Soul Performance Solace Joint Care: Targeting Root Inflammation

Every once in a while, we get some true sparks of innovation in the athletic supplement space. Interspersed among a sea of copycat formulas and commodified products, there are diamonds in the rough that hold a promise to advance the entire industry in a single leap.

There’s perhaps nobody better suited than Matt Karich and Soul Performance Nutrition to hit on these unique formulas. Back in May of 2022, we went live with Matt in Episode 68 of the PricePlow Podcast, going on a deep dive regarding his Soul Performance brainchild, discussing the level of precision and testing he’s bringing to the industry.

Soul Performance Nutrition Solace Joint Care

Instead of just treating the symptoms of joint pain, Solace Joint Care targets the root, systemic inflammation behind it. This provides short-term joint comfort and long-term joint health.

Their latest product exemplifies this experimental ethos perfectly.

Engineering a Novel, Top-Shelf Joint Supplement

Solace Joint Care was engineered with one major goal in mind: to target systemic inflammation and to treat both short-term joint-comfort long-term joint health.

Throughout its design, Matt found that optimizing for this target — inflammation — would be the best way to combat poor joint health. The resulting formula contains some standard joint health ingredients along with some novel ingredients that have the potential to turn proper joint health on its head.

We’re going to get into a deep dive on each ingredient, but for those who want the cliffnotes, here’s a summary:

  • Caraflame Complex is an anti-inflammatory blend from NutraShure that contains ingredients like sodium butyrate, lycopene, astaxanthin, and more, which all work in concert towards one purpose: reducing inflammation and helping to resolve the underlying causes behind joint pain.
  • SmartPrime-Om PricePlow

    Solace Joint Care is the first joint supplement to include SmartPrime-Om to combat overzealous inflammatory omega-6 pathways

    SmartPrime-OM Complex is another blend from NutraShure that targets inflammation specifically via moderation of the Omega 3 to Omega 6 ratio by adjusting the body’s metabolism of both classes of fatty acids. We’ve seen this in top-tier fish oil supplements and are now very excited to have it in a joint supplement.

  • Levagen+ is an ingredient composed of palmitoylethanolamide, with LipiSperse as a delivery agent, that helps reduce inflammation in part due to its ability to downregulate inflammatory cytokine production, and in part due to its upregulation of the endocannabinoid system, which has been shown to reduce symptoms of joint diseases like arthritis.
  • Curcuwin Ultra+, drawn from turmeric root, has a long history of use for its anti-inflammatory properties. This form is stated to be 144 times more bioavailable than standard curcumin.
  • Hyaluronic Acid is a lubricating substance that is found naturally in joints, and has been supplemented for joint health for years.

Again, we’re very excited to see SmartPrime-OM in a joint supplement – especially one that’s BSCG certified like all Soul Performance Nutrition supplements.

Let’s check prices and availability through PricePlow, and get into the details:

Soul Performance Nutrition Solace Joint Care – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

This area is reserved for Team PricePlow's upcoming Ingredients video.

Subscribe to our channel and sign up for notifications so you catch it when it goes live!

Subscribe to PricePlow on YouTube!

Solace Joint Care Ingredients

In a single 4-capsule serving of Solace Joint Care from Soul Performance Nutrition, you get the following:

  • Caraflame Complex (as Sodium Butyrate, Beta Caryophyllene, Lycopene, Astaxanthin, Lutein, Beta-Carotene, Zeaxanthin, and Retinyl Palmitate) – 800 mg

    Soul Performance Nutrition Solace Joint Care Ingredients

    Target short-term joint discomfort and long-term joint health with Solace Joint Care

    Inflammation generally spells disaster for your joints.

    Soul Performance Nutrition Solace Joint Care

    The current state of inflammation

    Although science has traditionally divided arthritis into inflammatory and non-inflammatory subtypes, this paradigm has come under scrutiny in recent years. More and more evidence is emerging that osteoarthritis, which accounts for most of what’s called “non-inflammatory arthritis”, is indeed exacerbated by, and may even be caused by, systemic inflammation.[1,2]

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder in the United States,[3] and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune joint disease that most of us have heard of, damages joints through inflammation.[4] Anti-inflammatory drugs are the first-line treatment for OA and RA alike.[5,6]

    So there’s a legitimate argument to be made for whether you’re trying to deal with existing joint pain or prevent it from developing in the future, keeping inflammation under control should be one of your top priorities.

    That’s where the Caraflame Complex from NutraShure comes in.

    This blend consists of powerful anti-inflammatory ingredients that can potentially help manage the underlying cause of many crippling joint symptoms.

    • Sodium butyrate

      Sodium ButyrateButyrate, also known as butyric acid, has been studied extensively for its anti-inflammatory effects.

      Animal studies have shown that butyrate can significantly reduce circulating levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).[7] Both of these molecules are inflammatory cytokines that are elevated in people with both OA and RA.[8]

      The general nature of butyrate’s anti-inflammatory effects can be inferred from the fact that it also seems to improve symptoms of colitis and proctitis.[9-11]

      Butyrate also seems to help manage symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS),[12] a condition with a known inflammatory component.

    • Beta Caryophyllene

      The aromatic sesquiterpene beta caryophyllene (BCP) is widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom, and is present in many popular foods and spices. For example, it’s one of the primary bioactive constituents of black pepper,[13] a powerfully anti-inflammatory spice.

      Beta CarryophylleneBC activates cells’ CB2 cannabinoid receptors, which are known to have anti-inflammatory effects.[14] In particular, BCP seems to reduce circulating levels of the following inflammatory factors:[14]

      • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)
      • Interleukin-1β (IL-1β)
      • Interleukin-6 (IL-6)
      • Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)

      As we discussed above, TNF-α seems to be involved in severe inflammatory conditions. IL-6 is elevated in OA, and IL-6 blood levels positively correlate with the severity of disease.[15]

      A 2019 animal study found that monotherapy with BCP reduced paw thickness and arthritic index in rats, an effect that’s apparently related to BCP’s ability to downregulate TNF-α.[16]

      Thanks to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, BCP also seems to have anti-diabetic and neuroprotective effects.[17,18] One paper takes pains to point out that BCP seems to help help improve mitochondrial function, which is huge for overall health and longevity.[17]

    • Lycopene


      Lycopene, an antioxidant compound that occurs naturally in tomatoes, is famed for its ability to improve prostate health. But did you know it’s a powerful anti-inflammatory compound?

