NatureCity TrueNOx: Boost Nitric Oxide AND Cellular Energy

When we recently wrote our in-depth article on Peak ATP, we came to a conclusion that we need more stimulant-free pre-workout supplements with the ingredient inside!

We asked, and a company named NatureCity answered the call.

NatureCity TrueNOx

We asked for a stim-free nitric oxide boosting pre-workout supplement with Peak ATP, and we got it! NatureCity TrueNOx brings a 100% naturally-flavored, sweetened, and colored product with a clinically-verified dose of 400 milligrams of Peak ATP and far more.

So today we’re going to talk about NatureCity’s TrueNOx, an incredible naturally-flavored, naturally-sweetened stimulant-free nitric oxide (NO) boosting formula with a clinically-studied 400 milligram dose of Peak ATP, as we requested, with some other powerful ingredients like Nitrosigine and amla to push nitric oxide production to the next level.

TrueNOx’s Peak ATP in a Stimulant-Free Pre-Workout

Why are we so excited here? Peak ATP’s made from highly-stable disodium ATP — replenishing our body’s ATP (cellular energy) stores while we train — but it actually works through increased blood flow! Yet most dietary supplement formulators only consider the energy aspect, mostly putting it into stimulant-based supplements or capsules.

Once we realized that, we understood that there was a gap in the stim-free pre-workout “pump” space. And TrueNOx fills it.

This is a great opportunity to explore the connection between cellular energy production and NO-mediated vasodilation. There’s a lot more going on here than most realize, and TrueNOx is on to something that few brands in the sports nutrition niche have figured out.

One of the more surprising facts we’ll discuss is that increases in extracellular ATP cause significant improvements in cardiovascular function. We hear a lot about how ATP can benefit muscular power and athletic performance, but far less about its effect on the cardiovascular system.

It’s another great example of how cellular energy availability affects every aspect of human health. So let’s get into the details, but first, check the PricePlow news and deals:

NatureCity TrueNOx – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

Nitric Oxide – More than Just “Muscle Pump” Supplements

Nitric oxide boosting ingredients are incredibly common, forming the backbone of pretty much every product in one of the industry’s most popular categories, pre-workout supplement. But even though almost all serious supplement users take some kind of daily NO booster, there’s very little discussion of what it does for you beyond the superficial fact that NO can give you a nice pump.

Vasodilation for greater blood flow

PEAK ATP Triple Mechanism of Action

The PEAK ATP Triple Mechanism of Action, and much of it revolves around the increase in blood flow it supports. Modified image courtesy of TSI Group and PricePlow

Most of us know that NO leads to vasodilation (a mechanism that causes arteries to relax), which decreases cardiovascular resistance and relieves strain on your heart. The larger arterial diameter helps reducer blood pressure and heart rate, which benefits athletic performance and recovery, thanks to improved circulation.[1] And, in the long run, it can even reduce serious health risks.[2]

This vasodilation effect is usually what we get excited about with these stimulant-free pre-workout supplements — the improved blood flow it brings leads to tremendous benefits — and companies are more and more looking to replace heavy ingredients like citrulline to boost NO. More than just an energy substrate, Peak ATP is one of them.

But before getting into ingredients like Peak ATP, there’s even more that improved nitric oxide may be able to do:

Mitochondrial improvements and more

As an example, in a 2016 study, researchers claimed that an increase in NO production from a nitric oxide boosting ingredient was the main mechanism behind the reversal of mitochondrial damage in mice.[3]

NatureCity TrueNOxBut while these things are very important, the benefits of NO upregulation actually go far beyond them.

This is a startling fact since mitochondria are of fundamental importance to human health. Mitochondria affect so many different aspects of health that, in recent years, mitochondrial function has become a target of anti-aging research.[4]

Other studies have found that NO production is usually impaired in people who are insulin resistant,[5] which isn’t totally surprising. What may be surprising to most is that restoring NO production, with NO-boosting supplements like L-arginine, has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control.[6,7]

Point being, there’s a lot more going on here than “pumps” and “blood flow”. We can chase greater health overall. So let’s dig into how NatureCity is capturing this with TrueNOx:


In a single 1-scoop (4.8 gram) serving of TrueNOx, you get the following:

  • Nitrosigine (Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate) – 1,500 mg

    NatureCity TrueNOx Ingredients

    This TrueNOx formula is basically a wish-list of ingredients that work to naturally increase nitric oxide levels without sitting heavy in the stomach.

    NatureCity kicks off TrueNOx with Nutrition21’s Nitrosigine, one of the most sophisticated nitric-oxide boosting ingredients on the supplement market today.

    Since, as we said in the introduction, one of the goals of this formula is to help drive the production of NO, it makes total sense for NatureCity to lead with an arginine ingredient, since arginine is nitric oxide’s precursor. By raising arginine blood levels, Nitrosigine gives your body the substrate it needs for eNOS-mediated NO production.

    So why not just use regular L-arginine? Well, the supplement industry tried that for a while, but eventually researchers figured out that the oral bioavailability of generic arginine is pretty bad.[8-11]

    That’s how Nitrosigine was born. Nutrition21 set out to build a better arginine, one that’s absorbed more effectively by the human body.

