‘Merica Labz: Get Ready to Get F’N PUMP’D!
‘Merica Labz quickly became a PricePlow favorite because of their American-style approach to everything they do. New products usually go big in some way because they push the limits of supplement-industry convention and top it off with a touch of can-do American ingenuity.
We love their Red, White, and BOOM pre-workout, and had a blast reviewing the even-crazier F-BOMB. But sometimes, you don’t want caffeine. Stars and Pipes is an incredible and simple supplement, but what’s the F-Bomb equivalent?!
Merica Labz F’N PUMP’D: F-Bomb’s Stim-Free Pump Counterpart
Today ‘Merica Labz brought us F’N PUMP’D, a product that is absolutely true to form for the patriotic company. Here we have huge doses of the most powerful and clinically-validated nitric-oxide-boosting ingredients commonly used by supplement formulators today, plus the return of the prodigal son – L-norvaline.
F’N PUMP’D is the kind of formula that will get you screaming “Wolverines!” as you push yourself through that seemingly impossible final rep at the gym. And if your gym has a problem with that, we recommend finding a new one. Let’s get into it:
Merica Labz F'n Pump'd – Deals and Price Drop Alerts
Get Price Alerts
No spam, no scams.
Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.
Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.
In a single 1-scoop (21 gram) serving of F’n Pumped from ‘Merica Labz, you get the following:
L-Citrulline Malate (2:1) – 8000 mg
Citrulline is in pretty much every pre-workout formula these days, and that’s a good thing.
This nitric-oxide (NO) boosting amino acid is conditionally essential. That means your body can produce citrulline endogenously, but only to a limited extent. If some stressful event increases your metabolic requirements, then your body’s production of citrulline probably won’t keep up with demand. In that case, supplementation is necessary.
Citrulline gets converted into arginine, which is the actual NO precursor. The pathway looks like this:Citrulline → Arginine → NO****So why not supplement with arginine? Because citrulline is much more bioavailable when taken orally.[2-4]
So why do we want more NO? Put simply, NO is what gives you the pump most people are chasing in their workouts and in their selection of pre-workout supplement. Increased NO production causes vasodilation, a phenomenon in which the diameter of blood vessels increases.This naturally improves circulation, allowing more blood to flow while at the same time decreasing the strain on your heart and arteries. NO-driven vasodilation is associated with substantial drops in both blood pressure and resting heart rate.[6-8]Some key performance benefits go along with increased vasodilation. Namely, oxygen and nutrients are delivered to muscle cells – and metabolic wastes removed – more efficiently.This not only helps you perform better during a workout, it also helps you recover faster afterwards.Research on citrulline indicates that supplementation with this amino acid can:
- Increase power by facilitating oxygen utilization
- Increase athletic endurance by about 50%
- Decrease the severity of post-exercise muscle soreness
- Increase growth hormone (GH) secretion in response to exercise
- Decrease protein breakdown
- Amplify muscle growth in response to exercise[13,14]
One particularly interesting benefit of citrulline supplementation is that it increases the body’s levels of ornithine, an amino acid responsible for helping clear ammonia from blood and tissues.
Ammonia buildup can cause physical and mental fatigue, so the citrulline-mediated removal of ammonia via ornithine is one potential explanation for citrulline’s endurance-boosting effects.
Ornithine can help you sleep better and feel less stressed out, partly by decreasing your cortisol-to-DHEA ratio.
How much citrulline is here?
Citrulline malate is approximately 56% citrulline by weight, so here we’re getting about 5.5 grams of pure citrulline.
That’s well above the benchmark dose of 3,000 milligrams, which is probably the most commonly studied citrulline dose, and has been repeatedly validated as efficacious by the research literature.
Malic acid (malate’s) independent benefits
The malate in citrulline malate has some cool benefits of its own, which is probably why this form of citrulline seems to be getting more popular with formulators.
Malate can play an important role in the Krebs cycle, which is the main energy production process for your body’s cells.
One study found that because of this effect on the Krebs cycle, citrulline malate can even improve cellular aerobic respiration, increasing the energy supply that your cells can draw upon during hard workouts.
