1-AD by Hi-Tech Pharma: The Stackable 1-DHEA

NOTICE: Before we begin, it’s critically important to realize that this product does NOT contain the ingredient 1-AD!! Instead, it contains 1-Andro, which takes a two-step conversion to get to its target hormone, 1-Testosterone, and gets there via 1-AD.

1-AD Hi-Tech Pharma

First time 1-DHEA user, or looking to stack with 4-Andro? Smart to start with Hi-Tech Pharma’s 1-AD (which does not contain 1-AD — it contains 1-Andro!)

Regular readers here on PricePlow now know that the Hi-Tech Pharma family is getting back into the prohormone business, and in a big way.

When the latest round of prohormones were banned at the end of 2014, some brands went out of business or started selling illegal compounds… but Hi-Tech hit the drawing board and went back to the lab to perfect what was still legal.

What they came back with was a new delivery technology (named “Cyclosome”) and a fresh series of prohormones targeting various anabolic hormones.

One such prohormone is 1-Andro, a naturally-occurring DHEA metabolite (also known as 1-DHEA) which takes a two-step conversion to get to its active steroid, 1-Testosterone.

Hi-Tech’s 1-AD is a prohormone supplement that contains 75mg ester-bound 1-Andro, as well as 50mg Laxogenin, both encapsulated in their Cyclosome Delivery System.

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Hi-Tech 1-AD Bullet Points

  • 75mg 1-Andro Decanoate, which yields 47mg actual 1-Andro.
  • This is the 1-DHEA product recommended for dieters or first-time 1-Andro users
  • Blood tests and prescription-grade PCT is required – see your doctor / endocrinologist!
  • Uses Cyclosome Delivery Technology for improved absorption, allowing for lower dose
  • Two tablets per day (makes 1 bottle = 1 month), taken with food. Second-time users can use four tablets per day (requires two bottles per month)
  • Use for up to eight weeks at a time, with four weeks off while on PCT
  • Due to lower dose, this is the 1-Andro to be stacked with 4-Andro (Androdiol)
  • Supplemental on cycle therapy highly suggested
  • 50mg Laxogenin Acetate supporting ingredient for potential strength and joint support

Hi-Tech 1-AD Ingredients

Hi-Tech 1-AD Ingredients

The Hi-Tech 1-AD Ingredients. Note that Phosphatidylcholine 75% and Hydroxypropyl Beta Cyclodextrin (HPβCD) are the Cyclosome delivery system additives but do not steal from the active ingredient weight!

Once again, Hi-Tech’s “1-AD” here does not contain the prohormone 1-AD!

Instead, as you’ll see, it contains 1-Andro, which converts to 1-AD (specifically 1-Androstenediol), which then makes its way to our target, 1-Testosterone (officially known as dihydroboldenone).

  • 1-Androstene-3b-ol, 17-one Decanoate

    This is an ester form of 1-Androsterone, also known as 1-DHEA or 1-Andro.

    We recently published the most in-depth guide on this prohormone in our article titled 1-Andro / 1-Androsterone / 1-DHEA: 2016’s Prohormone. Click that link if you want to read everything there is to know about it – the section below will summarize that data.

    Legal in 2016:

    1-DHEA is a DHEA metabolite that is naturally occurring in our bodies. As such, it has escaped the 2014 prohormone ban (known as DASCA), and we believe it will remain legal for some time to come – but that can always change at a moment’s notice.

    How it works:

    1-DHEA converts to 1-Androstenediol which then converts to 1-Testosterone, our target anabolic.

    Since there’s a two-step conversion to get there, we like to consider 1-Andro to be a preprohormone.

    1-Androstenediol is one of the “1-AD’s”. Prior to 2005, 1-AD (the compound / ingredient) and 1-Testosterone were two of the most powerful prohormones on the market. Since they were banned, other compounds gained favor. When those were banned in 2014, it was time to get back to the 1-AD roots… bringing us here to 1-Andro.

    And unlike many other prohormones out there, this one has a serious study behind it:

    Actual research that led to actual steroid like gains!

    1-Andro Results

    These are some serious lean mass gains — as in TRUE steroid-like gains. But note that this is a ‘harsher’ dose than what’s in 1-AD, so don’t necessarily expect them at two or even four tablets per day. This is why we consider 1-AD a better ‘starter’ to getting your feet wet… but have realistic expectations for results

    With 1-DHEA, we have the uncommon luxury of having a legitimate human-based placebo-controlled study performed on trained athletes, and the results were nothing short of phenomenal.