    Readers who’ve been following the industry for a while probably know that citrulline, an arginine precursor, is commonly used to get around the arginine-bioavailability dilemma.[12] The problem with citrulline is that you need pretty big doses to achieve maximal effect: Gains on additional citrulline intake don’t really diminish until somewhere around the 10-grams-daily mark.[13,14] With Nitrosigine, we can achieve similar effect sizes at much smaller doses.

    Nitrosigine’s effects on NO and circulation

    In fact, one study found that a 1.5-gram dose of Nitrosigine increased flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of arterial blood flow, by 31%, while an enormous 8-gram dose of citrulline malate (CM) increased it by 34%.[15] In other words, Nitrosigine yielded approximately the same effect size with less than 25% of the dose required by CM… and if you really look at the data, Nitrosigine was a bit better, too!

    Nitrosigine Arginine Inositol Silicate

    Not only does Nitrosigine immediately boost N.O. levels, it keeps them elevated for a period of up to 2 weeks!

    So what is Nitrosigine? It’s a trademarked and patented complex of arginine, inositol, and potassium silicate, abbreviated in research to ASI.[16]

    The reason for Nitrosigine’s superior bioavailability is that the inositol and potassium silicate protect the arginine molecule from degradation by stomach enzymes.[17] This spares the arginine from the first pass effect because it remains intact until it reaches the intestines where its absorbed into the bloodstream.[18]

    Nitrosigine is both fast-acting and long-lasting. It takes effect as soon as 30 minutes after its ingested, with effects lasting as up to six hours.[19,20]

    Nitrosigine’s cognitive benefits

    NO boosters are usually discussed in the context of physical performance, and although this is important, we like to bring up the cognitive effects of increased NO production whenever we discuss Nitrosigine.

    Cognitive recovery from exercise is something that people don’t talk about much, but it’s also important. We all know how debilitating it can be to push ourselves in the gym and then deal with the brain fog that follows for the rest of the day.

    Nitrosigine vs. Other Nitric Oxide Ingredients

    Nitrosigine vs. Other Nitric Oxide Ingredients[21] Image courtesy Nutrition21

    Fortunately, there’s an awesome body of literature showing that Nitrosigine is particularly good at improving certain dimensions of cognitive performance, even compared to other NO boosters. After all, the brain is no less affected by circulation than any other organ in the body. And, in fact, the brain is especially hungry for the oxygen, ketones, and glucose that blood carries. Nitrosigine’s ability to improve cerebral blood flow through NO upregulation means that it can help prevent the temporary cognitive impairment that typically follows an exhaustive workout.[22]

    In healthy young men, specifically those who had not recently exercised, Nitrosigine supplementation improved multitasking.[23] Additionally, a 2021 study found that subjects taking Nitrosigine did better on a memory test than those taking a placebo.[24]

    These cognitive benefits are an important part of adapting to a demanding workout regimen, and not burning out before attaining your goals. That’s why we see pre-workout formulas increasingly offering some kind of nootropic support, and why we like to see Nitrosigine in TrueNOx.

  • Organic Beet Root Juice Powder – 1,000 mg

    Beetroot is a great whole-food NO booster. It’s rich in nitrates, which get converted into NO by the salivary glands[25-27] via the nitrate-nitrite pathway.[28,29]

    A 2013 meta-analysis on the effects of nitrate supplementation found that it can have the following effects:[30]

    NatureCity TrueNOx

    TrueNOx harnesses the power of beets to amplify our nitric oxide production even more

    • Improved circulation[31]
    • Increased aerobic efficiency[31-34]
    • Increased strength[35,36]
    • Accelerated recovery[30]
    • Increased cellular energy production[36-38]

    Yet, as you’ll see as a theme in this supplement, the ingredient brings more than just one benefit!

    Metabolic benefits of beets – betalain and betanin

    We all know that beets are naturally an intensely bright purple color. The chemical compounds responsible for their hue are a group of pigments called betalains, which come with a pretty impressive set of health benefits.


    Because these pigments partly evolved as a way for the plant to defend itself against attacks by parasites and microorganisms, betalains have powerful anti-microbial properties that are based on betalains’ ability to directly destroy the cellular membranes of microbes.[29,33]

    Studies on betanin, a betalain-rich food colorant derived from beets, have found that they have powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.[29]

    These effects are so strong that betalains can actually have indirect metabolic benefits. One animal study found that when diabetic mice were given a betalain-rich extract, their high blood sugar levels dropped by an impressive 40%.[31]

    Beets are also rich in quercetin, which has similar effects on glycemic control and cellular metabolism.[32] Quercetin acts partly by inhibiting the action of glucose transporter 2, thus preventing your body from absorbing ingested carbohydrates.[32]

    Betalains may also prevent plaques from forming in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients[34] and have been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells in vitro.[35]

  • Capros Amla Fruit Extract (Phyllanthus emblica) (standardized to minimum 60% tannins) – 500 mg

    Amla Indian Gooseberry Phyllanthus Emblica

    Amla, also known as Indian Gooseberry, has many incredible cardioprotective properties

    Amla, also known by its scientific names Phyllanthus emblica, Indian Gooseberry, and Emblica officinalis, is a fruit tree with a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine. It’s been used for millennia to treat circulatory disorders and to enhance general cardiovascular health.[37]

    How amla improves arterial function by increasing NO production

    Modern scientific research has largely borne this traditional wisdom out, as specific antioxidants in amla have been identified as enhancing endothelial function while inhibiting the formation of platelets,[36] which are known for their contributions to significant cardiovascular events.