Will synergize with the arginine in arginine nitrate below
As a heads up, we also have arginine nitrate inside. Citrulline’s actually going to help with that ingredient in two ways!
Beta-Alanine – 3200 mg
Beta-alanine is an ergogenic aid with a long history of use in the nutritional-supplement industry. It’s been here since the beginning.
When beta-alanine is chemically combined with L-histidine, the result is carnosine, a dipeptide molecule that’s present at high concentrations in muscle tissue. Within your muscles, carnosine functions to help clear lactic acid, a metabolic waste product that causes muscular fatigue as it builds up.
Thus, decreasing lactic acid through beta-alanine supplementation is a viable strategy for increasing athletic endurance.
So why not take carnosine? Much like the citrulline/arginine situation, the carnosine precursor is much more orally bioavailable than carnosine itself.
In fact, the amount of beta-alanine at your cells’ disposal is the rate-limiting factor—the bottleneck—on your body’s production of carnosine.[21,22] Supplementing with beta-alanine is thus a particularly good strategy for upregulating carnosine production.
Two sizeable meta-analysis studies that examined over 40 different peer-reviewed papers on beta-alanine supplements found that the compound is most useful for boosting endurance during exercise sessions between 30 seconds and 10 minutes long.[20-27]
This 3,200-milligram dose is the most commonly studied, and has been repeatedly validated by research.
Most people, upon taking beta-alanine, experience a tingling sensation in their upper body. This can feel a little weird for first-timers, but it’s nothing to worry about: the scientific consensus is that the tingles are harmless and that beta-alanine is safe for human consumption.
Arginine Nitrate (as NO3-T) – 2500 mg
You might be a little confused to see arginine nitrate here, after all, we did just say that oral arginine supplements aren’t that great.
However, there is an exception – arginine and citrulline, when taken in combination, outperform either ingredient taken alone – both in humans[29,30] and animals. In other words, arginine and citrulline have synergistic effects when combined.
This is due to the fact that citrulline actually inhibits arginase, the enzyme responsible for breaking down arginine in the “first pass effect” before it’s absorbed through the intestines.[31,32]
By sparing arginine from the first pass effect, citrulline thus increases the bioavailability of the arginine part of arginine nitrate!
Benefits of arginine
So what benefits does arginine supplementation give us? All the same benefits as citrulline, which we discussed above. For a reminder, see our diagram of the citrulline-to-NO conversion pathway. With this additional arginine dose, you’re getting even more NO than you would with the citrulline alone, and hence, greater effect sizes for all the benefits we discussed in the citrulline section.
Benefits of nitrates
But arginine is only one part of this molecule – we also have nitrates bound to the arginine.
We want nitrates for the same reason we want citrulline and arginine. Nitrates help drive NO synthesis, albeit by a slightly different pathway: Nitrates act primary on salivary glands, which then fix the nitrates into NO.[33-35]
So, again, we’ll get all the benefits we’ve discussed of higher NO blood levels. But to quote some nitrate-specific literature, here are the benefits associated with nitrate supplementation:
- Improved circulation
- Greater aerobic efficiency[36-39]
- Increased strength[40,41]
- Increased cellular energy production[41-43]
Added research and synergy with citrulline
On top of citrulline functioning as an arginase inhibitor,[1,29,30] we’ve also seen that citrulline and nitrate work very well together
In 2019, a study on 24 seniors demonstrated significant improvements to max power output (as well as blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen consumption) after providing 520 milligrams of nitrate with 6 grams of citrulline.
While we do have more than that much nitrate (arginine nitrate is roughly 26% nitrate, so we have roughly 0.653 grams of total nitrate here), we don’t exactly have that much L-citrulline, but we’re quite close. We love it when we have studies demonstrating powerful effects with multiple ingredients we like to use.
HydroPrime (65% Glycerol Powder) – 2000 mg
HydroPrime, by NNB Nutrition, is a trademarked form of glycerol.
Glycerol is the supplement industry’s mainstay osmolyte— an agent that helps induce a state called cellular hyperhydration.
