 57, no. 7, July 1995, pp. 645–653, 10.1016/0024-3205(95)00316-x.
    47. Ignarro, Louis J., et al. “Pomegranate Juice Protects Nitric Oxide against Oxidative Destruction and Enhances the Biological Actions of Nitric Oxide.” Nitric Oxide, vol. 15, no. 2, Sept. 2006, pp. 93–102, 10.1016/j.niox.2006.03.001;
    48. de Nigris, Filomena, et al. “The Influence of Pomegranate Fruit Extract in Comparison to Regular Pomegranate Juice and Seed Oil on Nitric Oxide and Arterial Function in Obese Zucker Rats.” Nitric Oxide, vol. 17, no. 1, Aug. 2007, pp. 50–54, 10.1016/j.niox.2007.04.005;
    49. Katz, Sarah Rachel, et al. “Punica Granatum: Heuristic Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus.” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 10, no. 2, June 2007, pp. 213–217, 10.1089/jmf.2006.290;
    50. de Nigris, Filomena, et al. “Effects of a Pomegranate Fruit Extract Rich in Punicalagin on Oxidation-Sensitive Genes and ENOS Activity at Sites of Perturbed Shear Stress and Atherogenesis.” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 73, no. 2, 15 Jan. 2007, pp. 414–423, 10.1016/j.cardiores.2006.08.021;
    51. Trexler, Eric T., et al. “Effects of Pomegranate Extract on Blood Flow and Running Time to Exhaustion.” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, vol. 39, no. 9, Sept. 2014, pp. 1038–1042, 10.1139/apnm-2014-0137;
    52. Crum, Emma M., et al. “Multiday Pomegranate Extract Supplementation Decreases Oxygen Uptake during Submaximal Cycling Exercise, but Cosupplementation with N-Acetylcysteine Negates the Effect.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 28, no. 6, 1 Nov. 2018, pp. 586–592, 10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0407;
    53. Schmitt, Christoph A., and Verena M. Dirsch. “Modulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide by Plant-Derived Products.” Nitric Oxide, vol. 21, no. 2, Sept. 2009, pp. 77–91, 10.1016/j.niox.2009.05.006;
    54. Asgary, Sedigheh, et al. “Pomegranate Consumption and Blood Pressure: A Review.” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 23, no. 7, 12 Apr. 2017, pp. 1042–1050, 10.2174/1381612822666161010103339;
    55. Ignarro, Louis J., et al. “Pomegranate Juice Protects Nitric Oxide against Oxidative Destruction and Enhances the Biological Actions of Nitric Oxide.” Nitric Oxide, vol. 15, no. 2, Sept. 2006, pp. 93–102, 10.1016/j.niox.2006.03.001;
    56. Francaux, M, and L Deldicque; “Using Polyphenol Derivatives to Prevent Muscle Wasting”; May 2018;
    57. Katashima, C, et al; “Ursolic acid and mechanisms of actions on adipose and muscle tissue: a systematic review”; Obesity Reviews; 18(6):700-711; June 2017;
    58. Gutierrez-Salmean, Gabriela, et al. “Effects of (−)-Epicatechin on Molecular Modulators of Skeletal Muscle Growth and Differentiation.” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 25, no. 1, Jan. 2014, pp. 91–94, 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.09.007;
    59. Gutierrez-Salmean G, Ciaraldi TP, Nogueira L, et al. Effects of (−)-epicatechin on molecular modulators of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. 2014;25(1):10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.09.007. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.09.007.
    60. Nogueira, L., Ramirez-Sanchez, I., Perkins, G. A., Murphy, A., Taub, P. R., Ceballos, G., Villarreal, F. J., Hogan, M. C. and Malek, M. H. (2011), (–)-Epicatechin enhances fatigue resistance and oxidative capacity in mouse muscle. The Journal of Physiology, 589: 4615–4631. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.209924.
    61. Fraga CG, Litterio MC, Prince PD, Calabró V, Piotrkowski B, Galleano M. Cocoa flavanols: effects on vascular nitric oxide and blood pressure. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 2011;48(1):63-67. doi:10.3164/jcbn.11-010FR.