    In animal studies, amla has been shown to have a significant anti-hypertensive effect through its activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme responsible for producing NO inside your arteries[39] which is expressed under normal, healthy conditions.

    NatureCity TrueNOx

    One of the constituents at work here is gallic acid, which naturally occurs at high concentrations in amla fruit[40] and has been shown to inhibit the degradation of eNOS, thus effectively raising eNOS levels and increasing NO production.[41]

    eNOS vs. iNOS – amla’s localized upregulation of NO

    At the same time, amla downregulates a nitric oxide synthase called inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). This is generally a good thing, as iNOS is expressed during inflammation and is associated with the onset of several major diseases.[35.36]

    This apparent paradox in the function of NO – in which it benefits endothelial function but also causes potentially damaging inflammation – can be resolved by understanding that eNOS is situated in endothelial cells and is responsible for regulating blood flow, whereas iNOS is situated in immune cells (like macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils),[42] and is part of an immune response.

    Nitric Oxide Benefits

    Important functions of the different Nitric Oxide Synthase isoforms.[43]

    Since NO is actually a free radical, large amounts in the wrong places are considered toxic, and iNOS generates NO in huge quantities as part of a deliberate attempt to poison pathogens that could threaten your health.[44] Unfortunately, this iNOS-driven upregulation can cause collateral damage to your body, which is why it’s important to keep it under control. In other words, amla gives us more of the good nitric oxide synthase, while simultaneously decreasing our burden of bad nitric oxide synthase.

    The connection between ATP, nitric oxide, eNOS and arterial function

    Amla extracts are often standardized for a minimum content of low molecular weight tannins (LMWTs) that occur naturally in the amla tree. Some of these LMWTs include emblicanin-A, emblicanin-B, punigluconin, and pedunculagin.[38] The body metabolize these into urolithins A, B, C and D,[25] all of which are known to significantly improve mitochondrial function.[26]

    Here at PricePlow, we’re kind of obsessed with mitochondrial function because cells’ mitochondria are responsible for producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the body’s basic unit of energy.

    If your body were an automobile, ATP would be the gasoline. It’s that important.

    And that will bring us to the next section, because NatureCity’s going to add even more ATP to TrueNOx to further improve numerous health metrics:

  • Peak ATP (adenosine 5′-triphosphate disodium) – 400 mg

    Peak ATP is a patented[45-47] ingredient made of disodium ATP sold by TSI Group. After researching its mechanism, the patents, and studies described below, it’s the ingredient we wanted in a stimulant-free pre-workout supplement, and here it is with TrueNOx.

    Peak ATP provides us a way to provide exogenous ATP into the system – but as we’ll see, it’s really the blood flow generated that leads to such great benefits.

    ATP ADP Energy Cycle

    The ATP ADP Energy Cycle. Image courtesy TSI Group

    Continuing our conversation from above, higher levels of ATP production positively correlate with improved athletic performance and overall health.[48,49]

    But ATP upregulation also has a very specific effect that’s relevant to the purpose of TrueNOx. Research consistently shows that increased ATP production leads to increased eNOS expression, increased NO production, and improved arterial function.[50]

    To get really specific, your red blood cells, platelets, and endothelial cells release ATP in response to a variety of stimuli. This ATP then upregulates calcium within your endothelial membranes and causes the translocation of eNOS into endothelial cells, which then activates it.[50]

    Or, as another study puts it:

    Once released, ATP binds to purinergic (P2X and P2Y) receptors on endothelial cells. Binding results in the endothelial cells releasing nitric oxide via endothelial nitric oxide synthase, prostacyclin, and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, all 3 of which affect the smooth muscle of the vasculature via cyclic guanosine monophosphate, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and hyperpolarization, respectively.[30]

    Given the close connection between ATP and NO-driven vasodilation — a topic we just covered in the amla section — it’s probably no longer a surprise to see Peak ATP, a form of exogenous ATP, closing out the TrueNOx formula.

    PeakATP Logo

    PeakATP is another ATP enhancing compound that is comprised of a slightly different make than elevATP and needs a much higher dose to be effective.

    There’s a ton of great research on the effect that this specific form of supplemental ATP has on NO and circulation – some of it on generic disodium ATP, and some of it specifically on PeakATP.

    • PeakATP improves circulation in the arm

      In one study, 12 college-aged males were given 400 milligrams of PeakATP daily for 12 weeks, and at various points had their blood flow through their brachial arteries. These measurements were taken immediately after the subjects had completed an arm exercise, so the idea was to see whether the PeakATP was changing their cardiovascular response to exercise.

