DMHA / 2-Aminoisoheptane / Octodrine: 2016’s Stimulant


DMHA: A new workout/focus stimulant that’s roughly ~80% the strength of DMAA, has animal research, and seems to be compliant? Healthy and experienced stimulant users read on!

New year, new stimulant? You bet your ass!

In the wake of the removal of other popular stimulants over the past few years, a battle has raged to fill the void left by the ingredients now gone. The supplement industry is still struggling to replace DMAA, whose fate will be decided in court this year and currently only Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals is selling.

Today we look at the latest stimulant, initially (yet incorrectly) labeled as 2-aminoisoheptane. It definitely looks like the “next big thing” in 2016.

Where does this ingredient fit into this new era of stimulants, and how does it work?

This post was most recently updated on February 15, 2015, to distinguish between the two different stimulants that fall under the name 2-aminoisoheptane.

Updated March 22, 2016: This post now reflects DMHA’s basis in nature!


  • This is actually a set of two different DMAA-like stimulants that we consider to be ~80% the effects of DMAA at appropriate doses.

    They works in the same fashion: by boosting dopamine and noradrenaline uptake, while slowing down reuptake just long enough for a solid workout or study session.

  • There two versions are named
    • 2-amino-6-methylheptane, and
    • 2-amino-5-methylheptane

    This article primarily focuses on the first one (with a 6, or ‘hex’).

  • We’re officially calling it DMHA for short here (as proposed by Bruce Kneller of Giant Sports).

    You’ll also see it as 2-Aminoisoheptane, but that is a vague name that doesn’t distinguish which of the above two compounds you’re getting. Other names are Octodrine, 2-amino-6-methylheptane, 6-methylheptan-2-amine, and 1,5-Dimethylhexylamine (hence DMHA).

  • Dose: for DMHA, 100-150mg orally seems to be the sweet spot, comparable to 35-50mg DMAA, but still a bit weaker. For the more potent 2-amino-5-methylheptane, ~75mg is said to be closer to the sweet spot.

    The DMHA version feels terrific but isn’t overwhelming. We expect to see doses ranging from 50mg-250mg, but won’t be going any higher than that in a 24 hour period. Read our early review here.

  • DMHA Supplements on the market: The current featured products are the Inspired Nutraceuticals DVST8 pre workout (powder) or the Gold Star Infrared fat burner (pills), but more are on their way out.
  • Side Effects: There is no long-term safety research, although it fared very well in several animals (including mammals), and has an incredibly high oral LD50 in rats.

    This class of compounds is less intense than amphetamine, and has far better safety parameters in animals. See the animal research discussing this. It’s also speculated that this will increase blood pressure, but we predict the rise will be less than that of DMAA.

  • Legality: FDA compliance issues are diminished due to it passing the FDA DSHEA “glance test”, although compliance can never be guaranteed. It is found in nature in the Kigelia Africana fruit.

    There is bigger concern that it will be turned into a prescription drug for its antibacterial and antifungal properties!

This post links to everything we could find on this stimulant.

Updated June 5, 2017: Australia is set to ban DMHA on October 1, 2017!

Rather watch and listen than read? See our DMHA Video!

A shortened version of this article is now on YouTube below:

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What is 2-aminoisoheptane / 2-amino-6?

2-aminoisoheptane is a DMAA-like stimulant that goes by several names. Unfortunately, it’s a vague name, and can actually mean two different stimulants:

  • 2-amino-6-methylheptane
  • 2-amino-5-methylheptane

This article primarily focuses on the ‘6’ version, or DMHA, due to it being the lower-cost one that’s currently on the market and has more research behind it.

Another names for this version is octodrine. We prefer DMHA, which is short for another of its names, 1,5-Dimethylhexylamine. If you see it labeled as 2-aminoisoheptane, you honestly don’t know what exact compound you’re getting, but it’s most likely 2-amino-6 due to lower cost.

This class of stimulants was first released in a supplement in 2013, and we’re now confident it was the 2-amino-5 version back then, but it was quickly removed from the market. In late 2015 and early 2016, however, the similar 2-amino-6 re-appeared in some pre workout supplements and fat burners, and looks to be the latest stimulant du-jour.

This time seems different, however, as there seem to be less FDA DSHEA compliance issues, and its potency is “just right” for a vast array of supplement users and stimulant-lovers alike. It has both the feel, the focus, and the performance-enhancing effect that so many athletes, students, and even programmers enjoy.

The proper labeling for this is most likely 2-amino-6-methylheptane or 2-amino-6-methylheptane HCl, not aconitum.

How it Works: The effect of 2-Aminoisoheptane / DMHA

DMHA shares similar structures to that of DMAA, DMBA (AMP Citrate), and tuaminoheptane (2-aminoheptane), all of which are considered sympathomimetic stimulants or psychostimulants (drugs and/or supplements that promote wakefulness).[2]

Because of the similarities, we can hypothesize how DMHA may exert its effects, however, until more human research is conducted on the compound, emphasis is placed on hypothetical — yet backed up with anecdotal feedback and animal studies discussed below.

Disclaimer: For healthy, experienced users only!

Immediately we must note that this stimulant is for advanced, experienced, and more aggressive users. If you need tons of proven long-term human safety research before using a new ingredient, this is not for you.

But if you know that you like a little bit of extra “feel” to your day, have enjoyed DMAA and/or AMP Citrate in the past, and have a clean bill of health and a physician’s approval, and are not on any prescription drugs, then keep reading:

The first point of interest is that 2-aminoisoheptane’s structural relations are known as monoamine releasing agents, which are compounds that have the capability of increasing levels of certain monoamines.[3,4] These monoamines, most notably dopamine and norepinephrine, are responsible for exerting many of the common effects that stimulants produce – including enhanced euphoria and wakefulness (alertness), respectively.[5]

In order for a compound to act as a releasing agent, the compounds must be structurally and metabolically related to the classical monoamine neurotransmitters.[3,4] In the case of DMAA and its structural relatives like DMHA, they share this structure and are able to release both dopamine and norepinephrine through activation of trace amine associated receptor 1, while temporarily preventing their reuptake into the presynaptic nerve. This stops their ability to bind to target receptors, keeping dopamine and norepinephrine active longer, thereby producing the stimulant-like effect that we all know and love.[3,4,6]