    In the study performed at Texas A&M in 2013 (and published in 2014),[1] 17 men aged 18 to 35 took a total of 330mg 1-DHEA per day for four weeks.  They were spread into three doses of 110mg each.

    The results? To put it simply, the researchers themselves compared it to a legit steroid cycle of 300mg of weekly injectable testosterone enanthate!

    The study doesn’t list the specific numbers, but in the images to the right and below, you can see the following:

    • Total body mass was significantly elevated, while fat mass was significantly decreased…
    • …meaning lean mass was significantly significantly increased, from an estimated 74kg to an estimated 78.5kg (roughly ten pounds of lean body mass gained!!)
    • Strength numbers in bench, squat, and deadlift shot through the roof.

      All were significant, but most notable was the back squat, which went from 165kg to 185kg (363lbs to 407lbs!)

    Dosage discussion

    Before we go further, we must warn you that Hi-Tech’s 1-AD prohormone here does not contain the study’s dosage listed above.

    1-AD here has 75mg 1-Andro Decanoate, meaning that there’s ~47mg actual 1-DHEA inside once you calculate for the molar mass of the decanoic acid.

    This is why we believe 1-AD is the prohormone to take if you’re a first-time 1-DHEA user. A lower dose will cause less side effects — and there are minor side effects to consider, which we’ll discuss below. It’s better to get your feet wet here than to go full-on and attempt to replicate the study – patience and experience is key when dealing with such serious compounds.

    At the same time, do not expect to gain 10lbs of lean mass like the study’s participants if you’re using 1/3 of their dose! Two tablets per day is a dose to get a beginner’s feet wet and understand how your bloodwork reacts — you can always add more the next time. We’d reasonably expect something like 2-4lbs lean mass gained from two tablets per day.

    Further, Hi-Tech’s Cyclosome delivery system, combined with the improved pharmacokinetics from the ester, should yield results far better than what’s expected from a “standard” 47mg.

    However, if you’re an experienced 1-Andro / prohormone user and you want to go right to the the 330mg/day dosage, take a look at Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals’ 1-Testosterone, which contains 110mg 1-DHEA per tablet as well as the grapefruit seed extract that was used in the Texas A&M study above.

    Why the ester?

    What’s the point of that ester discussed above if it takes up some space in the tablet’s dosage?

    Decanoic Acid

    Decanoic Acid is a long chain ester, which leads to a longer time to break down — perfect for dieters who want prolonged effects and not as intense of hormonal spikes! Image courtesy Wikimedia

    Decanoic acid adds a long ester chain, which is designed to yield a longer breakdown time, which is best suited to those who want the anabolic effects for a longer period of time — ie dieters!

    This means that if you’re in diet / cutting mode, Hi-Tech’s 1-AD is the first choice, whereas if you are experienced and are in bulking mode, you may appreciate the non-ester, higher hormone spikes that you’d get from Hi-Tech’s 1-Testosterone above.

    The side effects

    As with any anabolic hormone, there are typical side effects to deal with. They may include acne, hair loss, prostate enlargement, high blood pressure and other cardiovascular issues, increased liver and kidney values, testicular atrophy, and others.

    On top of that, there are also anecdotal reports of lethargy and loss of libido at higher 1-DHEA doses (such as the 330mg/day dosage), but we’re not sure if a smaller dose would yield such effects to a noticeable degree.

    The study discussed above found that there were deteriorated liver, kidney, and fatty acid levels:

    1-Andro Side Effects

    Beyond liver and kidney issues, 330mg 1-Andro (1-DHEA) caused healthy lipid levels to deteriorate. The good news is that levels returned after cessation, but we still strongly suggest an on-cycle support supplement as well as a prescription-grade PCT. Whether it’s possible that a better delivery system that uses less active ingredient is any better is to be determined…

    The researchers noted that levels returned back to baseline after the users stopped taking the prohormones, but you shouldn’t take that for granted.

    Either way, this is why beginners are wise to start with the minimum dose of two tablets per day to assess changes. If you can’t tell, we’re conservative here, even though we’ll freely admit that four tablets per day will get you greater results.

    On cycle therapy recommended

    This leads us to recommend an “on cycle therapy” supplement to take while you’re on any prohormone like this, including Hi-Tech 1-AD. Our current recommendation is Ar1macare Pro by Olympus Labs.