      In fact, lycopene’s ability to downregulate many of the inflammatory cytokines we’ve already discussed – including various interleukins (TNF-α) – is key to its prostate health benefits.[19]

      The anti-inflammatory action of lycopene isn’t localized to prostate tissue, though. Blood lycopene levels are inversely correlated to blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), one of the primary biomarkers for systemic inflammation.[20]

    • Beta-carotene

      One great thing about lycopene is that it has synergistic effects with beta-carotene, a reddish-orange carotenoid pigment that famously gives carrots their color.

      CarotenoidsTogether, lycopene and beta-carotene suppress inflammation to a greater degree than either compound alone. This combination has been shown to downregulate not only TNF-α, but also cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that creates inflammatory prostaglandins.[21] The action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin and ibuprofen work by targeting the same pathway.[22]

      Note that beta-carotene is also a vitamin A precursor, so supplementing with it can help you meet your vitamin A recommended daily intake – this and another ingredient below will contribute to your daily intake, as shown on the top portion of the label.

    • Zeaxanthin

      With zeaxanthin, we have another anti-inflammatory carotenoid capable of downregulating interleukins and TNF-α.[23]

      Solace Joint CareZeaxanthin blood levels have been shown to inversely correlate with C-reactive protein levels,[24] and zeaxanthin has been shown to improve symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease.[23] It’s also popular in eye support supplements.

    • Retinyl palmitate

      Retinyl palmitate contains retinol, the active form of vitamin A.

      Given the state of the modern American diet, it probably won’t surprise you to learn that 45% of Americans are said to be deficient in vitamin A.[25] For those affected, that can be problematic for joint health in the long run, since vitamin A deficiency can cause systemic inflammation.[26]

    The above combine to form a powerful new anti-inflammatory ingredient, and it’s further bolstered by our attack on the overindulgence of omega-6 fatty acids with SmartPrime-OM:

  • SmartPrime-OM Complex (as Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and Sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.) extract std. for Sesamin) – 500 mg

    SmartPrime-Om from NutraShure is a patent-pending blend of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds that affect polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism. By changing the expression of certain genes, SmartPrime can actually increase the body’s metabolism of omega-3 fatty acids, while decreasing its metabolism of omega-6 fatty acids.


    This matters because although human beings consumed omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids at about a 1:1 ratio in our ancestral environments,[27-30] modern Americans consume 15 times more omega-6 than omega-3![31]

    Unfortunately, such a skewed omega-6-to-omega-3 ratio contributes to chronic systemic inflammation. It’s not surprising, then, that the research shows excessive consumption of omega-6 is associated with some devastating health outcomes.[32] For example, eating too much omega-6 relative to omega-3 is closely associated with serious mental illness,[33,34] cardiovascular disease,[35] diabetes,[36,37] and obesity.[38,39]

    SmartPrime-Om BenefitsThe big underlying mechanism here is probably omega-6 PUFA’s ability to induce profound insulin resistance.[40,41]

    So how do we fix this?

    The most obvious solution is eating less omega-6 and more omega-3, or minimizing overall polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

    But let’s face it, this is quite challenging in our modern food environment. Although we, here at PricePlow, as well as most of our readers, do our best to eat this way, things inevitably slip through the cracks.

    That’s where SmartPrime comes in – it can help improve our omega-3:omega-6 blood ratio, even without a dietary change. And with that can come some serious promise in the fight against inflammation.

    How SmartPrime Works

    Omega-6 Calpain-Cathepsin Hypothesis

    Out of the scope of this document, but the Omega-6 Calpain-Cathepsin Hypothesis of cell death is one theory explaining the molecular cascade originating from n-6 PUFAs that causes cell death,[42] implicating it in many diseases.

    SmartPrime’s main bioactive constituents are lignans. These polyphenolic antioxidants occur at high concentrations in the seeds of certain plants, including sesame seeds, which is where SmartPrime’s lignans come from.Impressively, the lignans used have been shown to change the epigenetic expression of the genes that the body uses to process the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids we consume.[43]

    Generally speaking, the PUFAs we eat are what we call omega-3 or omega-6 precursors – this means that once ingested, they’re converted by your body’s metabolic machinery into different PUFAs, which we generally refer to as “PUFA end products”.

    Encourage omega-3, discourage omega-6

    Each PUFA precursor and PUFA end product has different effects on human biology, and generally speaking, the end products have stronger effects than the precursors themselves. This means that we can improve the health and function of the human body by influencing the process of PUFA conversion.

    Specifically, we want to encourage the production of omega-3 PUFA end products, while discouraging the production of omega-6 PUFA end products.

    That’s exactly what SmartPrime is designed to do.

    As it turns out, the same enzymes are responsible for your body converting omega-3 and omega-6 precursors into end products.[44]

    Omega-3 and Omega-6 Conversion Pathways

    The amount of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA you consume isn’t the only factor in your body’s omega-3:omega-6 status: the activation of PUFA enzymes matters too. This enzymatic PUFA metabolism is what SmartPrime is designed to improve. Image courtesy of WikiMedia

    For example, delta 6 desaturase converts alpha-linoleic acid, an omega-3 precursor, into stearidonic acid. But the very same enzyme is also responsible for converting linoleic acid (an omega-6 PUFA that’s extremely abundant in our food supply) into gamma-linoleic acid.

    In practice, this means that alpha-linoleic acid and linoleic acid are competing for access to the delta 6 desaturase enzyme. That’s why the dietary ratio matters so much: Statistically speaking, the more alpha-linoleic acid you have floating around relative to linoleic acid, the more frequently delta 6 desaturase will be activated by alpha-linoleic acid.

    So let’s see how we can encourage the reactions on the left side of the above graphic — the omega-3 pathway.