DMAA 2D Structure with PEA Backbone Highlighted

DMAA 2D Structure with PEA Backbone Highlighted


DMHA with 2D Structure with PEA Backbone Highlighted

The real trick is finding stimulants that do this mildly – not too long, not too strong. DMAA and DHMA are nearly perfect for these purposes – they’re structurally sound, but not so strong that they can’t be detached by our body’s enzymes. This is due to the structure:

The second common denominator between these three stimulants (DMAA, DMHA, and AMP Citrate) is the addition of a methyl group on the alpha carbon. This addition has three primary effects which are responsible for how the compound will behave within the body. They are:

  1. The methyl group acts to limit the effect of monoamine oxidase (MAO), which are a family of enzymes that break down monoamines. By interfering with MAO’s ability to breakdown the monoamines, the half life of DMHA should be of decent length, however we have no specific evidence pertaining to this compound.[7]

    But be careful of this statement. As alluded to above, we don’t want to block MAO for too long, otherwise things start to get real hairy real fast. Case in point: when you have two methyl groups positioned on an amphetamine molecule, you get a drug we all know by the name of methamphetamine, which has disastrous effects.

    When it comes to stimulants, too much is never a good thing.

  2. The second benefit of the methyl group is that it increases the amphiphilic nature of the compound — this is where it has both a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end. Translation in plain English: a “water-loving” end and a “water-fearing” end, respectively.

    Increasing a compound’s lipid solubility dramatically increases its ability to pass through the blood brain barrier where it is able to exert its focus-enhancing and euphoric effects.[8,9]

  3. The third benefit of the added methyl group is that it increases the compound’s affinity for the catecholamine transporters, thus decreasing the reuptake of norepinephrine and epinephrine.

    The more catecholamines that are free to interact with target transporters, the greater the effect of the stimulant. The greater the reuptake, the less catecholamines that are able to interact with target transporters and thus a decreased stimulant effect.[8,9]

We must urge you that there’s a lot more at play here, so don’t start looking for random stimulants with methyl groups in them. Most fail for one reason or another, but a handful of them exert the right amount of effects for the right amount of time.

Like DMAA, DMHA / 2-amino-6-methylheptane seems to hit the sweet spot in our testing so far.

Classified as a decongestant:

Further similarities: Drug suppliers categorize it as a decongestant.[10] This is exactly how DMAA and ephedrine both started out as well, and also in roughly the same historical timeframe.

Eskay's Oralator

Image courtesy the Smithsonian Institute.[11] The instructions from the other images state, “For temporary relief of coughs due to colds. Remove caps. Puncture tube at both ends. Close lips firmly over rounded end, inhale gently twice. Then take 4 to 6 deep breaths through tube, holding each breath several seconds. (If cough persists, discontinue use and consult your physician.)” This was a whopping 350mg dose. Is that jealousy we’re feeling here???

In fact, when searching for 2-amino-6-methylheptane, we found that the compound was used as the main active ingredient in Eskays Oralator, which was an inhalant designed to help provide relief for coughs and colds back in the 1950s. The Smithsonian states that each dose was 350mg[11] – more than we recommend in a 24 hour period!

We’re not sure what happened to that drug, but it seems to have lost favor due to the rise of ephedrine at the time. Although still legal, we can’t have ephedrine in supplements (a long story you can read in our massive ephedra post some day), so that’s led us on a decade-long search for the next best thing.

Alpha-1 Adrenergic?

The classification as a decongestant and previous use as a bronchodilator leads us to wonder how that came to be.

Bruce Kneller of Giant Sports also states the following:

The literature would tell me that most of the peripheral effects of 2AIH are going to be alpha1-adrenergic in scope. This probably means most people will notice vasoconstriction and mydriasis – it may also make you feel sweaty and may affect urination. — Bruce Kneller, Giant Sports International

Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupils. Animal research discussed below shows that it did not affect urination though. Many alpha-1 adrenergics also widen breathing passages.

The above part is a bit of conjecture though. Let’s turn to what we know from the past animal studies:

Animal Research from the 1940s and 1950s

In 1952, a study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology[12] briefly states the following:

Charlier (1951) showed that the respirations of dogs under chloralose were stimulated by 2-amino-6-methylheptane and that the stimulation lasted for more than sixty minutes. –D. E. Hutcheon[12] (emphasis ours)

The chloralose mentioned above is used as a sedative and anesthetic in animals, and DMHA stimulated them for a solid duration of time.

The 1952 study cited above was published about octylamines, a related group of compounds. One of the compounds it focuses on is 2-aminoheptane, or tuaminoheptane, which we mentioned in our intro above since it’s a close relative to DMHA (2-aminoisoheptane) here.

In the study, the authors concluded that this related group of compounds had a similar mechanism of action (MOA) of amphetamine, yet less stimulant and cardiovascular activity. Those compounds had nearly as long of a duration time, while being less toxic and having “better” (higher) LD50s.[12]

This type of compound almost exactly what we’re looking for – but note that the scientists were primarily discussing the related octylamines, not DMHA itself. We’re getting close, though.

Digging Deeper: Finding DMHA’s Pharmacological Research

Looking back at the 1951 Charlier study that they reference,[13] which was in the Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de thérapie (Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther), we currently run into a dead end and cannot find this paper. We’d love to find it since it’s titled “Pharmacology of 2-amino-6-methyl-heptane” – nearly exactly what we want to see.

What’s really special about DMHA is that there is absolute, virtually irrefutable data to show it is found in nature in something that has a long, pre-1994 history of being eaten as a foodstuff. — Bruce Kneller, Giant Sports

The good news is that we fare better with a different study of that same name (“The pharmacology of 2-amino-6-methylheptane”) that was published in 1947 in The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. PubMed has no abstract,[14] but the journal itself does,[15] and from the full text,[16]  we can learn the following:

  • DMHA increased the pain threshold in cats. It has local analgesic properties – and this also worked as an anesthetic in rabbit eyes!

  • When given to dogs intravenously, 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride exhibited 1/500-1/1000 the pressor activity of epinephrine — pressor activity means the ability to raise blood pressure.

    Note that epinephrine is a potent pressor (for instance, in humans, just 50ng per kg per minute administration to healthy men raises systolic blood pressure by 17),[17] so more investigation is needed here.

  • 2-amino-6-methylheptane HCl does increase cardiac rate

  • Intravenous use in dogs had no detectable effect on the small intestine, detrusor of the urinary bladder, urine secretion, nor respiration.