    The byproducts and the recommendation of post cycle therapy

    While the main target of 1-Andro is 1-Testosterone, one would believe that there shouldn’t be any conversion to estrogen, but another study has shown that 1-Andro actually has twelve byproducts, some of which are estrogenic:[2]

    1-Andro Metabolism

    A study has shown that there are twelve byproducts of 1-Andro’s metabolism. Many of them anabolic, but some may be estrogenic. Blood tests are highly encouraged. Credit to shortythree on the bodybuilding.com forums for helping decipher some of these molecules! *We believe compound (6) is related to 1AD but isn’t exactly the same thing.

    For this reason, we’re requiring a full round of prescription-strength PCT, discussed in greater detail below — we’re effectively talking about Nolvadex (tamoxifen) or Clomid (clomiphene citrate).

    Overall, with the lower dose, we expect there to be fewer side effects, which is why this product is best for someone who’s never taken this compound before but is ready to get in.

    There are risks for you to consider and discuss with your doctor. Hi-Tech 1-AD is a “weaker” dose than it’s Hi-Tech 1-Testosterone counterpart… but that doesn’t mean it’s weak by any standard!

    Once again, for the full gory details, see our main 1-Andro article.

  • 5a-Hydroxy Laxogenin Acetate

    Laxogenin is a plant steroid that’s typically derived from the Smilax Sieboldii plant.

    There are no human-based studies on laxogenin like there are with 1-Andro, but anecdotally, it’s been known to moderately increase strength and help with joint injuries.

    Laxogenin

    Laxogenin may increase strength a bit, but 1-DHEA is so strong that we’re not sure you’re going to feel the laxo here! (And that’s a good thing!)

    Laxogenin is often compared to the anabolic substance Anavar (oxandrolone) due to a similar anabolic/androgenic ratio, but that is a massive overshot — it is not anywhere near Anavar’s strength.

    More realistically, with laxogenin, users can expect their 1RM bench press to move up to two reps. It’s often used during PCT cycles to help maintain strength while off of steroids / anabolics, and is simply a nice supporting ingredient.

    Finally, some trusted laxogenin

    For quite some time, laxogenin could never be extracted properly, and no reputable companies produced it. In addition, traditional laxogenin may have bioavailability issues — which is why anecdotally, the best laxo supplements are those that have cyclosome treatment to them. This is the encapsulation in a lipid to improve absorption through the small intestine, and is discussed next.

    Real-talk: 1-DHEA’s doing all the work here

    However, due to the potent strength of the 1-Andro, we’re not sure you’re really going to “feel” the laxogenin at work. Not much is going to match those kinds of gains, so anything laxo does will be drowned out in this supplement.

    We’ve noticed some improvement in joint discomfort when using it, so that may actually be its best attribute here.

    You can read more about this ingredient in our more in-depth laxogenin post.

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Utilizing the Cyclosome Delivery System

The final “ingredients” are actually in the other ingredients section of the label — where you see phosphatidylcholine 75% and hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HPβCD).

Cyclosome

Cyclosome is a new supplement ingredient delivery technology made by Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals that combines the forces of two other delivery systems. This should make for prohormones that require smaller doses

These ingredients constitute the delivery system that the above ingredients in Hi-Tech’s 1-AD are encapsulated inside of, and they’re used to increase absorption into your bloodstream.

Just like our in-depth 1-Andro article, we have an intense article explaining this titled Cyclosome: New Age Liposome + Cyclodextrin Delivery System.

The problem is that many ingredients are notoriously difficult to absorb due to various properties, such as them being hydrophobic (“water-fearing”). The ingredients range from curcumin to ginkgo biloba to various hormones… including DHEA and its several metabolites.[15]

Two different systems have been developed to encapsulate these troublesome ingredients and put them into something that is far easier for our bodies to absorb. As you’re surely aware, human bodies are quite excellent at absorbing sugars and fats.

In the past, many ingredient and/or drug manufacturers have used one technology or the other. Hi-Tech is the first to use both:

  1. Cyclodextrin: Encapsulation in a sugar

    Cyclodextrins are large, complex sugar molecules derived from starches that were first investigated in the 1970s and 1980s for prescription drug use.

    What the researchers found is that these cyclodextrins are such large rings that you can literally fit other molecules inside of them. Even better, they are hydrophobic on the inside, yet hydrophilic on the outside – meaning that they’ll bind with other hydrophobic stuff and then give it more water-friendly properties – exactly what’s needed for better intestinal absorption.