    SesaminSesamin has been shown to inhibit the enzymatic conversion of omega-6 fatty acids, but not the omega-3s.[45-47]

    This means that at every step of the PUFA metabolic pathway, the body’s ratio of omega-3 end products to omega-6 end products increases, culminating with a significant increase in your body’s production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)[46-48] – the final omega-3 PUFA end products. At the same time, your body should produce less pro-inflammatory omega-6 end products, like arachidonic acid.[46-48]

    That’s exactly what we want to happen. But SmartPrime’s creators also realized we needed some more methylation support to optimize the effect:

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)

    The other important ingredient in SmartPrime is methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), an organosulfur compound that acts as a powerful methyl donor and sulfur donor. This matters because your body needs methyl and sulfur groups to produce omega-3 PUFA end products.[49-51]

    MSM Benefits

    Competitive athlete/lifter who needs to get back to full-strength ASAP? One of the MSM Benefits is that it can get you there sooner… and with less pain!

    Independent studies have shown that sesame oil and MSM, when consumed together, can significantly enhance cholesterol and triglyceride status in diabetic mice, an effect driven largely by an improvement in their underlying PUFA metabolism.[52,53]

    MSM’s independent benefits for joint health

    MSM consists of about 34% sulfur by weight, which doesn’t just help boost PUFA metabolism – your body also needs sulfur to encourage growth and to repair tendons, joints, ligaments, and other connective tissues.

    In fact, bathing in sulfrous water has been shown to improve osteoarthritis symptoms.[54,55]

    A 2012 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found that MSM supplements can also reduce osteoarthritis symptoms.[56] While the MSM provided by SmartPrime-Om in Solace Joint Care isn’t as much as those studies used, it goes to show how well-suited this ingredient is in a joint supplement. The MSM was really added to support the omega shift discussed above, but it just so happens to be a great joint ingredient as well!

    Dr. Hector Lopez Explains Nutrashure's SmartPrime-OM technology

    SmartPrime-OM is a new omega-3 amplifying dietary supplement from Nutrashure, so we interviewed Dr. Hector Lopez to understand how it boosts EPA/DHA!

    Summing up SmartPrime – powerfully anti-inflammatory

    Chronic systemic inflammation of the type caused by excessive omega-6 PUFA activity is associated with the onset of arthritis,[57] and omega-3 supplementation has been shown to improve arthritis symptoms.[58]

    When it comes to joint health, SmartPrime can potentially help decrease the burden of inflammation caused by omega-6 dominance. This is one of the most exciting ingredients of the decade — if you want to learn more, read our article titled SmartPrime-Om: Tilting the Omega-3:Omega-6 Battle In Your Favor and watch our podcast on SmartPrime-Om with the late, great Dr. Hector Lopez.

  • Levagen + (90% Palmitoylethanolamide with LipiSperse) – 350 mg

    Levagen is a powerful palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) ingredient that uses LipiSperse as a delivery mechanism.

    Palmitoylethanolamide research

    So what is PEA? It’s a lipid compound with documented anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective effects.[59]

    PEAThe human body naturally produces some PEA endogenously, synthesizing it from palmitic acid, a type of fat found mainly in meat and dairy products.[60] However, your body only produces as much PEA as it needs at any given time. This means that many, if not most, of us might stand to benefit from PEA supplementation, which can potentially provide benefits above and beyond what we’d get from the minimum level of endogenously produced PEA.

    Obviously vegans, vegetarians, and anyone else who minimizes their intake of animal products are more likely to benefit the most from taking exogenous PEA.

    Today there are over 350 papers indexed in PubMed discussing PEA’s wide range of benefits for human health, and PEA has actually been used around the world under a variety of brand names. Just to give a few examples, PEA has been used in the treatment of influenza and the common cold,[60] and has been proposed as a potential therapy for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).[61] It’s also been studied for autoimmune and neurological diseases.[60,62,63]

    PEA’s ability to decrease inflammation is part of what makes it useful in all of these cases.

    PEAAccording to a meta-analysis published in the Journal of Pain Research, PEA is effective for the management of chronic and neuropathic pain in multiple animal models and in humans.[62]

    Another research review published in the same journal found that PEA supplementation is both safe and effective for the management of nerve compression syndromes like sciatica pain and carpal tunnel syndrome.[63]

    How PEA works – anti-inflammatory endocannabinoids

    It seems that PEA works by activating proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), which ultimately downregulates inflammatory cytokine production.[62] However, PEA also shows activity in the endocannabinoid system.[62] Just to give you some real-world context for what this means, endocannabinoids seem to play a significant role in the famous “runner’s high” euphoria that many of us feel after intense exercise.[64]

    But perhaps most interestingly, the endocannabinoid system also shows promise when it comes to managing arthritis. In fact, one peer-reviewed study claims that endocannabinoid upregulation might even stop the progression of arthritis![65]

    Soul Performance Solace Joint CareThis is because endocannabinoids are profoundly anti-inflammatory.[62,64,65] PEA also seems to inhibit mast cell activity, which is a big deal since mast cells are a crucial part of your body’s inflammatory process.[66]

    Between that and its ability to manage pain, when it comes to choosing an ingredient for a joint care formula, PEA is a no-brainer.

    What is LipiSperse?

    Now onto the delivery system: LipiSperse is a crystalline molecular coating that acts as a hydrophilic envelope.

    The idea behind coating something like PEA in LipiSperse is to prevent fat-soluble compounds from forming clumps in liquid. In a sense, LipiSperse is a highly sophisticated emulsifier. LipiSperse has been shown in peer-reviewed studies to improve the bioavailability of curcumin and PEA, both of which are naturally fat soluble.[59]

    We’ve been excited about palmitoylethanolamide for a while, occasionally running it when needed – but LipiSperse in Levagen should increase the efficacy even more.

  • Curcuwin Ultra+ (Curcuma longa [root])(min 20% curcuminoids) – 250 mg

    Soul Performance Nutrition Matt Karich

    Meet Matt Karich, an engineer who’s putting his talents to use in the dietary supplement industry, with refreshingly unique, third-party tested formulas. We discuss this and more in PricePlow Podcast #068.

