Bodybuilding.com’s Scream Pre Workout Returns with Innovative Ingredients

Bodybuilding.com

Bodybuilding.com is bringing back their advanced pre workout Scream and it’s quite the formula!

Bodybuilding.com is one of the OG’s in the fitness industry — they’ve been around for years and several big names became who they are today with the help of this legacy brand. Known for their massive collection of articles on nutrition, training, and supplementation, “BBcom” really became a driving force behind the growth of health and fitness.

They partner with some of the hottest brands in the industry, such as Kaged Muscle, Alpha Lion, Nutrex Research, and NutraBio, to give consumers the best deals on effective supplements. But besides featuring all of the biggest brands, over the years, Bodybuilding.com has developed its own line of products that quickly became best sellers. In the early days, Bodybuilding.com had two exclusive collections of supplements, the Foundation Series and the Platinum Series.

The BBcom legacy: Foundation and Platinum Series Supplements

Bodybuilding.com Signature Series

Bodybuilding.com’s Signature Series features basic, but effective supplements.

As the name implies, the Foundation Series featured the essential supplements like fish oil, multivitamins, and protein. It didn’t have any “advanced” formulas or cutting-edge ingredients. But it was basic, less expensive, and worked for many consumers.

But Bodybuilding.com didn’t stop there, they also created the Platinum Series for the more ‘serious’ consumer. It included advanced formulas, innovative ingredients, and was a bit more expensive. For the serious gym-goer, competitor, or fitness junkie, it was just what they were looking for – and nearly everyone trusts the strict compliance team at Bodybuilding. This kept Bodybuilding.com running strong for several years.

Bodybuilding.com: A Fresh Start in the 2020s

However, the supplement industry has changed drastically over the years, so in order to stay relevant, Bodybuilding.com has continued to make adjustments. They began focusing on their own product line a lot more recently. Some companies make deals with huge “celebrity” names outside of the fitness industry, while others are using patented ingredients to beef up their products. Anything they can do to stay on the forefront of consumers’ minds, companies will do it.

In order to adapt, Bodybuilding.com decided it was time to go back to their roots and focus on what they do best, providing valuable information along with effective products that guarantee results. A few years ago, they decided it was time for a fresh start, thus they rebranded the Foundation series and gave it a completely different name. It’s now called the Signature Series and that’s really taken off since its release.

Scream Makes A Comeback – Under the Advanced Series

Bodybuilding.com Scream

Bodybuilding.com’s Advanced Pre Workout Scream is back and better than ever!

Now, you’re probably wondering, what happened to the Platinum Series, was it just left behind? Until recently, we wouldn’t have an answer for you, because it seemed like the Signature Series was doing so well, why add another line of products? To our surprise, Bodybuilding.com announced the return of the Platinum series’ flagship pre workout Scream, but this time under a different brand, BBcom Advanced. It also has a revamped look, but what’s more exciting to PricePlow is the tweaks they made to the formula.

That’s what really makes this product stand out! It’s not very often that you’ll see a Bodybuilding.com product on the blog, but when we see a formula that has a transparent label, with clinical dosages of trademarked ingredients, such as Nitrosigine®, we can’t help but tell you about it.

In this post, we’re going to highlight the key changes made to Scream’s original formula, to show you how this pre workout will deliver unmatched results. But before we do make sure to subscribe down below, so you never have to pay full retail price on any supplement. And you get access to exclusive news, reviews, and interviews from some of the top brands in the industry!

Bodybuilding.com Scream - Deals and Price Drop Alerts

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Scream Ingredient Rundown

Bodybuilding.com Scream Ingredients

A new and improved formula with a transparent label and full clinical dosages!

When Scream first launched years ago, it was one of the first fully transparent and comprehensive pre workouts available. But now that the industry has caught up, newer ingredients have entered the market, and more research has been conducted. So now’s the perfect time to add a few things that will make Scream stand out once again!

Needless to say Bodybuilding.com went all out, by using several trademarked ingredients, such as Nitrosigine®, Peak ATP®, and TeaCrine®. The serving size is nearly 30g, so if that doesn’t tell you that this is an all-in-one pre workout, then we’re not sure what else will. It’s got everything you need to boost your energy, power, strength, and overall performance, while also giving you an extreme pump. This formula update is definitely worth writing a full ingredient analysis on, so let’s get to it!