    Cyclodextrin

    Will Hi-Tech’s combination Cyclodextrin (shown above, image courtesy Wikimedia) combined with Liposomal bring the best of both worlds for improved absorption?

    By the 1990s, there were two successful studies showing that they worked when taking sublingual testosterone.[3,4,5]

    In 2001, the FDA granted GRAS status (Generally Regarded as Safe) after much testing on beta-cyclodextrin, the form used here by Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals.[6]

    Cyclodextrins went on to have many medical purposes, but this is the first time we’ve seen them used in supplements.

  2. Liposome: Encapsulation in a Lipid

    Similar to the cyclodextrin process, lipids are often used to encapsulate difficult-to-absorb supplements. Most notably is curcumin, whose absorption improves by a whopping 29x when encapsulated in a lipid such as phosphatidylcholine![7]

    This technology was originally adapted for supplement use by a company named Indena, who calls it “Phytosome”[8,9] — this is why you’ll see some of the best curcumin supplements labeled as “Curcumin Phytosome”. The process also works quite well for ginkgo biloba,[10,11] silymarin (from milk thistle), and the green tea catechin, EGCg.[12]

    Indena has this nice video explaining it:

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    But does this help with hormones?

    Short answer: Yes! Another name for this process is “SEDDS”, or self-emulsifying drug delivery systems.[13] A major study was performed on these systems, trialing various lipids and drugs.[14] One such such compound was the hormone progesterone, which had a 9x greater improvement in absorption!

    SEDDS

    The hormone Progesterone had 9-fold better absorption in mammals when using an emulsified delivery system. Image courtesy Current Research & Information on Pharmaceuticals Sciences

    While 1-DHEA is not progesterone, it goes to show that hormones can definitely have improved absorption. This is especially useful for any relative of DHEA, since DHEA itself has been shown to only have a 3-6% oral bioavailability![15]

All in all, Hi-Tech Pharma not only has a highly-trusted manufacturing process (they are audited by the FDA often enough to make grown men cry), but they now have the most serious delivery system for their prohormones too.

1-AD Dosage

1-AD Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals

This came from Hi-Tech’s 1-AD “Half Sheet”. Click the image to zoom in.

It’s recommended to stick to the bottle’s dosing. With your doctor’s consent, beginners are to:

  • take two tablets per day
  • (doses taken 12 hours apart)
  • with food
  • for a maximum of eight weeks at a time.

This is especially true for first-timers taking 1-AD.

If you like your gains from that first cycle (we’re expecting ~2-4lbs of lean mass), you can move up to the maximum of four tablets per day, preferably spread out across the day.

This will obviously double your price — and at that point, it might be time to look at Hi-Tech’s 1-Testosterone, which has the clinical 330mg per day dosage. Four tablets of 1-AD or three tablets of 1-Testosterone per day is where things will really start to get interesting.

Note that eight weeks would require two bottles, so be prepared…

Why with food?

All ester-based steroids and hormones should be taken with food. A study compared the absorption of esterified oral testosterone (undecanoate) and determined that those who took it with food had far higher levels than those who took it fasted.[18]

Stacking

Four major things to discuss:

  1. On cycle therapy

    First and foremost, it’s highly recommended to take an on cycle support supplement such as Ar1macare Pro by Olympus Labs. This will protect the liver, kidneys, and heart much more than taking 1-Andro alone.

  2. Train and eat like you mean it!

    Second, you better bring your proper diet and training game. There’s absolutely no reason to take this if you can’t keep your protein numbers extremely high. See our best protein powder buyer’s guide for suggestions on bumping that number up a bit.

  3. Don’t ignore other staple muscle-builders

    iForce Finish Line

    iForce Nutrition recently unveiled their new post workout Finish Line that contains everything you want to speed recovery and full gains all day long.

    Third, it’s a wise idea to take a well-rounded muscle building supplement that contains a day’s worth of creatine, betaine, l-carnitine-l-tartrate (great for androgen receptor support!), and glutamine + alanine. iForce Finish Line is the recommended product from the Hi-Tech Family.

    You can read more about these (and other) all-in-one supplements in our Next Generation Muscle Building Supplements article.

    If you need a pre workout, check out our best pre workout supplement buyer’s guide – our favorite from the Hi-Tech Family (hell, our favorite in general) is APS Mesomorph. However, note that Mesomorph includes DMAA, which can raise blood pressure, so be extremely careful when using it alongside prohormones, which can also raise blood pressure.