Glycerol is a polyol sugar and natural byproduct of cellular metabolism.[45,46] In other words, your body makes glycerol endogenously. Glycerol is needed for liver gluconeogenesis, the mechanism by which your liver turns protein into glucose.
Any glycerol produced or ingested by your body gets metabolized by the liver and kidneys, and then it’s evenly distributed throughout your tissues. Only the brain and eyes are exempt from glycerol distribution.
You wouldn’t want glycerol in your brain or eyes anyway since it raises the osmotic pressure and forces higher than usual amounts of water into those cells. At the tissue level, this can produce swelling, which is something you definitely don’t want in your brain or eyes.
What is hyperhydration?
Recall that in the process of osmosis, a solute concentration gradient, a difference in solute concentration between two regions of fluid causes liquid to move from the region of higher concentration to the lower concentration.
Glycerol raises solute concentration around cells, which is how it pushes water away and, thus, into cells.
As a result, not only do your cells contain more water,whole-body hydration improves as well.
Besides improving hydration, extra water inside your cells increases resistance to heat stress and extra nutrients. All of these things can help protect your cells from the potentially damaging effects of intense physical activity, and boost performance by preventing dehydration.
That’s hyperhydration in a nutshell.
Unsurprisingly, this whole process works best when you’re already hydrated, so be sure to drink plenty when taking a glycerol supplement.
What’s special about HydroPrime?
The main reason we prefer HydroPrime to generic forms is that glycerol, frustratingly, has a tendency to clump and solidify. There’s even a term for when it happens in glycerol-containing supplements: bricked. Once a product is bricked, it’s unusable.
The other potential problem is that generic glycerol isn’t standardized, meaning that there can be a large discrepancy between the amount of glycerol you’re expecting and the amount you actually get.
HydroPrime takes care of both issues. It’s formulated specifically to bit clump. And it’s rigorously standardized to help ensure that every batch of HydroPrime is the same and consists of about 65% glycerol by weight (an unusually high yield for a glycerol supplement).
If you want to read more about HydroPrime, check out our long-form article HydroPrime: Glycerol With More Pumps and Less Clumps.
L-Tyrosine – 1000 mg
Tyrosine is a great pre-workout ingredient for two main reasons:
First, tyrosine helps support thyroid function since it acts as a precursor to triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), the two main thyroid hormones.[51,52]
Why does this matter? The stress of hardcore physical activity can interfere with thyroid function, potentially shifting your metabolism into a high-cortisol state.[53,54] Thus, it’s not a bad idea for anyone who’s pushing themselves in the gym to think about adding in some thyroid support.
People who work out also tend to periodically diet by restricting calorie intake. Unfortunately, this can also mess with your thyroid. And if you’re working out hard and restricting calories at the same time, that’s a thyroid double-whammy. Of course, the extent of this potential problem depends on how aggressively you’re cutting calories.
Second, tyrosine is a precursor to catecholamine neurotransmitters like dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline.[56-58] Upregulating these neurotransmitters can improve mental clarity, particularly focus and motivation.
Adrenaline and noradrenaline can help decrease appetite while increasing fat burning, making tyrosine a good way to support your calorie cut even while protecting your thyroid function.
Great for sleep deprivation
As most of us have personally experienced, and mounting research continues to substantiate, sleep deprivation can wreak havoc on mental and emotional function. Well, according to research conducted by the U.S. Military, tyrosine is actually better at restoring cognitive function during sleep deprivation than everyone’s favorite wakefulness-promoting heavy-hitter, caffeine![60,61]
L-Norvaline – 250 mg
Next up we have the controversial amino acid L-norvaline.
Whereas citrulline, arginine, and nitrates work primarily by increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, norvaline powerfully inhibits arginase, the enzyme responsible for degrading NO and, hence, deactivating it.
Arginase inhibition makes the NO in your blood last longer, keeping levels higher for longer.
The norvaline controversy: Derailed by a wildly-dosed in vitro study?
Let’s talk about what makes norvaline controversial.