      Peak ATP Blood Flow

      400 mg of PEAK ATP® supplementation significantly increased blood
      flow and significantly enhanced brachial artery dilation following resistance exercise.[30]

      As you can no doubt see from the above graph illustrating the study results, supplementation with PeakATP was found to significantly increase the vasodilatory effect of exercise. Immediately after physical activity concluded, the PeakATP group had an impressive 50% greater blood flow than the control group.[30]

    • Wilson et al. 2013 – more info on the vasodilatory effect of ATP

      The practical benefit of this improvement to blood flow is ergogenic effects. Because ATP helps your body circulate blood more efficiently, your cells get oxygen and nutrients more easily, and this translates into real-world performance improvements.

      PEAK ATP Purinergic Receptors

      Image courtesy of PeakATP.com

      That’s exactly what a 2013 study in healthy young men found. In response to a structured training program, 12 weeks of disodium ATP supplementation improved whole-body strength, vertical jump power, and muscle thickness[51].

      The authors of the study shed some light on why this was the case:[51]

      “It has been reported that the half-life of infused ATP is less than one second, ATP is rapidly taken up and stored by erythrocytes. This rapid uptake by erythrocytes is central to its role in affecting blood flow and oxygen delivery to oxygen-depleted tissue. Specifically, there is a tight coupling between oxygen demand in skeletal muscle and increases in blood flow. Erythrocytes regulate this response by acting as “oxygen sensors”. When oxygen is low in a working muscle region, the red blood cell deforms, and releases ATP. The result is vasodilation and greater blood flow to the working musculature, thereby enhancing nutrient and oxygen delivery.”[51]

      Peak ATP

      Peak ATP is a patented oral ATP supplement that’s been shown to increase blood flow, boost muscle activation through calcium release, and help boost muscle mass, strength, and recovery. This article covers the biochemistry, mechanism, and human research in detail.

      If you combine this quote with the one we provided at the end of the amla section, you get a pretty complete picture of how ATP upregulation can drive NO-mediated vasodilation.

      The ATP released by erythrocytes binds to endothelial cells, triggering NO production, which in turn increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) activity. Both cGMP and cAMP are known to drive the process of arterial relaxation that’s at the heart of vasodilation.[52]

    There’s far more research involved — you can see the rest of it in our main article titled PEAK ATP: The Ultimate Guide to Disodium ATP Supplements.

    However, we’ll close with a 2021 review article’s incredible conclusion on Disodium ATP supplementation, which gives you the breadth of health benefits this ingredient can support:[53]

    The available literature on ATP disodium when provided in a dose of at least 400 mg approximately 30 min before a workout or 20–30 min before breakfast on non-exercise days provides insight into its potential to reduce fatigue (Purpura et al., 2017,[54] Rathmacher et al., 2012[55]), increase strength and power (Wilson et al., 2013[51]), improve body composition (Hirsch et al., 2017[56], Wilson et al., 2013[51]), maintain muscle health during stress (Long and Zhang, 2014,[57] Wilson et al., 2013[51]), increase recovery and reduce pain (de Freitas et al., 2018[58], Khakh and Burnstock, 2009,[59] Wilson et al., 2013[51]). Additionally, other literature indicates a role for ATP in improving cardiovascular health (Hirsch et al., 2017,[56] Ju et al., 2016,[60] Rossignol et al., 2005[61]).[53]

    Now that’s a lot of research on an ingredient, and it blows our minds that Peak ATP is so rarely used in stimulant-free pre-workout supplements where its multiple mechanisms of action can have such a profound effect!

  • Chromium [as chromium complex with Phyllanthus emblica fruit and purified shilajit (Crominex 3+)] – 400 mcg (1,143%)

    Veteran supplement consumers might be surprised to see chromium in a NO-boosting formula, since chromium is usually employed as a glycemic control agent, helping keep blood glucose levels from rising too high by increasing insulin sensitivity.

    As it turns out, there’s actually a close connection between glycemic status and NO production. Blood glucose is a nitric oxide scavenger, meaning it can chemically de-activate NO, thus preventing NO from triggering the vasodilatory effect we want.[62]

    PeakATP by TSI

    In one animal study, using chromium supplementation to reduce blood glucose levels in hypertensive animals actually restored NO signaling, and helped the animals’ arteries relax.[63]

    How chromium improves glycemic control

    Chromium helps improve insulin signaling by interacting with an oligopeptide called chromodulin.[64,65]

    Chromodulin is responsible for activating insulin receptors that line the surface of your cells, which causes those cells to take up glucose.[66] Cellular glucose uptake is what actually brings your blood glucose levels down.

    As it turns out, chromodulin works by imitating insulin itself. But it isn’t just an insulin impostor – it also helps insulin do its job better, meaning there are synergistic effects between chromodulin and insulin.[67]

    Chromium activates AMPK

    Chromium also upregulates an enzyme called adenosine monophosphate-activated protein (AMPK)[68] through its interaction with chromodulin.[69]

    AMPK Biological Roles

    Major roles AMP Kinase (AMPK) is proposed to regulate in terms of metabolism and skeletal muscle gene expression.[70]

    AMPK is one of your body’s metabolic master switches – it signals to your mitochondria that it’s time to produce cellular energy.[71] So more AMPK activity basically means more calories burned as your cells convert glucose and fatty acids into ATP.[72]The glucose burned by your cells in this process comes from your bloodstream, meaning that increased metabolic rate via AMPK upregulation is also helping to bring your blood glucose levels down. Thus, AMPK upregulation has been shown to increase fat burning and muscle mass.[73]

    In short, a very cool way to end an NO formula!