  • Intravenous LD50 toxicities are listed below:[16]


    Understand that the LD50 dose is the dose where half of the subjects die. So if you ever take a human LD50 dose of anything, you are literally flipping a coin with your life and need to contact poison control ASAP. We all respond differently, so we stay extremely far away from any such doses.

    • Mice: 59mg/kg
    • Rats: 41.5mg/kg
    • Rabbits: 44mg/kg
    • Guinea pigs: 39mg/kg

    Remember, that’s for intravenous use. Oral LD50s are far, far higher (538mg/kg in rats).[18] Also note that their sample sizes were relatively low and they had to interpolate some of this data, so it’s not perfect.

  • Autopsies after non-lethal 30-day large doses

    “Large” doses were given for 30 days to rats, rabbits, and guinea pigs. The researchers then removed tissue and found that they could not find any demonstrable damage.

    These larger month-long doses went as follows:[16]

    • Rats: 20mg/kg injected
    • Rats: 75 or 100mg/kg daily oral administrations
    • Guinea Pigs: 20 or 25mg/kg injected
    • Rabbits: 20mg/kg injected

    Those are all seriously high doses – the injections were roughly half of the LD50s – yet tissue damage in heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, intestine, stomach, brain, and spinal cord could not be found.

    Interestingly, the rats orally ingesting those extremely high doses became depressed. Too much of a stimulant is never a good thing.

But the most telling quote from this animal study is in the motor activity section shown below with accompanying chart:

“While there is an indication of more activity after S-51 [DMHA] than absorbed in normal rats, a typical “amphetamine-like” effect was never noted” — Edwin Fellows[16] (emphasis ours)


Motor Activity of Rats. A is control. B and C are after amphetamine. D, E, and F are after 2-amino-6-methylheptane administration intraperitoneally (injected into the body). G is after 150mgm orally – an extremely high dose for a mouse. The main point is that DMHA did not affect the rats nearly as much as amphetamine.[16]

In the charts above, the researchers looked at the movements across the cage that rats displayed. Their mechanical graphing devices (remember, this was 70 years ago) displayed a vertical line anytime they moved across the cage.

In the control situation, labeled A, the rats are pretty chill, occasionally moving about. In B and C, the rats were given amphetamine, and it clearly shows. In D, E, and F, they were fed intravenous amounts of DMHA, nearly to the point of killing them in F, where they were clearly agitated.

Yet group G was a high oral dose, which shows less franticness and more motor reasonable activity.

Basically, the oral DMHA had the rats moving about, but not banging their heads against the wall like they were with amphetamine.

It’s extremely difficult to base human central nervous system activity from rat studies though, so take it all with a grain of salt.

All in all, the data we’re seeing is positive and promising. It lasts a moderate amount of time and is less agitative than amphetamine. From every angle, we keep coming back to the same conclusion – these are the effects that reasonable stimulant users are looking for.

Now it’s time to get to the “review” section of this article. We’ll then discuss dosing, and come back to newly-published research that may have some implications for us in the future.

The feel of 2-aminoisoheptane: Our early DMHA review

Disclaimer: This section contains 100% anecdotal feedback – much of it my own. I must thereby inform you that PricePlow makes sales commissions from retailers when you buy any supplement using our links. However, we were not paid nor asked to write this document – the opinions inside are our own and and they are the honest truth.

Those of you that have read this blog know that we love DMAA, especially in the 25-50mg range, which we consider “comfortable”. I (Mike) have now taken two supplements containing 2-amino-6-methylheptane – one currently on the market and another coming soon – and the long story short is that it feels damned good. It has nearly all the focus of DMAA, yet perhaps not as much intensity. When I take it, things just get done, and they get done well.

This stuff makes the past AMP Citrate situation look like a joke, to be brutally honest.

IMHO, this is exactly what many users are looking for. For some, DMAA was a notch or two over the top. AMP Citrate never stood a chance legally. But DMHA just seems a tad more relaxed.

In the Instagram comments, I state the following: Well that was a fun workout. Heart rate was definitely elevated, mood great, monitor said I burned about 880 calories in 1:10. As you can imagine from the weight (and the “straight stim” comment), there’s no pump ingredients here. Glad I didn’t do a full serving. This was like 40%!! Gonna take a bit more to get some writing done now. Thinking that this is what everyone was hoping USPLabs would have come out with after Jack3d/DMAA was taken down.

See the image I posted to Instagram to the right — I went with a conservative dose that day. The workout was without a doubt quite elevated, but never unreasonable. I didn’t crash, but admittedly took a dash more to get some PricePlow work done after I got home. When using DMHA, I get a really solid 3-4 hours out of it, which is perfect in my opinion.

I’m clearly very bullish on this stim as a DMAA-alternative.

Other user reviews confirm

The above viewpoints are backed up by others who are anecdotally reporting a similar feel to DMAA and DMBA, with increased levels of focus and feelings of warmth. These helped popularize DMAA in both pre-workouts and thermogenic products. Even with 1,3 still quite freely available on the market, users are always looking for the next big thing.

As far as any crash goes, other testers report a much smoother ‘comedown’ compared to that of high dose caffeine and DMAA, enabling them to continue to have a good day long after the stimulant has worn off.

Other users have also stated that the effect lasts several hours and feel a heightened sense of euphoria and well-being during that period of time. This is what we predicted based on the structure and similarities to DMAA.

From these anecdotal reports and nearly-universal positive reviews, it’s likely that products with 2-amino-6-methylheptane on the label will continue to be a hit for users in both pre workouts and fat burners, if suppliers can reach demand and stay compliant.

As for right now, it’s still quite rare, expensive, and under the radar.

Where can I get it? What supplements have DMHA?

At the time of press, there are a few known supplements with 2-aminoisoheptane inside. Our biggest concern is that the DHMA doses are not disclosed in these, so we express extreme caution when using them:

  • Fully-Dosed Pre Workout: DVST8 White Cut by Inspired Nutraceuticals


    DVST8 White Cut is a considerable upgrade of Inspired Nutra’s 2015 heavy hitter DVST8 pre workout. Now its got DMHA!

    DMHA Dose: Unknown

    Know that you want a DMHA-based pre workout supplement, and are ready to jump in with a fully-dosed pump, endurance, and ergogenic-based blend? Then DVST8 White Cut is for you!