The amino acid fell out of favor with the supplement industry a few years ago after the publication of an in vitro study claiming that high-dose norvaline can be cytotoxic via mitochondrial damage, specifically in the brain. If true, that would be a problem. But the study fails to mention a few things that are of absolute importance.
The limitations of in vitro studies
We should emphasize that the norvaline toxicity research we mention was an in vitro study, and numerous amino acids that are safe in vivo can do this when monstrously dosed in vitro like they were here. This is why it’s tough to say whether in vitro study results can be applied to in vivo living organisms. Oftentimes a compound behaves very differently in vitro than in vivo.
There are several reasons for this, but the most common one is that living organisms, unlike cultured cells, process food through digestive systems that typically modify the ingested compound through enzymatic reactions. By the time the stuff we eat gets to our cells, it’s often in a different chemical form than it was when we ate it.
The other thing to note is that the dose applied to cells in the in vitro study was huge. We’re talking 4 to 5 times what we typically see in supplements.
For these two reasons, the inferences drawn by the in vitro study have been criticized by subsequent peer-reviewed studies. In their article published by the peer-reviewed journal, Brain Sciences, Baruh Polis, Michael A. Gilinsky, and Abraham O. Samson state:
“In brief, the conclusions of the study by Samardzic and Rodgers are significantly overstated and omit the fact that L-norvaline toxicity is limited to specific in vitro assays at exceedingly high concentrations. As such, the title could inadvertently be grossly exaggerated and may have instigated unfounded news reports about human toxicity of the dietary supplement L-norvaline. Most importantly, the study at hand does not confirm any human toxicity of L-norvaline; however, it makes claims unsupported by actual data, which resonate in newspaper articles and interviews. For example, they claim that ‘Bodybuilding supplement could be bad for the brain’, which is a misleading and false statement.”
Going back to the question of dose, the same authors point out, “In fact, it is well-established that most amino acids at concentrations ~100 µM and above are cytotoxic in vitro.” They go on to cite a study from all the way back in 1955 to this effect.
In fact, there’s even some evidence to suggest that supplementing with norvaline could even improve brain health and function.
After re-analyzing the data and criticisms, norvaline has made something of a comeback in recent months, so it’s worth rehashing this old debate for those who weren’t following when the controversy started. In general, we don’t fault supplement formulators for erring on the side of caution at first. But we do want to present all the facts available to help readers make up their own mind. We believe this is an effective arginase inhibitor.
Nonetheless, if you aren’t sure what to do, talk to your doctor about taking norvaline.
Pine Bark Extract (95% Proanthocyanidins) – 250 mg
We have a lot of impressive NO boosters in ‘Merica Labz F’N PUMPED, and we’re finishing off the formula with another great ingredient from that category: pine bark extract.
Although the ubiquitous pine tree may seem humble, don’t be fooled – pine bark is jam packed with strong polyphenol antioxidant compounds.[69,70] They’re known for upregulating the enzyme, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS),[69,70] which is responsible for creating NO in the arteries. More eNOS activity naturally leads to more NO and, hence, greater vasodilation.
Pine bark infusions and tinctures have been used for millennia all over the world as a folk remedy for conditions like blood stasis, which refers to the slowing or pooling of blood.[69,70]
Modern science has corroborated this traditional wisdom, finding that pine bark extracts have cardioprotective properties.[69,70]
In fact, pine bark extract is so powerfully anti-inflammatory that it has been linked to a reduced risk of serious neurological disease.
If you liked the zany flavor names from F-BOMB, you’ll be stoked with F’N PUMP’D:
…because they’re the same as F-BOMB, for incredible stacking!
Conclusion: A Great F’N Nitric Oxide Supplement
Wherever the industry ends up landing on norvaline, we like seeing more arginase-inhibiting ingredients making their way into pre-workouts. In general, the emphasis seems to be excessively on boosting NO production. But extending the action of NO seems like a promising and, so far, under-utilized approach to protecting cardiovascular health and improving athletic performance.
Meanwhile, getting some extra water-based hydration pumps with HydroPrime glycerol is an extra boon. It’s also in Stars ‘N Pipes, so you know Merica Labz digs it.