Conclusion: TrueNOx Enters the NO Game with a Grand Slam

NatureCity TrueNOx

We asked for Peak ATP in a stim-free pre-workout supplement like this, and we sure got it. Little did we know that the formulators would also include many of our other favorite ingredients as well!

Of course, we always love seeing industry heavy-hitter NO booster Nitrosigine show up, but with the added Peak ATP and amla, there’s even more to this one. One thing we really appreciate about TrueNOx is its emphasis on ATP-mediated vasodilation.

We’re seeing a trend in the supplement industry, across the board and in every product category, toward a recognition of ATP and cellular energy being one of the most fundamental mechanisms of action for any effect we try to get from nutritional supplements.

In our opinion, this is a great trend. ATP is unbelievably important, which is why we write about it all the time here in the PricePlow Blog. To that point, TrueNOx truly delivers.

NatureCity TrueNOx – Deals and Price Drop Alerts

Get Price Alerts

No spam, no scams.

Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.


  1. Bescós, Raúl et al. “The effect of nitric-oxide-related supplements on human performance.” Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) vol. 42,2 (2012): 99-117. doi:10.2165/11596860-000000000-00000 https://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11596860-000000000-00000
  2. Naseem, Khalid M. “The role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular diseases.” Molecular aspects of medicine vol. 26,1-2 (2005): 33-65. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2004.09.003 https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0098-2997(04)00075-5
  3. Ramírez-Sánchez I, Rodríguez A, Moreno-Ulloa A, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. (-)-Epicatechin-induced recovery of mitochondria from simulated diabetes: Potential role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2016 May;13(3):201-10. doi: 10.1177/1479164115620982; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5107246/
  4. Sun, Nuo et al. “The Mitochondrial Basis of Aging.” Molecular cell vol. 61,5 (2016): 654-666. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2016.01.028 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/26942670/
  5. Tessari, Paolo et al. “Nitric oxide synthesis is reduced in subjects with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.” Diabetes vol. 59,9 (2010): 2152-9. doi:10.2337/db09-1772 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2927936/
  6. Piatti, P M et al. “Long-term oral L-arginine administration improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.” Diabetes care vol. 24,5 (2001): 875-80. doi:10.2337/diacare.24.5.875 https://diabetesjournals.org/care/article-lookup/doi/10.2337/diacare.24.5.875
  7. Monti, L D et al. “Effect of a long-term oral l-arginine supplementation on glucose metabolism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.” Diabetes, obesity & metabolism vol. 14,10 (2012): 893-900. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2012.01615.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1326.2012.01615.x
  8. Castillo, L, et al. “Splanchnic Metabolism of Dietary Arginine in Relation to Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Normal Adult Man.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 1, 1 Jan. 1993, pp. 193–197; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC45626/
  9. Wu, Guoyao. “Intestinal Mucosal Amino Acid Catabolism.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 128, no. 8, 1 Aug. 1998, pp. 1249–1252, 10.1093/jn/128.8.1249; https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/128/8/1249/4722724
  10. O’sullivan, D., et al. “Hepatic Zonation of the Catabolism of Arginine and Ornithine in the Perfused Rat Liver.” Biochemical Journal, vol. 330, no. Pt 2, 1 Mar. 1998, p. 627, 10.1042/bj3300627; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC1219183/
  11. van de Poll, Marcel CG, et al. “Interorgan Amino Acid Exchange in Humans: Consequences for Arginine and Citrulline Metabolism.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 85, no. 1, 1 Jan. 2007, pp. 167–172, 10.1093/ajcn/85.1.167; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17209193/
  12. Schwedhelm, Edzard et al.; “Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism.”; British journal of clinical pharmacology vol. 65,1 (2008): 51-9.; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2291275/
  13. Allerton, Timothy D., et al. “L-Citrulline Supplementation: Impact on Cardiometabolic Health.” Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 7, 1 July 2018, p. 921, 10.3390/nu10070921; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073798/
  14. Moinard, C., et al. “Dose-Ranging Effects of Citrulline Administration on Plasma Amino Acids and Hormonal Patterns in Healthy Subjects: The Citrudose Pharmacokinetic Study.” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 99, no. 4, 22 Oct. 2007, pp. 855–862, 10.1017/s0007114507841110; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17953788/
  15. Rogers, Jeffrey M et al. “Acute effects of Nitrosigine® and citrulline malate on vasodilation in young adults.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 17,1 12. 24 Feb. 2020, doi:10.1186/s12970-020-00343-y https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041093/
  16. Vijaya Juturu V., Komorowski, JR. 2002. US7576132B2 – “Arginine Silicate Inositol Complex and use Thereof.” The United States Patent and Trademark Office. https://patents.google.com/patent/US7576132