One serving (27g) of Scream packs:

  • Nitrosigine® (Arginine Silicate Inositol) – 1.5g

    The first major and most notable change to Scream’s formula in our opinion, is the addition of Nitrosigine® at 1.5g. This ingredient is really taking the supplement industry by storm, and pretty soon every top selling pre workout or pump formula will have it on the label! Let’s show you why Nitrosigine® is dominating the market.

    A couple years ago, the innovative minds over at Nutrition 21 developed an ingredient that consisted of Arginine bound to Silicate along with Inositol. In research, you’ll see it referred to as Inositol-stabilized Arginine Silicate (ASI). After discovering it’s potential in boosting athletic performance,[1] Nutrition 21 quickly trademarked it under the name of Nitrosigine®.

    • The Triple Threat

      This ingredient is one of the most potent nitric oxide boosters on the market,[1] and what’s best of all is that you don’t need an insanely high dose to see great results. That allows for other ingredients to be added in to create more of a complete pre workout, without making it crazy expensive.

      NItrosigine

      Move over L-arginine, Nitrosigine (inositol-stabilized arginine silicate) actually makes it work as originally desired!

      The reason why Nitrosigine® works is all about having superior absorption and bioavailability. The main goal is to increase nitric oxide (NO) levels within the body, which will cause the blood vessels to expand. As a result, you’ll get increased athletic performance from improved blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery, and metabolic by-product waste removal. All of these effects are very advantageous when pushing the limits in a workout.

      You may look at the compounds that make up Nitrosigine and think, “But I thought arginine was inferior to other ingredients on the market, such as citrulline.” Well, you’re not wrong, arginine in isolation is broken down via metabolism before it can fully express its effects.[2] Citrulline can bypass this issue and be readily used to create arginine, which ultimately is required to make more NO.[2]

    • The arginine every gym bro dreamed about in the 2000s

      Nutrition21 Logo

      Nutrition21 is a leader in the industry and takes huge steps towards making supplements safer, more effective, and transparent!

      But with the combination of arginine bound to silicate, and inositol acting as a stabilizer (ASI), it significantly enhances the bioavailability of arginine, resulting in greater NO scretetion.[1]

      Theoretically, having arginine available to create NO is more metabolically efficient than using citrulline, because it doesn’t require an extra step. The body must first convert the citrulline to arginine, and then an enzyme known as nitric oxide synthase can use the arginine to make NO.[1,2] For years citrulline was deemed superior since arginine had such poor bioavailability, but now that Nutrition 21 has fixed the issue, they created the arginine we had always wanted.

    • Nitrosigine® Proven To Be Effective

      A study done in 2015, gave 16 participants 1.5g of Nitrosigine to assess its effects on energy, muscle recovery, pumps, and stamina.[3] They were instructed to take the Nitrosigine daily for four days straight. After 72 hours, the researchers recorded the participants’ perceived level of fatigue, blood flow, leg circumference readings, and biomarkers of muscle recovery (as measured by creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).[3]

      Compared to the placebo, the participants taking Nitrosigine had significantly increased pre-workout energy levels, muscle pump after the workout, and reduced biomarkers of muscle damage, meaning greater recovery![3]

      What’s even more interesting is that there was another study conducted by the University of Arkansas, which compared 1.5g of Nitrosigine to 8g of 2:1 citrulline malate (CM) (yielding 5.33g L-citrulline), in order to determine their effectiveness on up-regulating NO production.[4]

      Despite the huge difference in dosages, the study showed both CM and ASI resulted in a significant increase in NO production, as measured by the participants flow mediated dilation.[4] This is very significant, because as we mentioned you don’t need such a high dose to get the same benefits, which will leave more room for other ingredients to be added!

      Who knew this triple threat of compounds would be so powerful!

    • Certain T® and Nitrosigine®

      CertainT From ADNAS

      CertainT is a technology that is going to change the supplement industry in a very positive way!

      Now that you know how effective Nitrosigine® is, you probably want to be assured that what you’re getting on the label is actually in the bottle. Nutrition 21 is here to save the day yet again with the implementation of an innovative technology called Certain T®. They recently announced their partnership with Applied DNA Sciences, a company that helps other brands protect the purity, quality, and safety of their patented ingredients.

      Certain T® is a molecular tagging, tracking, and testing system that allows Nutrition 21 to create a more transparent supply chain. In every step of the way, they can see if their ingredients are being adulterated in any way. This ensures that the 1.5g of Nitrosigine you see on the label is actually accurate – no contract manufacturers are going to mess around behind this company’s back!