The best formulators choose secondary ingredients carefully and for maximum effect. We believe ‘Merica Labz did this very well with tyrosine. While its thyroid support function may not be the main reason it’s here (it’s generally added for the focus boost), we appreciate seeing it in F’N PUMP’D regardless.
What will Merica Labz do next? We’re not sure, but we’ll look forward to some other excellent pre-workout options throughout the coming years!
Merica Labz F'n Pump'd – Deals and Price Drop Alerts
Get Price Alerts
No spam, no scams.
Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.
Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.
- Morita, Masahiko, et al. “Oral Supplementation with a Combination of L-Citrulline and L-Arginine Rapidly Increases Plasma L-Arginine Concentration and Enhances NO Bioavailability.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 454, no. 1, Nov. 2014, pp. 53–57, 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.10.029; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006291X14018178
- Ochiai, Masayuki, et al; “Short-Term Effects of L-Citrulline Supplementation on Arterial Stiffness in Middle-Aged Men.”; International Journal of Cardiology; U.S. National Library of Medicine; 8 Mar. 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21067832
- Agarwal, Umang et al; “Supplemental Citrulline Is More Efficient Than Arginine in Increasing Systemic Arginine Availability in Mice.”; The Journal of nutrition; vol. 147,4; 2017; 596-602; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5368575/
- Takashi Suzuki, Masahiko Morita, Toshio Hayashi, Ayako Kamimura, The effects on plasma L-arginine levels of combined oral L-citrulline and L-arginine supplementation in healthy males, Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, Volume 81, Issue 2, 1 February 2017, Pages 372–375; https://academic.oup.com/bbb/article/81/2/372/5955995
- Ghellam, Mohamed, and Ilkay Koca. “Nitrate in All Respects: Metabolic Pathways, Sources, and Human Health.”ResearchGate, unknown, 27 May 2019; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333405488_Nitrate_in_All_Respects_Metabolic_Pathways_Sources_and_Human_Health
- Orozco-Gutiérrez JJ, Castillo-Martínez L, Orea-Tejeda A, Vázquez-Díaz O, Valdespino-Trejo A, Narváez-David R, Keirns-Davis C, Carrasco-Ortiz O, Navarro-Navarro A, Sánchez-Santillán R. Effect of L-arginine or L-citrulline oral supplementation on blood pressure and right ventricular function in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction. Cardiol J. 2010;17(6):612-8. PMID: 21154265. https://journals.viamedica.pl/cardiology_journal
- Wong A, Alvarez-Alvarado S, Jaime SJ, Kinsey AW, Spicer MT, Madzima TA, Figueroa A. Combined whole-body vibration training and l-citrulline supplementation improves pressure wave reflection in obese postmenopausal women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Mar;41(3):292-7. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2015-0465; https://cdnsciencepub.com/doi/10.1139/apnm-2015-0465
- Alsop P, Hauton D. Oral nitrate and citrulline decrease blood pressure and increase vascular conductance in young adults: a potential therapy for heart failure. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016 Sep;116(9):1651-61. doi: 10.1007/s00421-016-3418-7; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983290/
- Bailey, Stephen J, et al; “l-Citrulline Supplementation Improves O2 Uptake Kinetics and High-Intensity Exercise Performance in Humans.”; Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985); U.S. National Library of Medicine; 15 Aug. 2015; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26023227
- Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín, and Philip M Jakeman; “Citrulline Malate Enhances Athletic Anaerobic Performance and Relieves Muscle Soreness.”; Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; May 2010; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386132
- Sureda A, Córdova A, Ferrer MD, Pérez G, Tur JA, Pons A. L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Sep;110(2):341-51. doi: 10.1007/s00421-010-1509-4; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00421-010-1509-4
- Breuillard C, Cynober L, Moinard C. Citrulline and nitrogen homeostasis: an overview. Amino Acids. 2015 Apr;47(4):685-91. doi: 10.1007/s00726-015-1932-2; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00726-015-1932-2
- Jourdan M, Nair KS, Carter RE, Schimke J, Ford GC, Marc J, Aussel C, Cynober L. Citrulline stimulates muscle protein synthesis in the post-absorptive state in healthy people fed a low-protein diet – A pilot study. Clin Nutr. 2015 Jun;34(3):449-56. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2014.04.019; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4309748/