  4. What about stacking with other prohormones like 4-andro?

    Here’s where things get exciting and a bit interesting. First, the backstory:

    Back in the day (pre-2004), the 1-AD/4-AD prohormone stack was extremely popular. The 1-AD compound converts to 1-testosterone, whereas 4-AD converts to testosterone. So 4-AD would be used as a “base” to your testosterone, and would counter the lethargy that 1-AD could cause.

    This would be called a “wet” cycle, since 4-AD is a “wet” prohormone (it aromatizes and converts to estrogen as well as DHT), while 1-AD (the compound) is the “dry” part (1-AD itself does not aromatize to any appreciable degree).

    So that leads everyone to wonder – now that we’re using 1-Andro instead of the actual 1-AD compound, can we add in 4-Andro like we used to add 4-AD?

    The answer is yes and maybe – you gotta be careful here.

    There has no doubt been some great success with 1-Andro and 4-Andro stacking, but since they use the same enzymes to make their conversions, we don’t believe that fully-dosing both of them at 330mg each is a great idea. At some point, enzyme usage will reach saturation, yielding no more conversion to the target hormone… but possibly leaving you with added side effects.

    1-AD Androdiol Stack

    The 1-AD / Androdiol Stack is the beginner’s “wet stack”

    Thankfully, though, Hi-Tech’s 1-AD is not “fully” dosed! And on the 4-Andro side, neither is Hi-Tech Pharma’s Androdiol! Androdiol contains 75mg of 4-Andro in ester form, so its minimum / beginner dosing is the same as Hi-Tech’s 1-AD: two tablets per day.

    The beginner’s “wet cycle”

    This means that one way for a beginner to experiment with the “wet cycle” is to stack these two products together, so that you’re taking two tablets of Hi-Tech 1-AD and two tablets of Androdiol.

    The timing situation would end up something like this, where you spread the tablets throughout the day:

    • Wake up: One tablet 1-AD
    • Six hours later: One tablet Androdiol
    • Six hours later: One tablet 1-AD
    • Before bed: One tablet Androdiol

    (Note: Those are the ideal times, but not everyone can remember to take their tablets every six hours, so some may opt for two dosings per day. Our philosophy is to set alarms in your phone and do it right).

    That would be run for four to eight weeks, definitely followed by prescription-strength PCT and blood work. Since 4-Andro aromatizes and converts to DHT, a DHT shampoo is also recommended. We don’t recommend this for anyone who’s predisposed to hair loss, as increased DHT will only speed up that process.

    Also note that such a stack would double your intake of laxogenin, putting you at 200mg, which is a high dose and would likely contribute to some strength and recovery at that point.

    Advanced / experienced users could also run the max doses of both of these bottles – ie four tablets of Hi-Tech 1-AD per day, on top of four tablets of Androdiol. Come prepared with a killer workout plan if you do that, it won’t be cheap so make the best of it.

Post cycle therapy

YES, true prescription-grade post cycle therapy is recommended when using prohormones – as with anytime using anabolic steroids. We’re talking about a proper run of Nolvadex (tamoxifen citrate) or Clomid (clomiphene citrate).

Given the strength of 1-Andro, your natural testosterone production must be brought back to normal. We are definitely in the “better to be safe than sorry” camp on this one, so see your endocrinologist.

For details, you can read our post cycle therapy article, which is an all-encompassing guide that talks about other supplements you can also take during your PCT to keep strength and test levels up.

Blood tests are mandatory!

PricePlow Prohormone Blood Testing Program

Do it right or don’t do it at all!

Meanwhile, we urge you to get blood work done before and after your 1-AD cycle. A full panel, along with urinalysis to check your liver, kidney, and cardiovascular systems is pertinent. Without these, you are flying completely blind, and it is not worth risking.

As noted above, there are certain byproducts from 1-DHEA that can convert to estrogenic compounds, even if in small amounts. The only way to know how badly is to get the bloods done!

On that note, as we write this, we are willing to cover the blood tests for one trusted person with a forum history who is willing to log this supplement. See our post on the PricePlow Blood Testing Program for more information.

What age?

1-AD is Off the Chain!

Hi-Tech Pharma’s always been aggressive with their DMAA supplements, like their fantastic new Off The Chain amino acid energy supplement… but these PH’s take it to the next level!