    If you’ve been in the supplement game for any length of time, you’ve no doubt heard of curcumin, a bright yellow-orange anti-inflammatory compound,[67] and one of several curcuminoid blends that occur naturally in turmeric root. Turmeric has been used for millennia to manage many different ailments.[68] Generally speaking, its beneficial effects seem to be largely on account of its curcuminoids.

    Although curcuminoid research is generally focused on curcumin, it seems to be the case that all the curcuminoids have broadly similar anti-inflammatory effects.[69] Curcumin and the other curcuminoids work by decreasing the body’s burden of oxidative stress,[70-76] which naturally results in bringing down associated inflammation.[77-82]

    As a class, curcuminoids have been studied extensively for their potential in preventing and managing several diseases, as well as their ability to improve liver, cardiovascular system, and brain health.[83]

    Turmeric, curcuminoids and inflammation

    TurmericCurcuminoid compounds inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),[84-87] an enzyme that governs pro-inflammatory prostaglandins synthesis.[88] COX-2 is also a primary target of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen.

    It’s not a huge surprise, then, that curcumin has been shown to significantly reduce chronic pain[89-102] and improve osteoarthritis symptoms.[89-102]

    Why Solace has Curcuwin Ultra+

    Most of us are well aware of curcumin’s power. Our regular readers also likely know that curcumin unfortunately has poor bioavailability, but it can be improved through a few different strategies.

    This is why Soul Performance Nutrition is using Curcuwin Ultra+, a highly-bioavailable curcumin that touts 144 times greater bioavailability and 40% faster absorption than standard curcumin.[103,104] It’s been studied at this dose, too — eight weeks of 250 milligrams led to reduced muscle soreness post-exercise.[105] Another solid, study-supported choice by Soul.

  • Hyaluronic Acid (as Sodium Hyaluronate) – 100 mg

    Hyaluronic AcidHyaluronic acid (HA) is a lubricating substance that occurs naturally in joints, eyes, and connective tissue. It has an interesting chemical makeup that enables it to retain water molecules throughout the body – helpful in both skin and joint support applications (since this is where you’ll find about 50% of all HA).[106]

    There’s a ton of research on using HA injections to manage osteoarthritis and other inflammatory joint disorders. But as it turns out, oral supplementation works too! According to a 2016 review of HA literature, taking it by mouth can significantly improve knee pain.[107]

    On top of its lubricating effects, it seems that HA reduces inflammation by increasing production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine called interleukin-10.[108]

Dosage and Directions

Per the label, take 4 capsules daily (1 serving) with food and water. We sometimes split our supplements into AM/PM dosing, which can be done here, but it’s best to do whatever keeps you compliant.

Note: 200% DV in Vitamin A

It’s worth mentioning that the beta carotene and retinyl palmitate in Caraflame provide 200% of the daily recommended value of Vitamin A (1800 mcg RAE [retinol activity equivalents]). Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, so there’s no need to don’t overdo it – your body can store and accumulate it.

Solace Joint CareLook at your diet with a quality calorie tracker and calculate how much total vitamin A from food and supplements you’re getting and consider adjusting if need be. For instance, those eating heavy amounts of beef liver may want to dial that back while on Solace Joint Care.

Conclusion: A Novel Joint Support Supplement

We often see ingredients like MSM and hyaluronic acid in joint health supplements as they’re somewhat “joint-specific” ingredients. But in our opinion, a joint-specific approach to ingredient selection falls somewhat flat when it comes to actually improving joint health.

Solace Joint Care is the first product we’ve seen in this category to aggressively target the underlying cause of joint problems: systemic inflammation. Solace understands that in many cases, joint disorders are a reflection of poor general health, and not necessarily caused by joint-specific dysfunction.

It’s also the second product (and first joint supplement) we’ve covered that uses NutraShure’s SmartPrime, one of our favorite ingredients ever since we wrote about it earlier this year. SmartPrime’s effects on PUFA metabolism – an unbelievably important aspect of human health – make it a great choice for many different types of formula.

Overall, we think this product could really hit it out of the park. Congratulations to Matt Karich and Soul Performance Nutrition for coming up with such a great formula – if you’re feeling inflamed, it’s one to seriously consider. Solace Joint Care Label

Soul Performance Nutrition Solace Joint Care – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.


About the Author: PricePlow Staff

PricePlow Staff

PricePlow is a team of supplement industry veterans that include medical students, competitive strength athletes, and scientific researchers who all became involved with dieting and supplements out of personal need.

The team's collective experiences and research target athletic performance and body composition goals, relying on low-toxicity meat-based diets.

No Comments | Posted in | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .


  1. Sokolove, Jeremy, and Christin M Lepus. “Role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis: latest findings and interpretations.” Therapeutic advances in musculoskeletal disease vol. 5,2 (2013): 77-94. doi:10.1177/1759720X12467868
  2. Kozijn, A E et al. “Human C-reactive protein aggravates osteoarthritis development in mice on a high-fat diet.” Osteoarthritis and cartilage vol. 27,1 (2019): 118-128. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2018.09.007
  3. Zhang, Yuqing, and Joanne M Jordan. “Epidemiology of osteoarthritis.” Clinics in geriatric medicine vol. 26,3 (2010): 355-69. doi:10.1016/j.cger.2010.03.001
  4. Sparks, Jeffrey A. “Rheumatoid Arthritis.” Annals of internal medicine vol. 170,1 (2019): ITC1-ITC16. doi:10.7326/AITC201901010
  5. Bullock, Jacqueline et al. “Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Brief Overview of the Treatment.” Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre vol. 27,6 (2018): 501-507. doi:10.1159/000493390
  6. Yu, Shirley P, and David J Hunter. “Managing osteoarthritis.” Australian prescriber vol. 38,4 (2015): 115-9. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2015.039
  7. Andoh, A et al. “Physiological and anti-inflammatory roles of dietary fiber and butyrate in intestinal functions.” JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition vol. 23,5 Suppl (1999): S70-3. doi:10.1177/014860719902300518
  8. Kaneko, S et al. “Interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels in serum and synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis.” Cytokines, cellular & molecular therapy vol. 6,2 (2000): 71-9. doi:10.1080/13684730050515796
  9. Mishiro, Tsuyoshi et al. “Butyric acid attenuates intestinal inflammation in murine DSS-induced colitis model via milk fat globule-EGF factor 8.” Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology vol. 93,7 (2013): 834-43. doi:10.1038/labinvest.2013.70
  10. Breuer, R I et al. “Short chain fatty acid rectal irrigation for left-sided ulcerative colitis: a randomised, placebo controlled trial.” Gut vol. 40,4 (1997): 485-91. doi:10.1136/gut.40.4.485
  11. Andoh, A et al. “Physiological and anti-inflammatory roles of dietary fiber and butyrate in intestinal functions.” JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition vol. 23,5 Suppl (1999): S70-3. doi:10.1177/014860719902300518
  12. Załęski, Andrzej et al. “Butyric acid in irritable bowel syndrome.” Przeglad gastroenterologiczny vol. 8,6 (2013): 350-3. doi:10.5114/pg.2013.39917;
  13. Menon, A. Nirmala, et al. “Essential Oil Composition of Four Major Cultivars of Black Pepper (Piper NigrumL.) III.” Journal of Essential Oil Research, vol. 15, no. 3, May 2003, pp. 155–157, 10.1080/10412905.2003.9712099
  14. Scandiffio, Rosaria et al. “Protective Effects of (E)-β-Caryophyllene (BCP) in Chronic Inflammation.” Nutrients vol. 12,11 3273. 26 Oct. 2020, doi:10.3390/nu12113273!po=2.63158
  15. ‌Wiegertjes, Renske et al. “A roadmap to target interleukin-6 in osteoarthritis.” Rheumatology (Oxford, England) vol. 59,10 (2020): 2681-2694. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keaa248;
  16. El-Sheikh, Sawsan M A et al. “Anti-arthritic effect of β-caryophyllene and its ameliorative role on methotrexate and/or leflunomide-induced side effects in arthritic rats.” Life sciences vol. 233 (2019): 116750. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116750
  17. Ullah, Hammad et al. “Improvement of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction by β-Caryophyllene: A Focus on the Nervous System.” Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 10,4 546. 1 Apr. 2021, doi:10.3390/antiox10040546
  18. Hashiesh, Hebaallah Mamdouh et al. “Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: A Dietary Cannabinoid in Diabetes and Associated Complications.” Nutrients vol. 12,10 2963. 28 Sep. 2020, doi:10.3390/nu12102963
  19. Jiang, Li-Ning et al. “Lycopene exerts anti-inflammatory effect to inhibit prostate cancer progression.” Asian journal of andrology, vol. 21,1 80–85. 7 Sep. 2018, doi:10.4103/aja.aja_70_18;
  20. Sesso, Howard D et al. “Plasma lycopene, other carotenoids, and retinol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in men.” The American journal of clinical nutrition vol. 81,5 (2005): 990-7. doi:10.1093/ajcn/81.5.990
  21. Hadad, Nurit, and Rachel Levy. “The synergistic anti-inflammatory effects of lycopene, lutein, β-carotene, and carnosic acid combinations via redox-based inhibition of NF-κB signaling.” Free radical biology & medicine vol. 53,7 (2012): 1381-91. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.07.078
  22. Harris, Randall E et al. “Aspirin, ibuprofen, and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cancer prevention: a critical review of non-selective COX-2 blockade (review).” Oncology reports vol. 13,4 (2005): 559-83.
  23. Chung, Rosanna W S et al. “Lutein exerts anti-inflammatory effects in patients with coronary artery disease.” Atherosclerosis vol. 262 (2017): 87-93. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.05.008
  24. Nakamura, Mieko, and Minoru Sugiura. “Serum Lutein and Zeaxanthin Are Inversely Associated with High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Non-Smokers: The Mikkabi Study.” Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 11,2 259. 28 Jan. 2022, doi:10.3390/antiox11020259;
  25. Reider, Carroll A et al. “Inadequacy of Immune Health Nutrients: Intakes in US Adults, the 2005-2016 NHANES.” Nutrients vol. 12,6 1735. 10 Jun. 2020, doi:10.3390/nu12061735
  26. Reifen, Ram. “Vitamin A as an anti-inflammatory agent.” The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society vol. 61,3 (2002): 397-400. doi:10.1079/PNS2002172
  27. Simopoulos, Artemis P. “The Importance of the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Cardiovascular Disease and Other Chronic Diseases.” Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood, N.J.), vol. 233, no. 6, 2008, pp. 674–88, 10.3181/0711-MR-311;
  28. Eaton, S.B., et al. “Dietary Intake of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids during the Paleolithic.” World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 1998, pp. 12–23, 10.1159/000059672;
  29. Crawford, M.A. “Fatty-Acid Ratios in Free-Living and Domestic Animals.” The Lancet, vol. 291, no. 7556, June 1968, pp. 1329–1333, 10.1016/s0140-6736(68)92034-5;
  30. Crawford, M A, et al. “Linoleic Acid and Linolenic Acid Elongation Products in Muscle Tissue of Syncerus Caffer and Other Ruminant Species.” Biochemical Journal, vol. 115, no. 1, 1 Oct. 1969, pp. 25–27, 10.1042/bj1150025;