- Bahri S, Zerrouk N, Aussel C, Moinard C, Crenn P, Curis E, Chaumeil JC, Cynober L, Sfar S. Citrulline: from metabolism to therapeutic use. Nutrition. 2013 Mar;29(3):479-84. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2012.07.002; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0899900712002584?via%3Dihub
- Agarwal, Umang, et al. “Supplemental Citrulline Is More Efficient than Arginine in Increasing Systemic Arginine Availability in Mice123.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 147, no. 4, 1 Apr. 2017, pp. 596–602; 10.3945/jn.116.240382; https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/147/4/596/4584706
- Miyake, Mika, et al. “Randomised Controlled Trial of the Effects of L-Ornithine on Stress Markers and Sleep Quality in Healthy Workers.” Nutrition Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, 3 June 2014, 10.1186/1475-2891-13-53; https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-13-53
- “Citrulline Malate”; Pubchem; https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Citrulline-malate
- “Malic Acid: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning.” WebMD; https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1495/malic-acid
- Bendahan, D. “Citrulline/Malate Promotes Aerobic Energy Production in Human Exercising Muscle.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 36, no. 4, 1 Aug. 2002, pp. 282–289, 10.1136/bjsm.36.4.282; https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/36/4/282
- Trexler, E.T., Smith-Ryan, A.E., Stout, J.R. et al.; “International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine.”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr 12, 30 (2015); https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-015-0090-y
- Harris, R. C., et al. “The Absorption of Orally Supplied β-Alanine and Its Effect on Muscle Carnosine Synthesis in Human Vastus Lateralis.” Amino Acids, vol. 30, no. 3, 24 Mar. 2006, pp. 279–289, 10.1007/s00726-006-0299-9; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16554972/
- Dunnett, M., and R. C. Harris. “Influence of Oral ß-Alanine and L-Histidine Supplementation on the Carnosine Content of Thegluteus Medius.” Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 31, no. S30, July 1999, pp. 499–504, 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1999.tb05273.x; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10659307/
- Hobson, R M, et al; “Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Exercise Performance: a Meta-Analysis.”; Amino Acids; Springer Vienna; July 2012; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374095/
- Sale, Craig, et al; “Effect of β-Alanine plus Sodium Bicarbonate on High-Intensity Cycling Capacity.”; Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Oct. 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21407127
- Van, R, et al; “Beta-Alanine Improves Sprint Performance in Endurance Cycling.”; Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Apr. 2009; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19276843
- Kern, Ben D, and Tracey L Robinson; “Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Performance and Body Composition in Collegiate Wrestlers and Football Players.”; Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; July 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21659893
- Saunders, Bryan, et al. “β-Alanine Supplementation to Improve Exercise Capacity and Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 51, no. 8, 18 Oct. 2016, pp. 658–669; https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/51/8/658.long
- Dolan, Eimear, et al. “A Systematic Risk Assessment and Meta-Analysis on the Use of Oral β-Alanine Supplementation.” Advances in Nutrition, vol. 10, no. 3, 13 Apr. 2019, pp. 452–463, 10.1093/advances/nmy115; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520041/
- Schwedhelm, Edzard et al.; “Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism.”; British journal of clinical pharmacology vol. 65,1 (2008): 51-9.; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2291275/
- Suzuki, I., Sakuraba, K., Horiike, T. et al. A combination of oral l-citrulline and l-arginine improved 10-min full-power cycling test performance in male collegiate soccer players: a randomized crossover trial. Eur J Appl Physiol 119, 1075–1084; 2019; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00421-019-04097-7
- Castillo, L., et al. “Splanchnic Metabolism of Dietary Arginine in Relation to Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Normal Adult Man.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 1, 1 Jan. 1993, p. 193, 10.1073/pnas.90.1.193; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC45626/