Officially, the bottle states that users must be aged 21 or higher. However, in our more conservative opinions, we believe that you should be at least 23 years old in order to be eligible to use any prohormone, 1-Andro included.

We discuss this in greater detail in our 1-Andro post, but the primary argument is that your growth plates typically finish fusing at around age 23, and they fuse via estrogen.[16,17] Since there are estrogenic byproducts from this compound (even if at very small ratios), it’s simply not worth risking and losing a potential extra late hit of growth.

This can be debated all day long, but we’re sticking with the more conservative stance here on this site (just like we stick with conservative dosing strategies for beginners). Consult your doctor before beginning any new diet or supplementation program, especially a hormonal one.

1-AD Reviews so far

The logs and reviews run so far have been extremely successful, with roughly 10lbs of weight gained for the bulkers when using the max dose (four tablets per day for a month), and of the pics seen, it’s clearly not fat gain.

We look forward to having someone run their own log here on PricePlow so that we can post the success stories.

Conclusion: Are you ready for this?

Hi-Tech Pharma’s always been aggressive with their DMAA supplements, and now they’re taking it a step further with this round of legal prohormones.

1-AD Hi-Tech Pharma

Are you ready for the next generation of prohormones from Hi-Tech Pharma?!

We’re not sure how long they’ll stay on the market, but they are naturally occurring and have incredible anabolic potential. 1-AD is the supplement to start at if you’re new to 1-Andro yet are experienced with prohormones or steroid use.

But if you’re looking for something milder or have never taken any prohormone, Equibolin, which is based on 1,4DHEA, may be a better place to start.

Higher doses of 1-Andro have been shown to have true steroid-like gains in humans, so give it great care and responsibility. If you’ve already run this prohormone and want to go at it with a higher dose, check out Hi-Tech’s 1-Testosterone. But if you’re right there in the middle – then 1-AD here is the place to be.

Call your doctor, get your blood work ordered, and good luck!

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Hi-Tech 1-AD Label

The full Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals 1-AD Label. Click to zoom in

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References

  1. Granados, J. et al; “Prohormone Supplement 3 -Hydroxy-5 -Androst-1-En-17-One Enhances Resistance Training Gains But Impairs User Health”; Journal of Applied Physiology; 116.5 (2013): 560-569; Retrieved from http://jap.physiology.org/content/jap/116/5/560.full.pdf (via  http://jap.physiology.org/content/116/5/560.long)
  2. Parr, Maria K. et al; “Seized Designer Supplement Named ‘1-Androsterone’: Identification As 3Β-Hydroxy-5Α-Androst-1-En-17-One And Its Urinary Elimination;. Steroids; 76.6 (2011): 540-547; Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Frank_Soennichsen/publication/49825737_Seized_designer_supplement_named_o1-Androsterone_identification_as_3I_-hydroxy-5I_-androst-1-en-17-one_and_its_urinary_elimination/links/09e415087060b70af1000000.pdf (backed up at https://www.docdroid.net/file/download/KTipAMS/parr-1-androsterone-identification-and-urinary-elimination.pdf via https://www.docdroid.net/KTipAMS/parr-1-androsterone-identification-and-urinary-elimination.pdf.html)
  3. Oka, K, et al; “Enhanced intestinal absorption of a hydrophobic polymer-conjugated protein drug, smancs, in an oily formulation”; Pharmaceutical Research; 1990 Aug; 7(8):852-5; Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2146602
  4. Wang, C, et al; “Sublingual testosterone replacement improves muscle mass and strength, decreases bone resorption, and increases bone formation markers in hypogonadal men–a clinical research center study”; Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism; 1996 Oct; 81(10):3654-62; Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8855818
  5. Salehian, B, et al; “Pharmacokinetics, bioefficacy, and safety of sublingual testosterone cyclodextrin in hypogonadal men: comparison to testosterone enanthate–a clinical research center study”; Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism; 1995 Dec; 80(12):3567-75; Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8530600
  6. Rulis, Alan M; US Food and Drug Administration; “Agency Response Letter GRAS Notice No. GRN 000074”; October 25, 2001; Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/gras/noticeinventory/ucm154182.htm
  7. Jäger, Ralf et al; “Comparative Absorption of Curcumin Formulations”; Nutrition Journal 13; 2014; Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3918227/
  8. Indena; “Phytosome”; May 2011; Retrieved from http://www.indena.com/pdf/phytosome_int.pdf
  9. Indena; “Phytisome”; Retrieved from http://www.phytosome.info/bio.html
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