  31. Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79. doi: 10.1016/s0753-3322(02)00253-6;
  32. Patterson, E, et al; “Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids”; Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism; Volume 2012;
  33. Grosso, Giuseppe, et al. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression: Scientific Evidence and Biological Mechanisms.” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2014, 2014, pp. 1–16, 10.1155/2014/313570;
  34. Sublette, M. Elizabeth, et al. “Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Essential Fatty Acid Status as a Predictor of Future Suicide Risk.” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 6, 1 June 2006, pp. 1100–1102, 10.1176/ajp.2006.163.6.1100;
  35. Kromhout, Daan, and Janette de Goede. “Update on Cardiometabolic Health Effects of ω-3 Fatty Acids.” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 25, no. 1, Feb. 2014, pp. 85–90, 10.1097/mol.0000000000000041;
  36. Huang, Tao, et al. “Plasma Phospholipids N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome.” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 54, no. 11, 1 Nov. 2010, pp. 1628–1635, 10.1002/mnfr.201000025;
  37. Huang, Tao, et al. “Increased Plasma N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Is Associated with Improved Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes in China.” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 54 Suppl 1, 1 May 2010, pp. S112-119, 10.1002/mnfr.200900189;
  38. Ramel, A., et al. “Beneficial Effects of Long-Chain N-3 Fatty Acids Included in an Energy-Restricted Diet on Insulin Resistance in Overweight and Obese European Young Adults.” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 7, 20 May 2008, pp. 1261–1268, 10.1007/s00125-008-1035-7;
  39. Simopoulos, Artemis. “An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity.” Nutrients, vol. 8, no. 3, 2 Mar. 2016, p. 128, 10.3390/nu8030128;
  40. Vangaveti, V, et al; “Hydroxyoctadecadienoic Acids: Oxidised Derivatives of Linoleic Acid and Their Role in Inflammation Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer”; European Journal of Pharmacology; 785:70-76; August 15, 2016;
  41. Tavares, Letícia Ferreira, et al; “Relationship Between Ultra-Processed Foods and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents From a Brazilian Family Doctor Program”; Public Health Nutrition; 15(1):82-7; Jan 2012;
  42. Yamashima, Tetsumori, et al. “Intake of ω-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Rich Vegetable Oils and Risk of Lifestyle Diseases.”Advances in Nutrition, vol. 11, no. 6, July 2020, pp. 1489–509,
  43. Andargie, Mebeaselassie, et al. “Lignans of Sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.): A Comprehensive Review.” Molecules, vol. 26, no. 4, 7 Feb. 2021, p. 883, 10.3390/molecules26040883;
  44. Pang, Lizhi et al. “Delta-5-desaturase: A novel therapeutic target for cancer management.” Translational oncology vol. 14,11 (2021): 101207. doi:10.1016/j.tranon.2021.101207;
  45. Fujiyama-Fujiwara, Yoko, et al. “Effects of Sesamin and Curcumin on .DELTA.5-Desaturation and Chain Elongation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolism in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes.” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 38, no. 4, 1992, pp. 353–363, 10.3177/jnsv.38.353;
  46. Chavali, S.R., and R.A. Forse. “Decreased Production of Interleukin-6 and Prostaglandin E2 Associated with Inhibition of Delta5 Desaturation of ω6 Fatty Acids in Mice Fed Safflower Oil Diets Supplemented with Sesamol.” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA), vol. 61, no. 6, Dec. 1999, pp. 347–352, 10.1054/plef.1999.0112;
  47. Fujiyama-Fujiwara, Y., et al. “Effects of Sesamin on the Fatty Acid Composition of the Liver of Rats Fed N-6 and N-3 Fatty Acid-Rich Diet.” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 41, no. 2, 1 Apr. 1995, pp. 217–225, 10.3177/jnsv.41.217;
  48. Chavali, S.R., et al. “Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Increases TNF-α, and Decreases IL-6, IL-10 in Response to LPS: Effects of Sesamin on the Δ-5 Desaturation of ω6 and ω3 Fatty Acids in Mice.” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 58, no. 3, Mar. 1998, pp. 185–191, 10.1016/s0952-3278(98)90112-0;
  49. ‌Belury MA, Cole RM, Snoke DB, Banh T, Angelotti A. Linoleic acid, glycemic control and Type 2 diabetes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2018 May;132:30-33. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2018.03.001;
  50. Miller, Lindsey et al. “The Effect of Daily Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) Consumption on High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Healthy Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Nutrients vol. 13,10 3620. 15 Oct. 2021, doi:10.3390/nu13103620;
  51. Butawan, Matthew, et al. “Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement.” Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 3, 16 Mar. 2017, p. 290, 10.3390/nu9030290;
  52. Fili CV, Lin L, Chapman J, Hamilton D, Yates CR; “Methylsulfonylmethane and Sesame Seed Oil Improve Dyslipidemia and Modulate Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolism in Two Mouse Models of Diabetes”; J Med Food. 2022 Jun;25(6):607-617. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2021.0196;
  53. Fili CV, Lin L, Chapman J, Hamilton D, Yates CR; “MSM and sesame seed oil improve hyperlipidemia and PUFA metabolism in the db/db mouse”; bioRxiv Pre-Print 2020.12.30.424717; (Full-Text PDF)
  54. Kovács, Csaba et al. “Effects of sulfur bath on hip osteoarthritis: a randomized, controlled, single-blind, follow-up trial: a pilot study.” International journal of biometeorology vol. 60,11 (2016): 1675-1680. doi:10.1007/s00484-016-1158-3
  55. Kovács, Csaba et al. “The effect of sulphurous water in patients with osteoarthritis of hand. Double-blind, randomized, controlled follow-up study.” Clinical rheumatology vol. 31,10 (2012): 1437-42. doi:10.1007/s10067-012-2026-0
  56. Usha PR, Naidu MU.; “Randomised, Double-Blind, Parallel, Placebo-Controlled Study of Oral Glucosamine, Methylsulfonylmethane and their Combination in Osteoarthritis.”; Clin Drug Investig. 2004;24(6):353-363. doi:10.2165/00044011-200424060-00005;
  57. Navarini, Luca et al. “Polyunsaturated fatty acids: any role in rheumatoid arthritis?.” Lipids in health and disease vol. 16,1 197. 10 Oct. 2017, doi:10.1186/s12944-017-0586-3