      Nitrosigine is the very first compound that’s using this CertainT® technology. It’s just another way Nutrition 21 shows their commitment to integrity, transparency, safety, and quality.

      If you would like to to read more about Certain T®, check out this article: Nutrition21 CertainT®: Be Definite About Your Dietary Supplement Ingredients

  • L-Citrulline – 6g

    Although, we just went over how powerful Nitrosigine® is at increasing blood flow, don’t you want even more pumps?!

    Citrulline

    The citrulline pathway we’re going for starts at the top right and goes down to the bottom right!

    Well, Scream definitely delivers with an additional 6g of L-Citrulline. This is a massive dose, regardless of being paired with Nitrosigine®. You could probably take half or three-quarters of a scoop and still get skin splitting pumps. The study we just talked about comparing 1.5g of Nitrosigine® to 8g of citrulline malate, yields about 5.33g of pure L-Citrulline,[4] so as you can see 6g is a hefty dose.

    As we mentioned, L-Citrulline is very effective at boosting NO levels indirectly through increasing arginine.[2,5] This can further enhance vasodilation of the blood vessels, resulting in better removal of metabolic waste products, such as lactic acid, improved oxygen delivery, and overall athletic performance. Not only can these NO boosting ingredients help you get a pump and resist fatigue, they also aid recovery by reducing muscle soreness following exercise.[6]

    In summary, when you look at a pre workout, it’s best to see either L-Citrulline, Citrulline Malate, Nitrosigine, or some combination, on the label to get the most out of it.

  • BCAA 2:1:1 – 5g

    Next on our list is branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) in a ratio of 2:1:1, which is backed by research. This means you’re getting 2.5g of L-Leucine, along with 1.5g each of L-Isoleucine, and L-Valine. Although all of these essential amino acids share a similar branched-like structure, they all have different roles in the body.

    • Leucine: The King of Anabolism

      Leucine

      Leucine’s molecular structure

      The reason this ratio favors more leucine is because of its potent ability to initiate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) via the activation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway.[7,8] This is crucial for building muscle and reducing soreness by putting your body in an anabolic state. The other BCAAs also help stimulate MPS, but not to the same degree as leucine.

    • Isoleucine and Valine: The dynamic duo?

      Beyond assisting with MPS, isoleucine has the unique ability to promote glucose uptake into skeletal muscle cells,[9] which is ideal for proper nutrient delivery and energy production.

      Whereas, valine is known for being able to enhance the synthesis of glycogen.[10] So while isoleucine shuttles the glucose into the muscle cells, valine helps build up your glycogen stores for future exercise bouts!

    • BAIBA: Valine’s Powerful Metabolic By-Product

      Furthermore, exercise scientists are starting to assess the health effects of the metabolic by product of valine metabolism, called L-BAIBA, a molecule that packs a host of exercise-based health benefits. This is perhaps the most important part of supplementing valine!

  • Creapure® Creatine Monohydrate – 3g

    Creapure

    One of the highest quality forms of creatine monohydrate available!

    Besides caffeine, there’s not an ingredient that’s not more studied for safety and efficacy than creatine monohydrate. A meta-analysis, which is a collection of multiple studies, found that creatine can improve muscular strength, power output, training performance, and delay the onset of fatigue[11-13]

    We could write a book on all the benefits of creatine, but we will let other people take on that task! Just know, creatine monohydrate is proven to be safe and effective at increasing performance.[11-13] The clinical dosage seems to fall between 3-5g, so Scream is right on point with this one! Lastly they’re using CreaPure®, which helps ensure the ingredients’ purity and quality.

  • CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine – 1.6g

    Feel the tingles and experience improved performance with 1.6g of CarnoSyn® beta alanine!

    Beta-alanine is another heavily studied ergogenic aid in sports supplements. By being able to increase carnosine levels within the skeletal muscle, it can help buffer lactic acid. Lactic acid builds up as you fatigue, and it’s one of the main reasons you feel that ‘burning’ sensation. The better your body is at clearing lactic acid out of the working muscles, the longer you can keep going.

    CarnoSyn Beta Alanine Logo

    The only patented form of beta-alanine on the market!