  17. Sandler, D., et al. June 2016. “Absorption of Bonded Arginine Silicate Compared to Individual Arginine and Silicon Components.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 13. https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-016-0144-9
  18. Komorowski, J., Perez, S., & Sylla, S; “Arginase Inhibition by Inositol-stabilized Arginine Silicate (ASI; Nitrosigine); A Novel Mechanism by which ASI Enhances Arginine Bioavailability”; Poster Presentation. Retrieved from https://www.eventscribe.com/2018/Nutrition2018/ajaxcalls/PosterInfo.asp?efp=UlhTRFpZVVI0ODYw&PosterID=146640&rnd=0.1401379
  19. Rood-Ojalvo, S. et al. Sep. 2015. “The Benefits of Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate as a Workout Ingredient.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 12(S1). https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-12-S1-P14
  20. Kalman, D. et al. June 2018. “An Evaluation of the Effects of Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate (ASI; Nitrosigine) On Cognitive Flexibility.” Nutrients https://blog.priceplow.com/wp-content/uploads/nitrosigine-cognitive-flexibility-issn-2018.pdf
  21. Kalman, Douglas, et al. “Randomized Prospective Double-Blind Studies to Evaluate the Cognitive Effects of Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate in Healthy Physically Active Adults.”Nutrients, vol. 8, no. 11, Nov. 2016, p. 736, https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110736.
  22. Evans, M., Zakaria, N., & Marzuk, M; “An Evaluation of the Effects of Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate (ASI; Nitrosigine) in Preventing the Decline of Cognitive Function Caused by Strenuous Exercise”; International Society of Sports Nutrition 2018 Conference; 2018; https://blog.priceplow.com/wp-content/uploads/nitrosigine-preventing-cognitive-decline-caused-by-strenuous-exercise.pdf
  23. Kalman, D., Hewlings, S., Sylla, S., Ojalvo, S., & Komorrowski, J; “An evaluation of the effects of inositol-stabilized arginine silicate (ASI; Nitrosigine) on cognitive flexibility”; Nutrients; 2016; https://blog.priceplow.com/wp-content/uploads/nitrosigine-cognitive-flexibility-issn-2018.pdf
  24. Gills, Joshua L., et al. “Acute Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate Improves Cognitive Outcomes in Healthy Adults.” Nutrients, vol. 13, no. 12, 1 Dec. 2021, 10.3390/nu13124272; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8703995/
  25. Kapoor, Mahendra Parkash, et al. “Clinical Evaluation of Emblica Officinalis Gatertn (Amla) in Healthy Human Subjects: Health Benefits and Safety Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Placebo-Controlled Study.” Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, vol. 17, Mar. 2020, p. 100499, 10.1016/j.conctc.2019.100499; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC6926135/
  26. Larrosa, Mar, et al. “Ellagitannins, Ellagic Acid and Vascular Health.” Molecular Aspects of Medicine, vol. 31, no. 6, Dec. 2010, pp. 513–539, 10.1016/j.mam.2010.09.005; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20837052/
  27. Francaux, Marc, and Louise Deldicque. “Using Polyphenol Derivatives to Prevent Muscle Wasting.” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 21, no. 3, 1 May 2018, pp. 159–163, 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000455; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29356695/
  28. Domínguez, R. et al. Jan. 2017. “Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Athletes. A Systematic Review.” Nutrients vol. 9,1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5295087/
  29. Madadi, Elaheh et al. “Therapeutic Application of Betalains: A Review.” Plants (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 9,9 1219. 17 Sep. 2020, doi:10.3390/plants9091219; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569795/
  30. Jäger, Ralf, et al. “Oral Adenosine-5′-Triphosphate (ATP) Administration Increases Blood Flow Following Exercise in Animals and Humans.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 11, no. 1, 2014, p. 28, 10.1186/1550-2783-11-28; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-11-28
  31. Bolkent S., Yanardag R., Tabakoglu-Oguz A., Ozsoy-Saçan O. Effects of chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) extract on pancreatic B cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: A morphological and biochemical study. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000;73:251–259. doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00328-7; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378874100003287
  32. Song J., Kwon O., Chen S., Daruwala R., Eck P., Park J.B., Levine M. Flavonoid inhibition of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 (SVCT1) and glucose transporter isoform 2 (GLUT2), intestinal transporters for vitamin C and glucose. J. Biol. Chem. 2002;277:15252–15260. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110496200; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11834736/
  33. Čanadanović-Brunet J.M., Savatović S.S., Ćetković G.S., Vulić J.J., Djilas S.M., Markov S.L., Cvetković D.D. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of beet root pomace extracts. Czech J. Food Sci. 2011;29:575–585. doi: 10.17221/210/2010-CJFS; https://www.agriculturejournals.cz/web/cjfs.htm?volume=29&firstPage=575&type=publishedArticle
  34. Hadipour E., Taleghani A., Tayarani-Najaran N., Tayarani-Najaran Z. Biological effects of red beetroot and betalains: A review. Phytother. Res. 2020;34:1847–1867. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6653; https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.6653
  35. 65. Zielińska-Przyjemska M., Olejnik A., Dobrowolska-Zachwieja A., Łuczak M., Baer-Dubowska W. DNA damage and apoptosis in blood neutrophils of inflammatory bowel disease patients and in Caco-2 cells in vitro exposed to betanin. Adv. Hyg. Exp. Med. 2016;70:265–271. doi: 10.5604/17322693.1198989; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27117102/