    We unfortunately don’t know the DMHA content, but we do know that there’s 162.5mg caffeine in each scoop, using a blend of 100mg of caffeine anhydrous, 50mg of Dicaffeine Malate (provides 37.5mg caffeine), and 50mg of Caffeine Citrate (provides 25mg caffeine).

    On the “balanced pre workout” side, you get a full 4g dose of L-citrulline for clinically-proven nitric oxide pumps in each scoop, as well as 2g of betaine, which functions similar to creatine. If taking 1.5 scoops, which is our sweet spot, that lands you with more than the 2.5g betaine, where the clinical research is set at.

    Can’t say enough good things about this product, but it may cost you!

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    Our DVST8 Review

    Mike and CJ put together a nice explanation here, and note that they love the California Gold flavor best. But if you love blueberry flavor, you’d definitely be all over Pacific Crush.

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  • Best “Energy Drink”: Giant Sports Giant Rush

    Giant Rush Review

    CJ got his hands on 2 tubs of the new Giant Rush, and has been LOVING it so far! Stay tuned for a FULL review.

    Originally only sold in New Zealand and Australia and finally now in the US, Giant Rush is the first open-label supplement containing DMHA.

    If you’re looking for more of just an energy drink, and don’t need a full pre workout, then this is the one to get. This is also the best way of seeing how DMHA feels for you, without the confounding effects of too many other stimulants.

    Our limited reviews have been absolutely awesome with it. Giant Rush contains nothing but three stimulants: caffeine, Kigelia Africana (DMHA), and Bai Mudan White Tea extract.

    Kigelia Africana Dose: 125mg per scoop (alongside 200mg caffeine and 25mg Bai Mudan White Tea)

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    CJ absolutely obliterated this can, and still talks about Giant Rush to this day:

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  • Pre Workout: MAN Sports GAME DAY


    THIS is the real reason why we’re here… DMHA makes for some fantastic focus without feeling too overwhelmed

    MAN Sports Game Day Ingredients

    The good news is we know how much caffeine is there, and there’s definitely DMHA. The bad news is that it’s prop-blended. But it’s still incredible!!!

    With their fantastic candy-flavored supplements and no artificial colors, MAN Sports has been taking over this corner of the industry, and their new reformulation of GAME DAY is just yet another knockout punch!

    The great news is that it’s been been getting rave reviews, including from us — especially if you want it strong. It’s got 300mg caffeine in a 9g scoop, so you may want to go a touch lighter. Ever better, it’s available in the US right here, right now!

    We had this one lab tested and did find the occurrence of DMHA, so that’s great news – this stuff is for real.

    Unfortunately, we don’t know the 2-amino-6 dose, but are guessing it’s just a touch stronger than the next product, Giant Rush, although there are also caffeine differences between the two.

    If you’re in the US, this is what you’ll want to try!

    2-Amino-6-Methylheptane Dose: undisclosed.

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    Note: In the above widget, the 30 Servings tubs are the new formula. The older formula are listed under the “60 Servings” tubs, which are actually 60 half-servings. We prefer the new 30 servings style!

    Our GAME DAY Review

    Long discussion here about some of the effects and differences from DMAA:

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  • Pre Workout: Gold Star Triple-X

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    2-aminoisoheptane dose: undisclosed.

    Gold Star Triple-X Pre Workout

    Gold Star Triple-X is quite the pre workout experience, even at 4g. Orange flavor is fantastic too.

    Personal note: I’ve found that using ⅔ scoop (4g out of a 6g scoop) provides some next-level energy and focus with absolutely no crash. As a relatively conservative user, this is where I stay, although others are obviously venturing into full-scoop territory.

    The orange flavor is awesome, but doesn’t need much water when dosed low like I run it. We’d like to thank Stack3d for turning us onto this product, although we still want the formula opened up.

    Credit Where Credit is Due to Steven Hankin of Gold Star Performance

    It’s worth noting that much of this was stirred up after Steven Hankin of Goldstar Performance Products brought 2-aminoisoheptane back into the fold in 2014/2015 after the industry’s first attempt in 2013 (discussed a bit more below).

  • Fat Burner: Gold Star Infrared

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    2-aminoisoheptane dose: undisclosed.

    Gold Star Infrared

    Infrared also has an undisclosed dose of 2-aminoisoheptane

  • Possible Suspect: Olympus Labs Conqu3r Unleashed

    Olympus Labs Conqu3r Unleashed

    Olympus Labs highly anticipated stim version of Conqu3r Unleashed has hit the market! Get the full scoop on just what’s inside this high-powered pre workout.

    Olympus Labs’ CONQU3R Unleashed is one of our top-rated pre workout supplements, and its label has an interesting new ingredient: J. Regia Extract, which is walnut tree bark.

    Unfortunately, Olympus won’t disclose what exactly they’re standardizing for, but we now have evidence that J. Regia Extract contains 2-amino-5-methylheptane and a few other aliphatic amines.[36] So a stimulant very similar to DMHA is quite likely inside of this pre workout.

    No wonder we rated it so well… but we’d really like to know what exact stim we’re getting.

    Conqu3r Unleashed - Best Deals and Price Drop Notifications

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Giant Sports is also up to something new, and we’re awaiting the doses on their new Giant Riot pre workout, which should be fully-dosed, or so we hope. They are also the primary company behind another leading-edge stimulant, N-Phenyldimethylamine, but needless to say, when taken solo, we like DMHA more.

Anyway, get ready, because we have a feeling a ton of products with this inside are coming…

The stimulant factor – will more dopamine improve mental performance?

Some of you aren’t necessarily here just to work out. So what about the mental side of things? What if you’re looking for a study aid or a motivational kick?

You think this article was written while just sipping green tea?!

While it’s hard to say for certain with DMHA, if we can compare it to its structural relatives, then it seems likely that it’ll be able to “wake you up”, but also far more. In saying that, realize that the power of wakefulness could be the dividing factor between achieving a particular task or not, so this alone could constitute the sole basis for your decision to purchase a stimulant like 2-amino-6-methylheptane.

Can they improve memory?

However, these compounds also have other effects that stem far beyond wakefulness, most notably the increased development of episodic memory.[19,20,21] As the name implies, episodic memory has to do with past episodes or events that shape the way we will respond to similar challenges in the future.[22] As we learn more about which approaches work and which don’t through experience, we can apply the same logic to solving new challenges in the future, thus saving time and resources.