    62. Chau, Yasmin, et al. “Exploration of Icariin Analog Structure Space Reveals Key Features Driving Potent Inhibition of Human Phosphodiesterase-5.” PLOS ONE, vol. 14, no. 9, 20 Sept. 2019, p. e0222803, 10.1371/journal.pone.0222803;
    63. Friebe, Andreas, et al. “Meeting Report of the 8th International Conference on CGMP ‘CGMP: Generators, Effectors, and Therapeutic Implications’ at Bamberg, Germany, from June 23 to 25, 2017.” Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology, vol. 390, no. 12, 10 Oct. 2017, pp. 1177–1188, 10.1007/s00210-017-1429-5;
    64. Mehrotra, N., et al. “The Role of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor Therapy.” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 19, no. 3, 1 May 2007, pp. 253–264, 10.1038/sj.ijir.3901522;
    65. Jin, Feng, et al. “Icariin, a Phoshphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor, Improves Learning and Memory in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice by Stimulation of NO/CGMP Signalling.” The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 17, no. 06, 11 Feb. 2014, pp. 871–881, 10.1017/s1461145713001533;
    66. Fang, Jian, and Yongjun Zhang. “Icariin, an Anti-Atherosclerotic Drug from Chinese Medicinal Herb Horny Goat Weed.” Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 8, 12 Oct. 2017, 10.3389/fphar.2017.00734;
    67. Xin, Z. C., et al. “Effects of Icariin on CGMP-Specific PDE5 and CAMP-Specific PDE4 Activities.” Asian Journal of Andrology, vol. 5, no. 1, 1 Mar. 2003, pp. 15–18;
    68. Xu, Hai-Bin, and Zhao-Quan Huang. “Icariin Enhances Endothelial Nitric-Oxide Synthase Expression on Human Endothelial Cells in Vitro.” Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 47, no. 1, July 2007, pp. 18–24, 10.1016/j.vph.2007.03.002;
    69. Xiao, Hong-Bo, et al. “Icariin Regulates PRMT/ADMA/DDAH Pathway to Improve Endothelial Function.” Pharmacological Reports, vol. 67, no. 6, Dec. 2015, pp. 1147–1154, 10.1016/j.pharep.2015.04.017;
    70. Fekete ÁA, Givens DI, Lovegrove JA; “Casein-Derived Lactotripeptides Reduce Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in a Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials.”; Nutrients; 2015; 7(1):659-681;
    71. Hirota, Tatsuhiko, et al. “Casein Hydrolysate Containing the Antihypertensive Tripeptides Val-Pro-pro and Ile-Pro-pro Improves Vascular Endothelial Function Independent of Blood Pressure-Lowering Effects: Contribution of the Inhibitory Action of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme.” Hypertension Research, vol. 30, no. 6, 2007, pp. 489–496, 10.1291/hypres.30.489;
    72. Sowers, James R. “Hypertension, Angiotensin II, and Oxidative Stress.” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 25, 20 June 2002, pp. 1999–2001, 10.1056/NEJMe020054;
    73. Li, Zhaojin, et al. “Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibition Reverses Vasoconstriction and Impaired Dilation of Pial Collaterals in Chronic Hypertension.” Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979), vol. 76, no. 1, 1 July 2020, p. 226, 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.14315;
    74. Kanetkar, P. et al; “Gymnema Sylvestre: A Memoir;” J Clin Biochem Nutr.; 2007 Sep;41(2):77-81. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.2007010;
    75. Brala, PM. and Hagen, RL; “Effects of Sweetness Perception and Caloric Value of a Preload on Short Term Intake”; Physiol Behav.; 1983 Jan;30(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/0031-9384(83)90030-6;
    76. Tiwari, P et al; “Gymnema Sylvestre for Diabetes: From Traditional Herb to Future’s Therapeutic”; Curr Pharm Des.; 2017;23(11):1667-1676. doi: 10.2174/1381612823666161108162048;
    77. Nemzer, B. V., Centner, C., Zdzieblik, D., Fink, B., Hunter, J. M., & König, D. (2017). Oxidative stress or redox signalling – new insights into the effects of a proprietary multifunctional botanical dietary supplement. Free Radical Research, 52(3), 362–372. doi:10.1080/10715762.2017.1390228

    Comments and Discussion (Powered by the PricePlow Forum)