- Wu, Guoyao. “Intestinal Mucosal Amino Acid Catabolism.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 128, no. 8, 1 Aug. 1998, pp. 1249–1252, 10.1093/jn/128.8.1249; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9687539/
- Lundberg, Jon O., and Mirco Govoni. “Inorganic Nitrate Is a Possible Source for Systemic Generation of Nitric Oxide.” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, 1 Aug. 2004, pp. 395–400, 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.04.027. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15223073/
- Qu, X. M., et al. “From Nitrate to Nitric Oxide: The Role of Salivary Glands and Oral Bacteria.” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 95, no. 13, 1 Dec. 2016, pp. 1452–1456, 10.1177/0022034516673019; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27872324/
- Eisenbrand, G., et al. “Nitrate and Nitrite in Saliva.” Oncology, vol. 37, no. 4, 1980, pp. 227–231, 10.1159/000225441; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7443155/
- Larsen, F; “Effects of dietary nitrate on oxygen cost during exercise”; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet; 2007; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17635415/
- Lansley, K; “Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: a placebo-controlled study”; School of Sport and Health Sciences, Univ. of Exeter; 2011; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.01070.2010
- Bailey, S; “Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans”; School of Sport and Health Sciences, Univ. of Exeter; 2009; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00722.2009
- Bescos, R; “Acute administration of inorganic nitrate reduces VO(2peak) in endurance athletes”; National Institute of Physical Education-Barcelona, University of Barcelona; 2011; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21407132/
- Fulford, J; “Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on human skeletal muscle metabolism and force production during maximum voluntary contractions”; NIHR Exeter Clinical Research Facility, University of Exeter Medical School; 2013; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23354414/
- Bailey, S; “Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans”; School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter; 2010; https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00046.2010
- Lundberg, J; “The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics”; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute; 2008; https://www.nature.com/articles/nrd2466
- Larsen, F; “Dietary inorganic nitrate improves mitochondrial efficiency in humans”; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet; 2011; https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(11)00005-2
- Le Roux-Mallouf, T., Pelen, F., et al. Aging; “Effect of chronic nitrate and citrulline supplementation on vascular function and exercise performance in older individuals.” 2019; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6555465/
- Simon P V R, Mark A O, Robert G F,et al; Nutrition reviews; 2009; 67(12; 690-705;
- Baba, H et al; “Glycerol gluconeogenesis in fasting humans.”; Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.); vol. 11,2; 1995; 149-53; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7647479/
- Ross, B D et al; “The rate of gluconeogenesis from various precursors in the perfused rat liver.”; The Biochemical journal; vol. 102,3; 1967; 942-51; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1270348/
- Rye, Connie, et al; “22.1. Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance.”; Concepts of Biology 1st Canadian Edition; BCcampus; 1 May 2019; https://opentextbc.ca/biology/chapter/22-1-osmoregulation-and-osmotic-balance/
- Patlar, Suleyman et al; “The effect of glycerol supplements on aerobic and anaerobic performance of athletes and sedentary subjects.”; Journal of human kinetics; vol. 34; 2012; 69-79; doi:10.2478/v10078-012-0065-x; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3590833/
- Robergs, R A, and S E Griffin; “Glycerol. Biochemistry, pharmacokinetics and clinical and practical applications.”; Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.); vol. 26,3; 1998; 145-67; doi:10.2165/00007256-199826030-00002; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9802172/
- Mullur, Rashmi et al. “Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism.” Physiological reviews vol. 94,2 (2014): 355-82. doi:10.1152/physrev.00030.2013; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4044302/
- Rousset, Bernard. “Chapter 2 Thyroid Hormone Synthesis And Secretion.” Endotext. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2 Sept. 2015; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK285550/
- Rousset, Bernard, et al. “Chapter 2 Thyroid Hormone Synthesis and Secretion.” Nih.gov, MDText.com, Inc., 2 Sept. 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK285550/