For those of you starting to think of this as a work/study/programming aid… you’re right on our wavelength.

More than just motivation: bringing the follow-through

Dopamine also has ties to increased motivation and subsequent volition, which is the desire to achieve something and the commitment to doing something, respectively.[22,23]

The key difference between the two lies in the terms desire and commitment – for example, a person may desire to become a professional bodybuilder, but if you throw enough obstacles in their way, the desire to achieve that goal may wane and the end goal never achieved. On the other hand, a person with volition will not stop until the end result is achieved. In bodybuilding, people like Rich Piana and Marc Lobliner have plenty of this.


“Norepinephrine is synthesized from dopamine by dopamine β-hydroxylase in neurons of the locus coeruleus. Before the final β-oxidation, norepinephrine is transported into synaptic vesicles by a vesicual monoamine transporter. The vesicles are then transported along the axons comprising the noradrenergic bundle to release sites. At the synapse norepinephrine is released into the synaptic cleft where it binds to various pre- and post-synaptic adrenergic receptors which subsequently activate distinct G protein coupled signal cascades.”[22]

It’s been stated that there is a motivation ‘threshold’ where increased motivation eventually turns into volition if a certain level of motivation is reached and surpassed.[23] Those with elevated levels of dopamine work harder for things and remain on task for much longer than those with lower dopamine levels, thus being able to achieve the ‘volition threshold’.[21,22,23]

Lastly, dopamine also plays a key role with the pleasure / reward centers in the brain.[21] In the simplest sense, activation of this pathway tells the person to repeat that action in order to reward again.[20,23] Moreover, activation of this component enhances our memory so that we can remember exactly what we did to achieve that feeling of reward and satisfaction – thus tying in with the above.[21] So not only do we feel better once we achieve something, we remember exactly what we did in order to feel better and are more likely to repeat the task.

This is why it’s so important to us to accomplish great things – be it working out, studying, composing music, etc – while on these supplements and the dopamine is surging.

Many of us who were using supplements back in 2010 remember the phenomenal workouts while using Jack3d or OxyELITE Pro (and now Jack’d Up or HydroxyElite)… the effects carried into ridiculously productive work weeks too. Anecdotally speaking, DMHA brings us the same focused feeling. You think this article was written while just sipping green tea?! Think again!

This is just another reason why we’re such fans of these supplements, at least for aggressive stimulant-lovers. We honestly believe that they’ve led to a positive net-gain in the world. But are they legal as supplements, and will they be around for long?

A case for compliance – how long will it be around?

As we’ve seen in the past, new stimulants don’t stick around this industry for long. The FDA clearly doesn’t “like” them. While this is of huge annoyance to the expert consumer who wants a moderate stimulant that’s powerful enough to exert a pleasant ‘buzz’ without major side effects, there’s a reason why they’re removed from the industry so quickly. That issue is compliance.

If we first take a look at DMAA, the stimulant first made popular by USPlabs, we note that almost no safety data existed on the compound until after its release and wide distribution. Fortunately, the compound was demonstrated to be relatively safe, provided you used it sensibly and have had no prior cardiovascular conditions.[24,25] Unfortunately, by the time the safety data was published, the FDA and the press had already given it a serious hatchet-job, and most companies (save for Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals) have stopped selling it.

So when this ingredient was introduced to the supplement industry as 2-aminoisoheptane back in 2013, there was some skepticism over what it really was. After all, it’s been hard as hell finding studies that reference the compound, and popular organic chemistry sites turned up no alternative nomenclature for it at the time.

The lack of available data immediately caused issues, and the company responsible for introducing the ingredient was quickly pressured into ceasing production.

That seemed to be the end of this one. Until folks started digging deeper… and now, three years later, we’re armed with more research. DMHA is set for quite the resurgence, yet with a new (and possibly more compliant) name — 2-amino-6-methylheptane.

So what case exactly does 2-amino-6-methylheptane actually have?

Update – Feb 15, 2016: This section has been updated to reflect the differences between the 2-amino-5 and 2-amino-6 versions.

First, it’s important to note that “2-aminoisoheptane” (or “2AIH”) was basically a made-up name for the ingredient. In the past research studies and products found, it had other names, most notably 2-amino-6-methylheptane or Octodrine. Having multiple names is nothing new – after all, there’s over ten ways to describe H2O (water).

Second, it’s important to realize that there are two versions of this stimulant, and each have their own compliance case.

The case for 2-amino-5-methylheptane

First, to kick things off easily, there is irrefutable evidence that 2-amino-5-methylheptane is found in nature. It is found in walnut bark extract — not the nut, but the actual bark of the Juglans Regia tree.[36]

This evidence can be found in the study titled Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Two Different Extracts of Juglans regia Tree Bark and Search for Their Compounds Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrum, where it is named 2-heptanamine,5-methyl-.[36]

Remember, 2-amino-5 is not “DMHA” and isn’t the basis of most of the research of this paper, but it’s obviously very similar. 2-amino-5 is actually reported to be stronger (though nobody here at PricePlow has tried it).

So why don’t we use 2-amino-5 and call it a day?

The issue is cost. It reportedly takes quite a bit of material to produce 2-amino-5-methylheptane, making it prohibitively expensive.

If companies want the easiest case for compliance, the 2-amino-5 version and the study cited above would be good enough. Yet DMHA, or 2-amino-6, is what most companies would like to sell since it would make for more reasonable fat burner and pre workout prices.

This is the end of the February 15 update.

Back to the DMHA / 2-amino-6 compliance questions

2-Amino-6-Methylheptane Review

Science confirms it. 2016 is the year of 2-Amino-6-Methylheptane!

In recent weeks however, we’ve been assured that a case does indeed exist for FDA DSHEA compliance, so long as the ingredient appears on the label of products as “2-amino-6-methylheptane HCl” and not as an extract of Aconitum Kusnezoffii.

We don’t yet know how, but this development is important, as the default argument for compliance is to state that it’s naturally-derived – as in, (A) a vitamin; (B) a mineral; (C) an herb or other botanical; (D) an amino acid; (E) a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; or (F) a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any ingredient described in clause (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) or (F).[26]

Our belief is that item (C) is where DMHA will find its compliance factor, as it is said to be a constituent of an herb/botanical. Supposedly, it would need to be further argued that water soluble/hydrolyzable salts of compounds found in an herb or botanical are legal, as the added HCl (hydrochloride) bond makes it into a salt.