    Research shows beta alanine can improve both anaerobic and aerobic performance.[14,15] It’s important to note however, in order to see the best results, you must reach a saturation point. Therefore, taking it daily along with creatine is often recommended. The literature shows anywhere from 1.6g-6.4g per day of beta-alanine supplementation for 2-10 weeks can significantly enhance carnosine levels.

    Yet again, Scream is using the only patented form of beta alanine available on the market, so you know the quality, purity, and safety is top notch.

  • Taurine – 1.5g

    Time to get a nice endurance boost and several other health benefits from Taurine!

    Taurine Benefits

    Taurine’s Benefits (endurance-wise) can be seen after a single use![16]

    Taurine is always great to see in a pre workout because it’s a very underrated ergogenic aid. It’s classified as an organic conditionally essential amino acid found in several areas of the body. It’s most notable roles include calcium handling, bile formation, and maintaining fluid balance.[16]Although its importance for health has been long established, just recently a meta-analysis revealed it’s positive effects on endurance! Several studies have concluded that 1-6g of taurine per day can improve active individuals’ endurance performance.[16] Researchers hypothesize that because taurine plays a key role in regulating calcium levels, it may increase the mitochondria’s ability to create ATP, thus greater energy production.[16]
  • L-Tyrosine -1.5g

    Scream includes a great dose of L-Tyrosine to give you a mental boost and increased focus.

    L-Tyrosine is able to raise the body’s endogenous tyrosine levels greater than the other commonly used form, such as N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (NALT), due to superior absorption and bioavailability.[17]

    Tyrosine works by serving as a precursor to several catecholamine neurotransmitters that get depleted during exercise.[18] Having greater levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine lead to improved cognitive and physical performance. It also can help us adapt to high stress situations, and exercise is definitely a major stressor on the body.[18]

  • Peak ATP® (Adenosine 5’-Triphosphate) – 400mg

    Peak ATP® is a patented form of Adenosine 5’ Triphosphate, and it’s another notable addition to the new formula.

    Peak ATP

    Peak ATP is a revolutionary new ingredient that increases extracellular levels of ATP, allowing you to push harder and train longer.

    Peak ATP® is a relatively new ingredient, but it has some major performance benefits, including increased strength, endurance, power output, improved body composition, reduced fatigue, and enhanced blood flow via vasodilation.[19-21]

    As we mentioned with taurine, more ATP supplies your muscles with greater energy to do work. The majority of ATP is produced intracellularly within the mitochondria. Peak ATP® actually helps increase extracellular ATP levels,[19-21] which theoretically would lead to greater muscle excitation, vasodilation, and anabolic signaling.

    It’s a very cool ingredient that’s powerful to say the least. We expect it to start showing up in several more pre workout and intra workout products over the next few years. Not to mention 400mg is the clinically studied dose, so be ready for some major gains with Scream!

  • Choline Bitartrate – 300mg

    Bodybuilding.com Fighter

    Optimal performance requires quality supplements to aid recovery.

    With the rise in popularity of vegan and vegetarian diets, choline deficiency is also on the upswing, because the majority of dietary choline comes from animal products. An insufficient intake of choline can quickly lead to health and performance detriments. Choline is mainly used within the body to help maintain cell’s structural integrity and for acetylcholine synthesis.[22] In regards to performance, greater acetylcholine floating around can significantly improve the mind-muscle connection, because it acts as a messenger between the neuron and the muscle.

    Since acetylcholine is also highly active in the brain, you’ll get increased focus as well. Furthermore, other research suggests that choline may be an essential nutrient for maximal endurance performance.[23]

    Choline bitartrate is a combination of choline bound to two tartaric acid molecules. Once ingested, they dissociate from each other and the choline molecule is able to become a direct precursor to acetylcholine. Even if you get enough choline from diet alone, exercise can significantly deplete choline stores,[23] thus supplementing with some extra will likely provide performance benefits.

  • Natural Caffeine (from Green Coffee Bean Extract (Coffea robusta)) – 275mg

    Bodybuilding.com Whey Protein

    If you really want to maximize your results, stack Scream with Whey Protein!

    What’s a complete workout formula without a hefty dose of caffeine to get you fired up for a big session?!

    Caffeine is widely accepted as a powerful stimulant, psychoactive modulator, and ergogenic aid.[24,25] It has been shown to increase performance in a variety of activities, from strength training, sprinting, long distance running, and everything in between.[24,25] No one can deny that caffeine is one of the most effective legal supplements available.