  36. Khanna, Savita, et al. “Supplementation of a Standardized Extract from Phyllanthus Emblica Improves Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Platelet Aggregation in Overweight/Class-1 Obese Adults.” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 18, no. 4, Apr. 2015, pp. 415–420, 10.1089/jmf.2014.0178; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC4390209/
  37. Mirunalini, S., and M. Krishnaveni. “Therapeutic Potential of Phyllanthus Emblica (Amla): The Ayurvedic Wonder.” Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 21, no. 1, Jan. 2010, 10.1515/jbcpp.2010.21.1.93; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20506691/
  38. Usharani, Pingali, et al. “Effects of Phyllanthus Emblica Extract on Endothelial Dysfunction and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study.” Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, vol. 6, 26 July 2013, pp. 275–284, 10.2147/DMSO.S46341; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC3735284/
  39. Bhatia, Jagriti et al. “Emblica officinalis exerts antihypertensive effect in a rat model of DOCA-salt-induced hypertension: role of (p) eNOS, NO and oxidative stress.” Cardiovascular toxicology vol. 11,3 (2011): 272-9. doi:10.1007/s12012-011-9122-2 https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-011-9122-2
  40. ‌Patil, Poournima, and Suresh Killedar. “Chitosan and Glyceryl Monooleate Nanostructures Containing Gallic Acid Isolated from Amla Fruit: Targeted Delivery System.” Heliyon, vol. 7, no. 3, Mar. 2021, p. e06526, 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06526 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405844021006290
  41. Yan, Xiao et al. “Gallic Acid Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension and Vascular Dysfunction by Inhibiting the Degradation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.” Frontiers in pharmacology vol. 11 1121. 22 Jul. 2020, doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.01121 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/32848742/
  42. Xue, Qingjie et al. “Regulation of iNOS on Immune Cells and Its Role in Diseases.” International journal of molecular sciences vol. 19,12 3805. 29 Nov. 2018, doi:10.3390/ijms19123805 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6320759/
  43. Forstermann, U., and W. C. Sessa. “Nitric Oxide Synthases: Regulation and Function.”European Heart Journal, vol. 33, no. 7, Sept. 2011, pp. 829–37, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehr304.
  44. Guzik, T J et al. “Nitric oxide and superoxide in inflammation and immune regulation.” Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society vol. 54,4 (2003): 469-87. http://www.jpp.krakow.pl/journal/archive/12_03/pdf/469_12_03_article.pdf
  45. Rapaport, Eliezer; “Method of Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus by Administration of Adenosine 5′-Triphosphate and Other Adenine Nucleotides”; United States Patent 5547942A; August 20, 1996; https://patents.google.com/patent/US5547942A/en
  46. Rapaport, Eliezer; “Methods, Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Compostions For Administering Adenosine”; United States Patent 6723737B1; April 20, 2004; https://patents.google.com/patent/US6723737B1/en
  47. Lee, Steve S, et al; “Method for Increasing Muscle Mass and Strength Through Administration of Adenosine Triphosphate”; United States Patent 7629329B2; December 8, 2009; https://patents.google.com/patent/US7629329B2/en
  48. Hill, Shauna, and Holly Van Remmen. “Mitochondrial Stress Signaling in Longevity: A New Role for Mitochondrial Function in Aging.” Redox Biology, vol. 2, 2014, pp. 936–944, 10.1016/j.redox.2014.07.005. Accessed 20 Oct. 2021; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213231714000883
  49. “New Research on the Muscles of Elite Athletes: When Quality Is Better than Quantity.” ScienceDaily, 2016; https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161102132208.htm
  50. ‌Ramadoss, Jayanth, et al. “Endothelial Caveolar Hub Regulation of Adenosine Triphosphate–Induced Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Subcellular Partitioning and Domain-Specific Phosphorylation.” Hypertension, vol. 59, no. 5, May 2012, pp. 1052–1059, 10.1161/hypertensionaha.111.189498 https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/hypertensionaha.111.189498
  51. Wilson, Jacob M et al. “Effects of oral adenosine-5′-triphosphate supplementation on athletic performance, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery in resistance-trained men.” Nutrition & metabolism vol. 10,1 57. 22 Sep. 2013, doi:10.1186/1743-7075-10-57 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849389/
  52. ‌Ghalayini, I F. “Nitric Oxide–Cyclic GMP Pathway with Some Emphasis on Cavernosal Contractility.” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 16, no. 6, 1 July 2004, pp. 459–469, 10.1038/sj.ijir.3901256 www.nature.com/articles/3901256.pdf?origin=ppub
  53. Jäger, Ralf, et al. “Health and Ergogenic Potential of Oral Adenosine-5′-Triphosphate (ATP) Supplementation.” Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 78, Mar. 2021, p. 104357, 10.1016/j.jff.2021.104357. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464621000062
  54. Purpura, Martin, et al. “Oral Adenosine-5′-Triphosphate (ATP) Administration Increases Postexercise ATP Levels, Muscle Excitability, and Athletic Performance Following a Repeated Sprint Bout.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 36, no. 3, 1 Mar. 2017, pp. 177–183, 10.1080/07315724.2016.1246989; https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07315724.2016.1246989