Bruce Kneller of Giant Sports has gone on the record to clarify a bit more, stating the following:

“What’s really special about DMHA is that there is absolute, virtually irrefutable data to show it is found in nature in something that has a long, pre-1994 history of being eaten as a foodstuff. I am not talking about the algae or the Aconitum species that was (correctly) found this in.

What was not known at the time when the industry first introduced DMHA into the supplement market was that this dietary ingredient has been shown to be found in a fruit-food source.

That is exceedingly good news for enthusiasts… at a minimum, DMHA has a chance of being considered a legit, “meets-the-definition” of the dietary ingredient by FDA.

— Bruce Kneller, Giant Sports

So we’re on the lookout for what we believe to be a fruit that contains this compound, but haven’t yet found it ourselves.

The fruit has been disclosed! It’s found in Kigelia Africana!

Updated March 22, 2016:

Kigelia Africana

A great look at the Kigelia Africana fruit, which has some very interesting properties… including those from 2-amino-6-methylheptane! Image courtesy Wikimedia commons

We’ve found the study that shows that Octodrine has a serious basis in nature: A 2014 study titled Metabolomic Profiling of Kigelia africana Extracts with Anti-Cancer Activity by High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectroscopy[37] contains the compound, as well as several other very interesting compounds. The article was published in a well-respected, peer-reviewed journal that really has no stake in the supplement industry.

An interesting fruit…

Now this isn’t a post about Kigelia Africana, but if you do some research, you’ll see that this fruit is really interesting. The fruit has antibacterial, anti-cancer, and even pain relieving properties to go along with its euphoric stim feel.

In fact, we’ve found that when accidentally getting DMHA on our gums, it feels like a small bit of novocaine from the dentist’s office. Not recommended to try at home, but interesting compound nevertheless.

We’d like to thank Bruce Kneller for sticking his neck out on this one – there were many doubters stating that this compound wouldn’t be found in nature, and this article had it’s fair share of haters, but we’re now far more confident in it.

Clarifying confusion: vagueness in the name 2-aminoisoheptane

Update Jan 25, 2016: This section was added in response to confusion over this article.

There’s a reason why we don’t like the ingredient name “2-aminoisoheptane” that is used on some labels: it is vague. For instance:

  • 2-amino-5-methylheptane is 2-aminoisoheptane,
  • 2-amino-6-methylheptane is also 2-aminoisoheptane,
  • 2-amino-4-methylheptane is also 2-aminoisoheptane,
  • and 2-amino-3-methylheptane is also 2-aminoisoheptane.

When using the 2-aminoisoheptane nomenclature, the “iso” aspect doesn’t specify where the methyl group is, so it’s not a complete name. It’s also odd, because the “2-amino” part does specify where the NH2 is.

So now the question is, what was really released earlier on in 2013?

We’re not sure, but it was either 2-amino-5-methylheptane or 2-amino-6-methylheptane. In this article, we’ve discussed research on the latter, which is clearly a stimulatory compound. Yet there’s a post out there that leads us to believe that previous supplements contained 2-amino-5-methylheptane variation.[33]

The issue with the 2-amino-5 variation is that there’s less research on it, and worse, there’s a patent for it in liquid form that would have put the first 2-aminoisoheptane product in violation.[34] Maybe that’s why it was removed from the market so abruptly?

Anyway, if you tried 2-aminoisoheptane back in 2013, these new DMHA-based supplements may in fact be slightly different. But if they’re found in fruit, they stand a better chance at compliance – especially since Octodrine was sold prior to 1962 and may not necessarily have true “drug” status.[35]

Speaking of natural occurrence, there’s a nut that may contain it too, though, as alluded above:

Aconite? Not having it…

Apparently some aconitum species also has the ingredient inside. The issue is, it’s a poisonous plant family. So the aconite extract argument is a bit tougher.

Aconitum Kusnezoffii

Sources state that aconitum contains DMHA, but it’s a toxic plant family, so using this in compliance arguments is a riskier endeavor, whether or not your extracting it.

We can’t see the FDA approving of something labeled as an extract when that plant is clearly toxic. Even if that were technically compliant, it would be too easy for them to claim adulteration, since there is reasonable risk that a true extract from aconite could be dangerous. You’d need to either have a bulletproof extraction process, a slightly risky product that hasn’t been perfectly extracted, or simply a fraudulent label. We’re not willing to take any of those gambles and we doubt the FDA would either.

But Walnut Bark Extract…

Yet if you see “J. Regia” or “Juglans Regia” extract on a label, it’s quite possible you’re actually getting 2-amino-5-methylheptane. Keep an eye out for that ingredient.

Anyway, we’re confident that 2-amino-6-methylheptane can be found in nature. The question is, has it been in the food supply, and is that enough for it to be synthetically created and labeled as a dietary supplement without requiring new dietary ingredient approval from the FDA?

We expect much of this discussion to be resolved by the aforementioned Hi-Tech Pharma vs. FDA lawsuit over DMAA later this year or next.

Drug-tested athlete? Don’t bother.

On the note of compliance, we have to talk about banned substances and drug-tested athletes. As of right now, this is not on the 2016 WADA banned substances list,[27] and we checked for every name of the ingredient.

Failed Drug Test

…don’t even think about it!

But if you’ve been around this kind of thing long enough, you’ve got to know from commons sense: drug tested athletes should not be taking this. We have no clue what kind of false positives might appear, especially due to its similarities to other banned substances… and plus, it’s nearly guaranteed that it’s going to get banned at some point in 2016 anyway!

In addition, WADA has a clause for “similar substances”, so technically, DMHA is automatically banned for sport since it is similar to DMAA.

As far as those of you in the military or are drug-tested at work, it’s a huge risk to you. Even if it’s not technically banned, you’re asking for a headache. And knowing the DOD, which bans everything in this category, it will be officially banned sooner than later anyway.

So be smart with this one. Stay away from it if you’re a drug-tested athlete and don’t bring bad press for those of us who aren’t.

To be banned in Australia October 1, 2017

As an update to this post, the Australian Government published an advisory that DMHA will be banned in Australia come October 1, 2017, as a Schedule 10 substance just like DMAA.

Any side effects?