  58. Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Ifigenia et al. “The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Rheumatoid Arthritis.” Mediterranean journal of rheumatology vol. 31,2 190-194. 30 Jun. 2020, doi:10.31138/mjr.31.2.190
  59. Clayton, Paul et al. “Palmitoylethanolamide: A Natural Compound for Health Management.” International journal of molecular sciences vol. 22,10 5305. 18 May. 2021, doi:10.3390/ijms22105305
  60. Keppel Hesselink, J. et al. Aug. 2013. “Palmitoylethanolamide: A Natural Body-Own Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Effective and Safe against Influenza and Common Cold.” International Journal of Inflammation vol. 2013.
  61. Brugnatelli, Viola et al. “Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Manipulating the Endocannabinoid System as First-Line Treatment.” Frontiers in neuroscience vol. 14 371. 21 Apr. 2020, doi:10.3389/fnins.2020.00371
  62. Keppel Hesselink, J. et al. Oct. 2012. “Therapeutic Utility of Palmitoylethanolamide in The Treatment of Neuropathic Pain Associated with Various Pathological Conditions: A Case Series.” Journal of Pain Research vol. 5; 437-42.
  63. Keppel Hesselink, J. et al. Oct. 2015. “Palmitoylethanolamide, A Neutraceutical, in Nerve Compression Syndromes: Efficacy and Safety in Sciatic Pain and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.” Journal of Pain Research vol. 8; 729-34.
  64. Raichlen, David A et al. “Wired to run: exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling in humans and cursorial mammals with implications for the ‘runner’s high’.” The Journal of experimental biology vol. 215,Pt 8 (2012): 1331-6. doi:10.1242/jeb.063677
  65. Barrie, Nicola, and Nicholas Manolios. “The endocannabinoid system in pain and inflammation: Its relevance to rheumatic disease.” European journal of rheumatology vol. 4,3 (2017): 210-218. doi:10.5152/eurjrheum.2017.17025
  66. Skaper S. et al. Oct. 2013. “Glia and Mast Cells as Targets for Palmitoylethanolamide, an Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective Lipid Mediator.” Molecular Neurobiology vol. 48,2; 340-52.
  67. DiSilvestro, Robert A, et al. “Diverse Effects of a Low Dose Supplement of Lipidated Curcumin in Healthy Middle Aged People.” Nutrition Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, 26 Sept. 2012, 10.1186/1475-2891-11-79;
  68. Jayaprakasha, G.K., et al. “Chemistry and Biological Activities of C. Longa.” Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 16, no. 12, Dec. 2005, pp. 533–548, 10.1016/j.tifs.2005.08.006;
  69. Amalraj A, Pius A, Gopi S, Gopi S. Biological activities of curcuminoids, other biomolecules from turmeric and their derivatives – A review. J Tradit Complement Med. 2016 Jun 15;7(2):205-233. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.05.005;
  70. Prasad, S., & Aggarwal, B. (2011). Turmeric, the Golden Spice. Oxidative Stress and Disease Herbal Medicine, 263-288. doi:10.1201/b10787-14;
  71. DiSilvestro, Robert A, et al. “Diverse Effects of a Low Dose Supplement of Lipidated Curcumin in Healthy Middle Aged People.” Nutrition Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, 26 Sept. 2012, 10.1186/1475-2891-11-79;
  72. Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W., et al. “Improvement in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Parameters in Beta-Thalassemia/Hb E Patients Treated with Curcuminoids.” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 43, no. 4-5, 1 Mar. 2010, pp. 424–429, 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.10.057;
  73. Baum, Larry, et al. “Six-Month Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Pilot Clinical Trial of Curcumin in Patients with Alzheimer Disease.” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 28, no. 1, Feb. 2008, pp. 110–113, 10.1097/jcp.0b013e318160862c;
  74. Biswas, Jaydip, et al. “Curcumin Protects DNA Damage in a Chronically Arsenic-Exposed Population of West Bengal.” Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 29, no. 6, 1 June 2010, pp. 513–524, 10.1177/0960327109359020;
  75. Srivastava, Shobhit, et al. “Curcuma Longa Extract Reduces Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Osteoarthritis of Knee: A Four-Month, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Inflammopharmacology, vol. 24, no. 6, 19 Oct. 2016, pp. 377–388, 10.1007/s10787-016-0289-9;
  76. T Krishnareddy, Naveen, et al. “A Novel Curcumin-Galactomannoside Complex Delivery System Improves Hepatic Function Markers in Chronic Alcoholics: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.” BioMed Research International, vol. 2018, 2018, p. 9159281, 10.1155/2018/9159281;
  77. Belcaro, Gianni, et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Meriva®, a Curcumin-Phosphatidylcholine Complex, during Extended Administration in Osteoarthritis Patients.” Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic, vol. 15, no. 4, 1 Dec. 2010, pp. 337–344;
  78. Chainani-Wu, Nita, et al. “High-Dose Curcuminoids Are Efficacious in the Reduction in Symptoms and Signs of Oral Lichen Planus.” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 66, no. 5, May 2012, pp. 752–760, 10.1016/j.jaad.2011.04.022;
  79. Khajehdehi, Parviz, et al. “Oral Supplementation of Turmeric Attenuates Proteinuria, Transforming Growth Factor-β and Interleukin-8 Levels in Patients with Overt Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy: A Randomized, Double-Blind and Placebo-Controlled Study.” Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, vol. 45, no. 5, 31 May 2011, pp. 365–370, 10.3109/00365599.2011.585622;
  80. Khajehdehi, Parviz, et al. “Oral Supplementation of Turmeric Decreases Proteinuria, Hematuria, and Systolic Blood Pressure in Patients Suffering from Relapsing or Refractory Lupus Nephritis: A Randomized and Placebo-Controlled Study.” Journal of Renal Nutrition, vol. 22, no. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. 50–57, 10.1053/j.jrn.2011.03.002;
  81. Hanai, Hiroyuki, et al. “Curcumin Maintenance Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis: Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 4, no. 12, Dec. 2006, pp. 1502–1506, 10.1016/j.cgh.2006.08.008;
  82. Amalraj, Augustine, et al. “A Novel Highly Bioavailable Curcumin Formulation Improves Symptoms and Diagnostic Indicators in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Dose, Three-Arm, and Parallel-Group Study.” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 20, no. 10, 2017, pp. 1022–1030, 10.1089/jmf.2017.3930;