  55. ‌Rathmacher, John A, et al. “Adenosine-5′-Triphosphate (ATP) Supplementation Improves Low Peak Muscle Torque and Torque Fatigue during Repeated High Intensity Exercise Sets.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 9, 9 Oct. 2012, p. 48, 10.1186/1550-2783-9-48; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3483284/
  56. S.P. Hirsch, L.G. Huber, R.A. Stein, K. Schmid, A.G. Swick, S.V. Joyal; “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the healthy levels of blood sugar and endothelial function of PEAK ATP® with GlycoCarn®, PEAK ATP® and GlycoCarn® supplementation versus placebo (Abstract)”; FASEB Journal, 31 (1) (2017), p. 973.978; doi:10.1096/fasebj.31.1_supplement.973.8; https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.31.1_supplement.973.8
  57. Long, Gong, and Guo Qiang Zhang. “Effects of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) on Early Recovery after Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study.” The Journal of Arthroplasty, vol. 29, no. 12, Dec. 2014, pp. 2347–2351, 10.1016/j.arth.2014.03.025; https://www.arthroplastyjournal.org/article/S0883-5403(14)00197-1/fulltext
  58. ‌Freitas MC, Cholewa JM, Gerosa-Neto J, Gonçalves DC, Caperuto EC, Lira FS, Rossi FE. A Single Dose of Oral ATP Supplementation Improves Performance and Physiological Response During Lower Body Resistance Exercise in Recreational Resistance-Trained Males. J Strength Cond Res. 2019 Dec;33(12):3345-3352. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002198; https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2019/12000/A_Single_Dose_of_Oral_ATP_Supplementation_Improves.18.aspx
  59. Khakh, Baljit S, and Geoffrey Burnstock. “The Double Life of ATP.” Scientific American, vol. 301, no. 6, 2009, pp. 84–90, 92; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877495/
  60. Ju, Jun, et al. “Treatment with Oral ATP Decreases Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood with de Novo ATP1A3 Mutation.” Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, vol. 11, no. 1, 4 May 2016, 10.1186/s13023-016-0438-7; https://ojrd.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13023-016-0438-7
  61. Rossignol, M., et al. “Measuring the Contribution of Pharmacological Treatment to Advice to Stay Active in Patients with Subacute Low-Back Pain: A Randomised Controlled Trial.” Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, vol. 14, no. 12, 2005, pp. 861–867, 10.1002/pds.1114; https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pds.1114
  62. Brodsky, Sergey V., et al. “Glucose Scavenging of Nitric Oxide.” American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, vol. 280, no. 3, 1 Mar. 2001, pp. F480–F486, 10.1152/ajprenal.2001.280.3.f480 https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajprenal.2001.280.3.F480
  63. Kopilas, Melanie A et al. “Effect of dietary chromium on resistance artery function and nitric oxide signaling in the sucrose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rat.” Journal of vascular research vol. 44,2 (2007): 110-8. doi:10.1159/000098483 https://www.karger.com/?DOI=10.1159/000098483
  64. ‌Vincent JB.; “Quest for the molecular mechanism of chromium action and its relationship to diabetes”; Nutr Rev; 2000; 58(3 Pt 1); 67‐72; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10812920/
  65. Vincent JB.; “Mechanisms of chromium action: low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance”; J Am Coll Nutr; 1999; 18(1); 6‐12; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10067653/
  66. Myers, M G Jr, and M F White; “The new elements of insulin signaling. Insulin receptor substrate-1 and proteins with SH2 domains”; Diabetes; vol. 42,5; 1993; 643-50; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8387037/
  67. Davis, C M, and J B Vincent; “Chromium oligopeptide activates insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity”; Biochemistry; vol. 36,15; 1997; 4382-5; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9109644/
  68. Zhao, Peng et al; “A newly synthetic chromium complex-chromium (D-phenylalanine)3 activates AMP-activated protein kinase and stimulates glucose transport”; Biochemical pharmacology; vol. 77,6; 2009; 1002-10; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19073152/
  69. Kim, Joungmok et al; “AMPK activators: mechanisms of action and physiological activities”; Experimental & molecular medicine; vol. 48,4; e224; 1 Apr. 2016; doi:10.1038/emm.2016.16; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4855276/
  70. Richter, ErikA., and NeilB. Ruderman. “AMPK and the Biochemistry of Exercise: Implications for Human Health and Disease.”Biochemical Journal, vol. 418, no. 2, Feb. 2009, pp. 261–75, https://doi.org/10.1042/bj20082055.‌
  71. Herzig, Sébastien, and Reuben J Shaw. “AMPK: guardian of metabolism and mitochondrial homeostasis.” Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology vol. 19,2 (2018): 121-135. doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.95; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/28974774/
  72. Marcinko, Katarina, and Gregory R Steinberg. “The role of AMPK in controlling metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis during exercise.” Experimental physiology vol. 99,12 (2014): 1581-5. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2014.082255 ; https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1113/expphysiol.2014.082255
  73. Vincent, J. B..; “Biochemistry of Chromium”; The Journal of Nutrition; Volume 130, Issue 4; April 2000; 715–718; https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/130/4/715/4686593