Unfortunately due to the lack of human data, there’s no real evidence into how exactly this compound will behave in vivo. It does seem apt to mention that if it shares a similarity to DMAA, then we can likely expect much of the same effects on heart rate and blood pressure. Fortunately, USPlabs funded a study which examined the effects of 75mg of DMAA alone, 250 milligrams of Caffeine alone and a combination of the two on blood pressure and heart rate.[24]

Proprietary blends with these stimulants are bad for everyone

When both were combined, which is what we are likely to see in pre-workout product, they produced a 24 point increase in systolic blood pressure and a 12 point increase in diastolic blood pressure, which may be problematic for those with pre-existing elevated high blood pressure or whose exercise is likely to cause massive spikes in blood pressure or heart rate.[24]

For those without pre-existing heart and blood pressure issues, it is unlikely (but not at all guaranteed) that the user will have any issues using this compound; however it is impossible to say until more evidence surfaces on it.

Our personal bet – and I may be willing to sit down on video to record it – is that DMHA will elevate blood pressure less than DMAA. It just feels less intense in that aspect – a small unconventional study might be worth having.

High LD50 numbers (but let’s not test this!)

Fisher Scientific, a laboratory equipment and ingredient supplier, lists 2-Amino-6-Methylheptane as having an oral LD50 of 538mg/kg in rats.[18] Remember, the LD50 is the amount required to cause death in half the animals.

DMHA Side Effects

According to one supplier, DMHA has a relatively high oral LD50 in rats.

Unfortunately, we don’t have an oral LD50 for DMAA to compare to in mice for an apples-to-apples comparison here.

Also, even though this DMHA oral LD50 is quite high, we’re not rats. We’d never try even a miniscule fraction of that amount.

Intravenously – far lower LD50s…

On the other hand, the intravenous LD50s from the original study in 1947 by Edwin J. Fellows were far lower than the oral one cited above – mice have an intravenous LD50 of 59mg/kg.[16]

Compare that to DMAA’s LD50 in mice:

The LD50 for methylhexaneamine is 39mg/kg for intravenous and 185mg/kg for intraperitoneal administration (mouse).[28,29]

Compare that against DMHA’s mouse LD50 of 59mg/kg.[16]

This means that it takes less DMAA than DMHA to kill half of the mice via IV. That’s at least some form of good news, but surely not enough for conservative supplement users.

Common sense dictates that you should never be injecting this or any related compound!

Preliminary conclusion on “safe” dosing:

Overall, everything here leads us to believe that up to roughly 1mg per pound of lean body mass taken orally will be reasonably safe for healthy individuals, but of course only with the written consent and approval of your physician after a cardiovascular clean bill of health.

So if you’re a 185lb male at 12% bodyfat, a max dose would be about 160mg, so conservative dosing would be 80-120mg.

Proprietary blends with these stimulants are bad for everyone

Our biggest issue is when supplement manufacturers put any stimulants into a proprietary blend and don’t allow us to disclose them.


Proprietary blends should be illegal. Consider: If there were no proprietary blends, would DMAA have been under as much scrutiny? This industry shoots itself in the foot time and time again.

If we can’t know our ideal doses, and the various products all have differing doses, it ultimately puts the consumer in a more dangerous situation than necessary. We implore any supplement company to fully disclose the stimulant amounts on their labels, and at the very least, allow us to disclose them online on PricePlow for our like-minded readers.

All in all, assessing tolerance by using half of a serving of any product containing DMHA is the best way to see how it works for you. Wear a heart rate monitor. Take your blood pressure. Be cautious, smart, and get a doctor’s approval.

If you like it, it’s going to be a solid year of workouts. And in that case, you might want to load up while you can…

The future of “Octodrine”

Earlier on, we alluded to some new ongoings with the stimulant, which the medical community has been calling “Octodrine” (one of its several names).

As interesting as these studies are, they might eventually spell bad news for the supplement industry.

In 2015, two studies were published showing the following:

  1. Octodrine displays a wide variety of anti-microbial and anti-fungal activity.[30] It “was shown to be one of the most effective drugs in killing serum-grown Candida albicans without significantly affecting the survival of host macrophages and skin cells.”

  2. Octodrine killed a Uropathogenic strain of E. Coli bacteria after five days of exposure, and within a week, it killed everything the scientists tested for.[31] It didn’t perform the “best”, but it could still have use in treating urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Big Pharma

Perhaps we’re starting a conspiracy theory a bit early, but this is the industry, FDA, and medical community that got Americans so addicted the opioid painkillers that they now need to take an extra prescription drug to combat the nation-wide constipation problem they’ve caused, which apparently then means they have to make creepy commercials where some lady walks around town with her monstrous opioid pill bff that’s somehow all muscled up. What in the actual F#*@?!?!!?!

The study from the first bullet point raises some concerns – not for us safety-wise, but for us in terms of marketability. They stated that while octodrine had been used as a decongestant, it was the one compound in the study that’d never been tested to kill fungi. Low and behold, it turned out to be the best one.

Combine this with the fact that there’s a patent tied to the first study above[30] titled Method of treating microbial infections,[32] and you can begin to see our concern: there’s clearly potential for Octodrine as a prescription antibacterial, antifungal yeast infection drug, and possibly as a UTI treatment too.

You’ve seen the commercials – these are massive markets that trump anything in the sports nutrition world a thousand times over. The selling power in these alternate applications could be enormous.

So our concern is that when these studies are further evaluated, DMHA is going to get pulled off the market not due to safety, but due to big pharma turning it into a prescription drug for completely unrelated use cases.

A new star could have just been born in the medical world… which could be bad news for the supplement world.

So our recommendation to serious stimulant users who have a clean bill of health: stock up and enjoy it while it lasts.

If you’re anything like us… you will enjoy it.

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Posted in , , , , , by Mike | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .
  • ff4life

    Thanks for the article, Mike (I guess you’re the one who wrote it). You said DMHA would be more or less 90% the strength of DMAA. Well, in the same vein, using percentages, how would AMP citrate compare to DMAA and DMHA then? I have some pure AMP at home (bought from a UK-based site) and I was just wondering about it. Thanks in advance!

    • Red Foot

      From personal experience AMP Citrate @ 525mg = 50mg DMAA
      DMBA @ 525mg = 75mg DMAA

      Ive even taken 525mg of AMP and 525mg DMBA for an evening workout and still managed a 6 hour sleep. DMAA i only take on AM or NOON workouts. If take in evening DMAA gives broken sleep.
      DMHA is interesting i want some pure powder though

      • ff4life

        525 mg? Seriously man? That’s way beyond the usual recommended doses. How’d it feel at that dosage in terms of focus? I have 100 g of pure DMHA powder at home, bought a couple months ago from a Chinese supplier, but I never went above the 100 mg threshold.