- Mullur, Rashmi, et al. “Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism.” Physiological Reviews, vol. 94, no. 2, Apr. 2014, pp. 355–382, 10.1152/physrev.00030.2013. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4044302/
- Wadden TA, Mason G, Foster GD, Stunkard AJ, Prange AJ. Effects of a very low calorie diet on weight, thyroid hormones and mood. Int J Obes. 1990 Mar;14(3):249-58; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2341229/
- Mishra, Akanksha, et al. “Physiological and Functional Basis of Dopamine Receptors and Their Role in Neurogenesis: Possible Implication for Parkinson’s Disease.” Journal of Experimental Neuroscience, vol. 12, Jan. 2018, p. 117906951877982, 10.1177/1179069518779829. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5985548/
- Rajeev Dalal, and Dejan Grujic. “Epinephrine.” Nih.gov, StatPearls Publishing, 2 Apr. 2019. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482160/
- Smith, Matthew D, and Christopher V Maani. “Norepinephrine.” Nih.gov, StatPearls Publishing, 23 July 2019. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537259/
- Ans, Armghan H, et al. “Neurohormonal Regulation of Appetite and Its Relationship with Stress: A Mini Literature Review.” Cureus, 23 July 2018, 10.7759/cureus.3032. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6150743/
- Attipoe, Selasi, et al. “Tyrosine for Mitigating Stress and Enhancing Performance in Healthy Adult Humans, a Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature.” Military Medicine, vol. 180, no. 7, July 2015, pp. 754–765, 10.7205/milmed-d-14-00594; https://academic.oup.com/milmed/article/180/7/754/4160625
- Pomeroy, Diane E., et al. “A Systematic Review of the Effect of Dietary Supplements on Cognitive Performance in Healthy Young Adults and Military Personnel.” Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 2, 20 Feb. 2020, p. 545, 10.3390/nu12020545; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071459/
- Pokrovskiy, Mihail V et al. “Arginase inhibitor in the pharmacological correction of endothelial dysfunction.” International journal of hypertension vol. 2011 (2011): 515047. doi:10.4061/2011/515047 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3124670/
- Samardzic, Kate, and Kenneth J. Rodgers. “Cytotoxicity and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Caused by the Dietary Supplement L-Norvaline.” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 56, Apr. 2019, pp. 163–171, 10.1016/j.tiv.2019.01.020; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0887233318305782
- Leighton, Patricia L A, and W Ted Allison. “Protein Misfolding in Prion and Prion-Like Diseases: Reconsidering a Required Role for Protein Loss-of-Function.” Journal of Alzheimer’s disease : JAD vol. 54,1 (2016): 3-29. doi:10.3233/JAD-160361 https://content.iospress.com/openurl?genre=article&id=doi:10.3233/JAD-160361
- Polis, Baruh et al. “Reports of L-Norvaline Toxicity in Humans May Be Greatly Overstated.” Brain sciences vol. 9,12 382. 17 Dec. 2019, doi:10.3390/brainsci9120382 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6955955/
- “Body Building Supplement Could Be Bad for the Brain: People Taking the Protein Supplement L-Norvaline Should Be Aware of Its Potential for Harm, Scientists Say.” ScienceDaily; February 7, 2019; https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/02/190207102627.htm
- Eagle, H. “The specific amino acid requirements of a human carcinoma cell (Stain HeLa) in tissue culture.” The Journal of experimental medicine vol. 102,1 (1955): 37-48. doi:10.1084/jem.102.1.37; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2136494/
- Caccamo, Antonella et al. “Reducing Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 1 Expression Improves Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease.” The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience vol. 35,41 (2015): 14042-56. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2781-15.2015 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604237/
- Iravani, S. et al. June 2011. “Pharmaceutical and Nutraceutical Effects of Pinus Pinaster Bark Extract.” Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences vol. 6,1; 1-11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203267/
- Li, Y. et al. Apr. 2015. “Pine Bark Extracts: Nutraceutical, Pharmacological, and Toxicological Evaluation.” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics vol. 353,1; 9–16; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25597308/
- Fleming I. Molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of eNOS. Pflugers Arch. 2010 May;459(6):793-806. doi: 10.1007/s00424-009-0767-7; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00424-009-0767-7