    For a change of pace, Bodybuilding.com chose to go with natural caffeine over synthetic alternatives. In our experience, it still gives you a nice slow and steady increase in energy. Whereas, caffeine anhydrous may hit fast and hard, but quickly fade. If this pre workout feels a bit different than anything else you’ve taken, natural caffeine is most likely responsible for that.

  • Theacrine (as TeaCrine®) – 125mg

    The last ingredient in this massive formula is another PricePlow favorite, TeaCrine®.

    TeaCrine

    Get long lasting energy and enhanced performance with TeaCrine!

    TeaCrine® is a patented form of theacrine developed by another leader in the industry, Compound Solutions. It was designed to synergistically work alongside caffeine to enhance energy, mental clarity, and alertness.[26] Although TeaCine is not technically classified as a stimulant, it shares a similar chemical structure to caffeine.

    Research shows that theacrine carries out it’s effects by working on two neural pathways within the body. As a result, it can lead to improved mood and energy by stimulating dopamine receptors.[26,27] In addition, theacrine can inhibit adenosine from binding to its receptors, which is the same way caffeine works. Furthermore, studies show that the combination of TeaCrine® and caffeine are the perfect duo for improved endurance and cognitive performance.[27]

Available Flavors

Bodybuilding.com is a true industry veteran, so they know the importance of flavoring. It’ll be interesting to see how they attacked such a strong dose of straight theacrine, so we’re ready to make the dive!

Here’s an updated list of all Scream Pre Workout available flavors:

    Scream Returns Better Than Ever!

    When Bodybuilding.com first announced the return of Scream, we didn’t quite know what to expect. But after analyzing the formula, we can tell they mean business. With the additions of several patented and trademarked ingredients, such as Nitrosigine® and Peak ATP® — both at clinical dosages — it’s nearly guaranteed to get you results. They updated the formula in a massive way and it will be a strong competitor against some of the most popular pre workouts on the market!

    Bodybuilding.com Scream

    Scream returns, but what’s next for the Advanced Series?

    We’re not sure what else will come next for the Advanced Series, but we really hope to see more products built to the same standards as Scream. This pre workout is loaded to the brim and it’s great to see them partnering with big names in the ingredient development side of things, like Nutrition 21. It shows that they’re more dedicated than ever to ensure you’re getting a high quality, pure, safe, and effective product.

    PricePlow believes that’s what every company should strive for. In the end, you get a better supplement, and the industry sets higher quality standards, so it’s a win-win situation for everyone involved. The Signature Series seems to be doing phenomenal, but there’s definitely a large consumer base that’s looking for an extra edge. If they continue to add to the series with more well formulated products, PricePlow will be sure to let you know, so stay tuned!

    Bodybuilding.com Scream - Deals and Price Drop Alerts

    Get Price Alerts

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    Disclosure: PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship. We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer.

    Posts are sponsored in part by the retailers and/or brands listed on this page.

    About the Author: Heather Jacques

    Heather Jacques

    Heather Jacques, AT, ATC, has a Bachelors of Science in Exercise Science with an emphasis in Athletic Training. She is a researcher, athletic trainer, and fitness enthusiast who is PricePlow’s Digital Content Manager. Heather constantly stays up to date with the latest scientific literature in order to provide the best information for the readers.

    Heather’s goal is to educate, empower, and give people the tools to reach their fitness and health related goals. There are far too many myths out there and Heather is here to provide the truth.