      • Yeah, for clarification, DMBA = AMP Citrate, so not sure what OP was discussing… and would never take nearly that much.

      • Red Foot

        My DMBA is definitely different to AMP and stronger. DMBA particles are weird almost like crystals and slightly mushy when packed in capsules. Just as i thought DMHA is now on Ebay in RAW form

      • Red Foot

        I must be stim tolerant from taking all 3 similar compounds on and off, AMP, DMBA (Blackburn Distributions) & DMAA
        yesterday i had AMP 500mg at 3pm, Amp 500mg at 4pm with 70mg DMAA. Needless to say my workout was awesome. 50 mins weights then circuit. I wear a fitbit which monitors heart rate and i still never go above 179bpm in peak. The only slight problem with DMBA at 525mg is on legs day sometimes towards the end of workout your body goes ‘cold’. Really want to try DMHA, where do you get from? 100g is way too much.

      • ff4life

        Your legs feeling cold might be a sign of high blood pressure, especially at this dosage. I’m not saying that it is the case, but it’s a possibility. As for DMHA, I don’t see how 100 g is “way too much” since I can use that quantity over an entire year or more. Look for Chinese factories online – they also offer AMP and DMAA. I paid around $250 for the DMHA, which is a hell of a deal considering the quantity.

      • Red Foot

        yeah could be i have a BP monitor and check after workouts. Avg is 135/60. 1 hour after finishing. I still have 40g of DMAA left so which is gonna expire before i can use it all! I have abused amphetamines in the past probably why i am stim tolerant. (10 years ago) Another note the wife has 300mg of DMBA and can barely feel it, yet when she has 70mg DMAA it makes her buzz then crash bad. Personally i love the crash feeling off DMAA. Defo interested in DMHA though, i suspect there will be resellers of it in the UK soon. Dont fancy ordering from China.

  • Truth Speaker

    It is a fact that 6-methylheptan-2-amine is NOT an old dietary ingredient. This ingredient was not marketed as a dietary ingredient previous to DSHEA in 1994.

    If 6-methylheptan-2-amine qualifies as a dietary ingredient at all, which is a big if given FDA’s stance on synthetic constituents of botanicals, which is also a big if, given that no one has shown the natural occurrence of this ingredient anywhere (just like with BMPEA), that it is unquestionably a new dietary ingredient that was not marketed previous to October 1994.

    Further, as a new dietary ingredient, 6-methylheptan-2-amine is not an article used for food in a form in which the food has not been chemically altered, meaning that a proper ndi notification must be filed with FDA prior to this ingredient being marketed in a dietary supplement product. New dietary ingredients are subject to the ndi notification requirement in 21 U.S.C. 350b(a)(2) and 21 CFR 190.6.

    Without the required ndi notification showing safety of this ingredient – it is ILLEGAL to sell as a dietary supplement. Further, since this compound has been investigated and sold as a drug, it is a prohibited act under section 301(II) of the Act (21 U.S.C. 331(II)) to introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any food to which a drug approved under section 505 of the Act (21 U.S.C. 355) has been added.

    Priceplow appears to be supporting the criminal act of marketing illegal dietary supplements.

    • Hi, thanks for the comment.

      Much of our stance on this ingredient is ultimately going to come down on the “fruit” that is said to contain it. At some point, we’re going to need to see proof or the tone of this post is going to change dramatically.

      I may have to set a deadline for that to happen. Until then, we’re cautiously excited over here but understand everyone’s concerns. At some point we need a legit citation or else.

      I’m not so sure about the drug argument because it was sold quite a long time ago (ie before the 1960s!) before a lot of the laws were in place. But for now, our main concern is the natural status before we get any crazier here.

      • Truth Speaker

        If your main concern is the natural status on these types of synthetic stimulants, then show me the legit citation that shows BMPEA being naturally occurring in any botanical. Make sure the reference is for Beta-Methyl PEA and not N-Methyl PEA, as there is a world of difference between the two compounds.

    • Alex Sheen

      2-aminoisoheptane is not the structure in the article, it should be below picture, which is also called 2-amino-5-methylheptane.

  • BasharAR

    why is MAN Sport new gameday not listed, it has DMHA and its good stuff?

    • We caught MAN “lying” about their ingredients in other upcoming products and haven’t really decided what to do with them. Might have to ask for some lab tests.

      • Mike

        Can you explain further?

      • Hey Mike and @basharar:disqus — I have admittedly been pissy about MAN’s original PUMP Powder label stating that it contained “65% Glycerol Monostearate”. This is a chemical impossibility and I grew concerned about all of MAN’s products for a bit.

        I’ve been in touch with them behind the scenes, and they’ve showed that it was really a mix-up with their designer getting multiple label versions and doing what he thought was the best choice by combining “Glycerol 65%” and “Glycerol Monostearate” (MAN chose to use the latter ingredient — most ‘Glycerol 65%’ raw materials outside of HydroMax are garbage)… and that design slipped through the cracks and made it into that first production run.

        That’s not ideal but things like that happen. I was pissy because it’s not my job to proofread labels and then I didn’t have a clue what’s *really* in the supplement — is it regular glycerol monostearate or is it some other kind of generic glycerol 65%?

        So here’s the awesome news: MAN is stepping up to the plate and allowing me to third-party test their products for anything. I am going to test PUMP Powder’s glycerol content and GAME DAY’s 2-amino-6-methylheptane (HCl) content and publish the results. Once the numbers make sense, I’m back all-in.

        Maybe an overreaction but that’s my job at times.

        Fact is, I am getting sick of screwy labels. I see them ALL the time. “Supplement Industry Math” and all. MAN Sports is becoming too big and too popular to make these kinds of mistakes, and I’d be really upset if anyone got in trouble and it dragged DMHA down with it. DMHA is important to me – I love the stuff, and I don’t want a stupid glycerol ‘scandal’ to bring it unnecessary negative attention.

        So I stayed quiet until working it out with MAN. Getting tests published irons it out for me and then we’re back in business.

        Let me know if that’s helpful. I should have opened up about this way sooner.

  • BasharAR

    Please name and shame the offenders, the people need to know, a top 10 list of offenders would be useful