  83. Xu XY, Meng X, Li S, Gan RY, Li Y, Li HB. Bioactivity, Health Benefits, and Related Molecular Mechanisms of Curcumin: Current Progress, Challenges, and Perspectives. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 19;10(10):1553. doi: 10.3390/nu10101553;
  84. Soleimani, V., Sahebkar, A., & Hosseinzadeh, H. (2018). Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its major constituent (curcumin) as nontoxic and safe substances: Review. Phytotherapy Research, 32(6), 985-995; doi:10.1002/ptr.6054;
  85. Camacho-Barquero, Laura, et al. “Curcumin, a Curcuma Longa Constituent, Acts on MAPK P38 Pathway Modulating COX-2 and INOS Expression in Chronic Experimental Colitis.” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 7, no. 3, Mar. 2007, pp. 333–342, 10.1016/j.intimp.2006.11.006;
  86. Aggarwal, Sita, et al. “Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) Down-Regulates Expression of Cell Proliferation and Antiapoptotic and Metastatic Gene Products through Suppression of IkappaBalpha Kinase and Akt Activation.” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 69, no. 1, 2006, pp. 195–206, 10.1124/mol.105.017400;
  87. Li, Cheng et al. “Curcuminoids: Implication for inflammation and oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases.” Phytotherapy research : PTR vol. 33,5 (2019): 1302-1317. doi:10.1002/ptr.6324
  88. Koeberle A, Northoff H, Werz O. Curcumin blocks prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis through direct inhibition of the microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 Aug;8(8):2348-55. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0290;
  89. Srivastava, Shobhit, et al. “Curcuma Longa Extract Reduces Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Osteoarthritis of Knee: A Four-Month, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Inflammopharmacology, vol. 24, no. 6, 19 Oct. 2016, pp. 377–388, 10.1007/s10787-016-0289-9;
  90. Belcaro, Gianni, et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Meriva®, a Curcumin-Phosphatidylcholine Complex, during Extended Administration in Osteoarthritis Patients.” Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic, vol. 15, no. 4, 1 Dec. 2010, pp. 337–344;
  91. Panahi, Yunes, et al. “Curcuminoid Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 28, no. 11, 22 May 2014, pp. 1625–1631, 10.1002/ptr.5174;
  92. Belcaro, G., et al. “Product-Evaluation Registry of Meriva®, a Curcumin-Phosphatidylcholine Complex, for the Complementary Management of Osteoarthritis.” Panminerva Medica, vol. 52, no. 2 Suppl 1, 1 June 2010, pp. 55–62;
  93. Togni, et al. “Comparative Evaluation of the Pain-Relieving Properties of a Lecithinized Formulation of Curcumin (Meriva®), Nimesulide, and Acetaminophen.” Journal of Pain Research, Mar. 2013, p. 201, 10.2147/jpr.s42184;
  94. Agarwal, Krishna Adit, et al. “Efficacy of Turmeric (Curcumin) in Pain and Postoperative Fatigue after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.” Surgical Endoscopy, vol. 25, no. 12, 14 June 2011, pp. 3805–3810, 10.1007/s00464-011-1793-z;
  95. Madhu, K., et al. “Safety and Efficacy of Curcuma Longa Extract in the Treatment of Painful Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Inflammopharmacology, vol. 21, no. 2, 16 Dec. 2012, pp. 129–136, 10.1007/s10787-012-0163-3;
  96. Nakagawa, Yasuaki, et al. “Short-Term Effects of Highly-Bioavailable Curcumin for Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Prospective Study.” Journal of Orthopaedic Science, vol. 19, no. 6, Nov. 2014, pp. 933–939, 10.1007/s00776-014-0633-0;
  97. Haroyan, Armine, et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Curcumin and Its Combination with Boswellic Acid in Osteoarthritis: A Comparative, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 18, no. 1, 9 Jan. 2018, 10.1186/s12906-017-2062-z;
  98. Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai, et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Curcuma Domestica Extracts Compared with Ibuprofen in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Multicenter Study.” Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 9, Mar. 2014, p. 451, 10.2147/cia.s58535;
  99. Panda, Sanjib kumar, et al. “A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled, Parallel-Group Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Curene® versus Placebo in Reducing Symptoms of Knee OA.” BioMed Research International, vol. 2018, 25 Oct. 2018, pp. 1–8, 10.1155/2018/5291945;
  100. Chandran, Binu, and Ajay Goel. “A Randomized, Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Curcumin in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis.” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 26, no. 11, 9 Mar. 2012, pp. 1719–1725, 10.1002/ptr.4639;
  101. Amalraj, Augustine, et al. “A Novel Highly Bioavailable Curcumin Formulation Improves Symptoms and Diagnostic Indicators in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Dose, Three-Arm, and Parallel-Group Study.” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 20, no. 10, 2017, pp. 1022–1030, 10.1089/jmf.2017.3930;
  102. Shep, Dhaneshwar, et al. “Safety and Efficacy of Curcumin versus Diclofenac in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Open-Label Parallel-Arm Study.” Trials, vol. 20, no. 1, 11 Apr. 2019, 10.1186/s13063-019-3327-2;
  103. Jamwal, Rohitash. “Bioavailable Curcumin Formulations: A Review of Pharmacokinetic Studies in Healthy Volunteers.” Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 16, no. 6, 2018, pp. 367–374, 10.1016/j.joim.2018.07.001;
  104. Jäger, Ralf, et al. “Comparative Absorption of Curcumin Formulations.” Nutrition Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, 24 Jan. 2014, 10.1186/1475-2891-13-11;
  105. Jäger, Ralf, et al. “Eight Weeks of a High Dose of Curcumin Supplementation May Attenuate Performance Decrements Following Muscle-Damaging Exercise.” Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 7, 23 July 2019, p. 1692, 10.3390/nu11071692;
  106. Papakonstantinou, Eleni, et al. “Hyaluronic Acid: A Key Molecule in Skin Aging.” Dermato-Endocrinology, vol. 4, no. 3, July 2012, pp. 253–258, 10.4161/derm.21923.
  107. Oe, Mariko et al. “Oral hyaluronan relieves knee pain: a review.” Nutrition journal vol. 15 11. 27 Jan. 2016, doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0128-2
  108. Asari, Akira et al. “Oral administration of high molecular weight hyaluronan (900 kDa) controls immune system via Toll-like receptor 4 in the intestinal epithelium.” The Journal of biological chemistry vol. 285,32 (2010): 24751-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.104950

Comments and Discussion (Powered by the PricePlow Forum)