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    References

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    2. Agarwal, U., Didelija, I. C., Yuan, Y., Wang, X., & Marini, J. C; “Supplemental Citrulline Is More Efficient Than Arginine in Increasing Systemic Arginine Availability in Mice”; The Journal of Nutrition, 147(4), 596–602; 2017; https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/147/4/596/4584706
    3. Rood-Ojalvo, S., Sandler, D., Veledar, E., & Komorowski, J; “The benefits of inositol-stabilized arginine silicate as a workout ingredient”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(S1); 2015; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-12-S1-P14
    4. Rogers JM, Gills J, Gray M.; “Acute effects of Nitrosigine® and citrulline malate on vasodilation.”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020;17(1):12; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041093/
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    6. Suzuki T, Morita M, Kobayashi Y, Kamimura A.; “Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:6. Published 2016 Feb 19. doi:10.1186/s12970-016-0117-z; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4759860/
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    8. Deldicque, L., Theisen, D. & Francaux, M. “Regulation of mTOR by amino acids and resistance exercise in skeletal muscle”;Eur J Appl Physiol 94, 1–10 (2005); https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15702344
    9. Doi, M., Yamaoka, I., Fukunaga, T., & Nakayama, M; “Isoleucine, a potent plasma glucose-lowering amino acid, stimulates glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes”; Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 312(4), 1111-1117; 2003; https://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/14651987
    10. Tsuda, Y et al; Acute supplementation of valine reduces fatigue during swimming exercise in rats; Journal of Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry; 2018; https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09168451.2018.1438168
    11. Rawson, Eric S, and Jeff S Volek; “Effects of Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Weightlifting Performance.”; Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Nov. 2003; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14636102
    12. Law, Yu Li Lydia, et al; “Effects of Two and Five Days of Creatine Loading on Muscular Strength and Anaerobic Power in Trained Athletes.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research; U.S. National Library of Medicine; May 2009; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19387386
    13. Anomasiri, Wilai, et al; “Low Dose Creatine Supplementation Enhances Sprint Phase of 400 Meters Swimming Performance.”; Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Sept. 2004; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16083193
    14. Maté-Muñoz, J.L., Lougedo, J.H., Garnacho-Castaño, M.V. et al. “Effects of β-alanine supplementation during a 5-week strength training program: a randomized, controlled study”; J Int Soc Sports Nutr 15, 19 (2018); https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-018-0224-0#Abs1
    15. Bellinger, PM; “β-Alanine Supplementation for Athletic Performance: An Update”; Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: June 2014, 28(6), p 1751-1770; https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/fulltext/2014/06000/__alanine_supplementation_for_athletic.31.aspx
    16. Waldron, M., Patterson, S. D., Tallent, J., & Jeffries, O. (2018). The Effects of an Oral Taurine Dose and Supplementation Period on Endurance Exercise Performance in Humans: A Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29546641
    17. Glaeser, B.S., et al., Elevation of plasma tyrosine after a single oral dose of L-tyrosine. Life Sci, 1979. 25(3): p. 265-71; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0024320579902947
    18. Attipoe, S. et al; Tyrosine for Mitigating Stress and Enhancing Performance in Healthy Adult Humans, a Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature; Military Medicine; Volume 180, Issue 7, July 2015, Pages 754–765; https://academic.oup.com/milmed/article/180/7/754/4160625#101253256
    19. Wilson JM, et al. “Effects of oral adenosine-5’-triphosphate supplementation on athletic performance, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery in resistance-trained men”; Nutrition and Metabolism. 2013, 10:57; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24330670
    20. Lowery RP, et al. Oral ATP administration improves blood flow responses to exercise in both animal and human training models. Presented at 10th Annual ISSN Conference. Colorado Springs, CO. June 2013; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-10-S1-P16
    21. Rathmacher JA, et al. Adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation improves low peak muscle torque and torque fatigue during repeated high intensity exercise sets. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2012, 9:48; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23046855
    22. Sanders LM, Zeisel SH. Choline: Dietary Requirements and Role in Brain Development. Nutrition today. 2007;42(4):181-186. doi:10.1097/01.NT.0000286155.55343.fa. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518394/
    23. Penry, JT and Manore, MM.; “Choline: An Important Micronutrient for Maximal Endurance-Exercise Performance?”; International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism; 2008; 18(2); pp. 190-203; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18458362
    24. Graham, TE; “Caffeine and Exercise: Metabolism, Endurance, and Performance”; Sports Medicine; 2001; https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Terry_Graham/publication/11766595_Caffeine_and_exercise_metabolism_endurance_and_performance/links/5473b36a0cf29afed60f5972/Caffeine-and-exercise-metabolism-endurance-and-performance.pdf
    25. Trextler, ET et al; “Effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous on strength and sprint performance”; Eur J Sport Sci. 2016 Sep;16(6):702-10; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4803635/
    26. Compound Solutions; “TeaCrine® Ingredient Information;” 2020; https://compoundsolutions.com/ingredients/teacrine/
    27. Bello, M.L., Walker, A.J., McFadden, B.A. et al; “The effects of TeaCrine® and caffeine on endurance and cognitive performance during a simulated match in high-level soccer players;” J Int Soc Sports Nutr 16, 20; 2019; https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-019-0287-6#Abs1

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